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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165855/genome-wide-dna-methylation-associations-with-spontaneous-preterm-birth-in-us-blacks-findings-in-maternal-and-cord-blood-samples
#1
Xiumei Hong, Ben Sherwood, Christine Ladd-Acosta, Shouneng Peng, Hongkai Ji, Ke Hao, Irina Burd, Tami R Bartell, Guoying Wang, Hui-Ju Tsai, Xin Liu, Yuelong Ji, Anastacia Wahl, Deanna Caruso, Aviva Lee-Parritz, Barry Zuckerman, Xiaobin Wang
Preterm birth (PTB) affects one in six U.S. Black babies. Epigenetics is believed to play a role in PTB; however, only a limited number of epigenetic studies of PTB have been reported, most of which have focused on cord blood DNA methylation (DNAm) and/or were conducted in white populations. Here we conducted, by far, the largest epigenome-wide DNAm analysis in 300 Black women who delivered early spontaneous preterm (sPTB, n = 150) or full-term babies (n = 150) and replicated the findings in an independent set of Black mother-newborn pairs from the Boston Birth Cohort...
February 6, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141711/an-8-year-old-boy-with-treatment-resistant-encopresis
#2
Martin T Stein, Marc A Benninga, Barbara T Felt
Paul is an 8-year-old boy with a long-standing history of encopresis and enuresis. Potty training was initiated when he was 2 years old. At this time, his mother was absent from the home for 6 weeks when she cared for her ill father in a different city. The process of teaching Paul to use the bathroom was described as "inconsistent" due to multiple caretakers.Paul never successfully mastered bowel and bladder control. He continues to wet and soil his clothes on a daily basis at home and school. According to his parents, he does not accept responsibility and comments about his soiling such as, "I didn't do it; someone else must have put it there...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007788/chemical-identification-of-maternal-signature-odors-in-rat
#3
Leam Sreng, Brice Temime-Roussel, Henri Wortham, Christiane Mourre
Newborn altricial mammals need just after birth to locate their mother's nipples for suckling. In this precocious behavior, including for the human baby, maternal odor via the olfactory process plays a major role. Maternal odor emitted by lactating females or by amniotic fluid (AF) attracts pups, but the chemical identity of this attractant has not yet been elucidated. Here, using behavioral tests and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques, we show that AF extracts from rat pregnant female, nipples, ventral skin, milk, and nest extracts of mother contained 3-6 active substances...
December 22, 2016: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969559/attitudes-and-beliefs-of-pregnant-women-and-new-mothers-regarding-influenza-vaccination-in-british-columbia
#4
Julie A Bettinger, Devon Greyson, Deborah Money
OBJECTIVE: Although pregnant women have increased risks for influenza morbidity and mortality, influenza vaccination rates among pregnant women in Canada are consistently very low. This mixed-methods study investigated the attitudes and behaviour of pregnant women and new mothers regarding seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination. METHODS: We conducted a baseline survey and qualitative focus groups with 34 women (26 pregnant women and 8 mothers of newborns), with a follow-up survey to assess outcomes at the end of the subsequent influenza season...
November 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928522/breastfeeding-education-where-are-we-going-a-systematic-review-article
#5
REVIEW
Maria Adriana Burgio, Antonio Simone Laganà, Angela Sicilia, Romana Prosperi Porta, Maria Grazia Porpora, Helena Ban Frangež, Giovanni DI Venti, Onofrio Triolo
BACKGROUND: UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund) and WHO estimate that if all babies were breastfed for at least the first six months of their lives, the rate of morbidity and malnutrition would significantly decrease all over the world. In this view, these two organizations promoted a worldwide campaign for breastfeeding, creating the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) that encourages good practices for the promotion of breastfeeding in hospitals. The aim of our study was to review the available evidence regarding the positive effects of breastfeeding, in order to suggest to most appropriate strategy to support it...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870578/utilizing-a-newly-designed-scale-for-evaluating-family-support-and-its-association-with-exclusive-breastfeeding
#6
Xiu Zhu, Luyan Liu, Yan Wang
BACKGROUND: Although a woman's perception of her family members' support has long been established to be an influential factor on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), it still has not been specified and quantified as a facilitator and guidance for practice. OBJECTIVE: To investigate in new mothers the association between EBF and maternal perception of family support with a standardized scale that classified support into nine items of behavioral or psychological support...
December 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834894/temporal-changes-of-human-breast-milk-lipids-of-chinese-mothers
#7
Francesca Giuffrida, Cristina Cruz-Hernandez, Emmanuelle Bertschy, Patric Fontannaz, Isabelle Masserey Elmelegy, Isabelle Tavazzi, Cynthia Marmet, Belén Sanchez-Bridge, Sagar K Thakkar, Carlos Antonio De Castro, Gerard Vynes-Pares, Yumei Zhang, Peiyu Wang
Fatty acids (FA), phospholipids (PL), and gangliosides (GD) play a central role in infant growth, immune and inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to determine FA, PL, and GD compositional changes in human milk (HM) during lactation in a large group of Chinese lactating mothers (540 volunteers) residing in Beijing, Guangzhou, and Suzhou. HM samples were collected after full expression from one breast and while the baby was fed on the other breast. FA were assessed by direct methylation followed by gas chromatography (GC) analysis...
November 10, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812977/ampk-and-placental-progenitor-cells
#8
Melissa R Kaufman, Thomas L Brown
AMPK is important in numerous physiological systems but plays a vital role in embryonic and placental development. The placenta is a unique organ that is the essential lifeline between the mother and baby during pregnancy and gestation. During placental development, oxygen concentrations are very low until cells differentiate to establish the appropriate lineages that take on new functions required for placental and embryonic survival. Balancing the oxygen regulatory environment with the demands for energy and need to maintain metabolism during this process places AMPK at the center of maintaining placental cellular homeostasis as it integrates and responds to numerous complex stimuli...
2016: EXS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795658/outcomes-of-a-comparison-study-into-a-group-based-infant-parenting-programme
#9
Catrin Hedd Jones, Mihela Erjavec, Simon Viktor, Judy Hutchings
This paper reports on a quantitative evaluation of a group-based programme designed to promote parent-infant attachment and child development. Whilst group-based parenting programmes are recommended for treating and preventing conduct disorder in older children, there is, as yet, little evidence as to whether they have a positive effect on very young children and their carers'. Recent UK Government initiatives to support families and improve parenting skills in the first 2 years of children's lives have increased the demand for the delivery and evaluation of community-based programmes...
2016: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774781/fetal-programming-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Gavino Faa, Mirko Manchia, Roberta Pintus, Clara Gerosa, Maria Antonietta Marcialis, Vassilios Fanos
Starting from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypotheses proposed by David Barker, namely fetal programming, in the past years, there is a growing evidence of the major role played by epigenetic factors during the intrauterine life and the perinatal period. Furthermore, it has been assessed that these factors can affect the health status in infancy and even in adulthood. In this review, we focus our attention on the fetal programming of the brain, analyzing the most recent literature concerning the epigenetic factors that can influence the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorders, major depressive disorders, and schizophrenia...
September 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758936/methylmercury-exposure-in-women-of-childbearing-age-and-children
#11
N Elizabeth Colvin, Pamela Lynn Mahan, Jeffrey Harris
As frontline clinicians, occupational and environmental health nurses play an important role in educating workers and the public about the dangers and toxic effects of environmental contaminants. One of these contaminants is methylmercury, which enters the body through the consumption of contaminated fish and seafood. Methylmercury affects the central nervous system where it may cause psychiatric disturbances, ataxia, neuropathy, and visual and hearing loss. Because their central nervous systems are rapidly developing, the most vulnerable subgroups are infants in utero, babies, and young children...
October 6, 2016: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695719/teenage-mothers
#12
Jennifer L Marino, Lucy N Lewis, Deborah Bateson, Martha Hickey, S Rachel Skinner
BACKGROUND: Australia's teenage birth rate has fallen to historic lows, but teenage motherhood still occurs and can be challenging for mother and baby. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to review current evidence on the epidemiology and clinical care of teenage pregnancy and parenting, and provide recommendations around management of these young people in Australia. DISCUSSION: Teenage mothers may have experienced family, sexual, and partner violence, family disruption, and socioeconomic disadvantage...
October 2016: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629406/nutrient-intakes-and-nutritional-biomarkers-in-pregnant-adolescents-a-systematic-review-of-studies-in-developed-countries
#13
Katie Marvin-Dowle, Victoria Jane Burley, Hora Soltani
BACKGROUND: Babies born to adolescent mothers have been shown to have poorer outcomes compared to those born to adults. Nutritional status may have an important role to play in improving the health of pregnant adolescents; however there is a lack of evidence regarding the adequacy of adolescent diets during pregnancy. This systematic review aims to examine what is known about the nutritional status of adolescent pregnant women. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature identified 21 studies which met the inclusion criteria for the review...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561357/a-5-year-longitudinal-analysis-of-modifiable-predictors-for-outdoor-play-and-screen-time-of-2-to-5-year-olds
#14
Huilan Xu, Li Ming Wen, Louise L Hardy, Chris Rissel
BACKGROUND: Early childhood is a critical time for establishing physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Identifying modifiable predictors of physical activity and sedentary behaviours in the early life stages can inform the development of early intervention programs. The aim of this study was to identify modifiable predictors of outdoor play (a proxy of physical activity) and screen-time in 2- to 5-year-olds. METHODS: A longitudinal data analysis was conducted using 5-year follow-up data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in Sydney, Australia from 2007 to 2013...
2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514147/-the-role-of-mother-s-milk-and-breast-feeding-medical-problems-during-the-lactation-period-lactobacilus-fermentum-a-new-approach-towards-the-prevention-and-the-treatment-of-acute-and-subacute-mastitis
#15
B Popova, D Mitev, A Nikolov
Breast feeding provides a lot of short and long-term benefits for the mother and the baby. It prevents the baby of gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory infections, atopical conditions and assures long-term protection of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The breast feeding decreases the risk for the mother of ovary and breast carcinoma and creates a positive emotional bond between the mother and the baby Mother's milk is a species specific; its content is relatively stable regardless of mother's age race, way and place of living...
2016: Akusherstvo i Ginekologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497378/management-of-posterior-ankyloglossia-and-upper-lip-ties-in-a-tertiary-otolaryngology-outpatient-clinic
#16
Lara Benoiton, Maggie Morgan, Katherine Baguley
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown an association between ankyloglossia (tongue tie) and upper-lip ties to breastfeeding difficulties. Treatment is commonly multidisciplinary involving lactation consultants and surgical management with tongue tie and upper lip tie release. There is currently limited data looking at posterior ankyloglossia and upper lip ties. METHODS: Consecutive patients seen at an ENT outpatient clinic for ankyloglossia and upper-lip ties from May 2014-August 2015 were assessed for an outpatient frenotomy...
September 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453525/prenatal-and-early-life-predictors-of-atopy-and-allergic-disease-in-canadian-children-results-of-the-family-atherosclerosis-monitoring-in-early-life-family-study
#17
T Batool, P L Reece, K M Schulze, K M Morrison, S A Atkinson, S S Anand, K K Teo, J A Denburg, M M Cyr
Prenatal and early-life environmental exposures play a key role in the development of atopy and allergic disease. The Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life Study is a general, population-based Canadian birth cohort that prospectively evaluated prenatal and early-life traits and their association with atopy and/or allergic disease. The study population included 901 babies, 857 mothers and 530 fathers. Prenatal and postnatal risk factors were evaluated through questionnaires collected during the antenatal period and at 1 year...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386945/institutional-delivery-and-postnatal-care-services-utilizations-in-abuna-gindeberet-district-west-shewa-oromiya-region-central-ethiopia-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study
#18
Birhanu Darega, Nagasa Dida, Fikru Tafese, Shimeles Ololo
BACKGROUND: Delivery at health institutions under the care of trained health-care providers and utilization of postnatal cares services plays vital roles in promoting child survival and reducing the risk of maternal mortality. More than 80 % of maternal deaths can be prevented if pregnant women access to essential maternity cares like antenatal care, institutional delivery and postnatal care services. Thus, this study aimed to assess institutional delivery and postnatal care services utilizations in Abuna Gindeberet District, West Shewa, Oromiya Regional State, Ethiopia...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348723/outlining-the-windows-of-achievement-of-intersubjective-milestones-in-typically-developing-toddlers
#19
Marta Sadurní Brugué, Marc Pérez Burriel
Babies are born with an innate drive or intrinsic motive formation with which to communicate and share meanings with others and that some authors have called intersubjectivity (S. Bråten & C. Trevarthen, 2007; C. Trevarthen, 1974, 2001). Around the ninth month of life, this motivation changes and passes from a person-to-person dyadic (primary intersubjectivity) to a person-person-object relationship (secondary intersubjectivity). S. Bråten and C. Trevarthen (2007) also proposed a third form or layer of intersubjectivity known as tertiary intersubjectivity...
July 2016: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27336906/protein-evolution-of-human-milk
#20
Sagar K Thakkar, Francesca Giuffrida, Emmanuelle Bertschy, Antonio De Castro, Frédéric Destaillats, Le Ye Lee
Given the documented short- and long-term advantages of breastfeeding, human milk (HM) as a sole source of nutrition for the first few months of newborn life is considered a normative standard. Each macroconstituent of HM plays a crucial role in the growth and development of the baby. Lipids are largely responsible for providing more than 50% of the energy as well as providing essential fatty acids and minor lipids that are integral to all cell membranes. Carbohydrates can be broadly divided into lactose and oligosaccharides, which are a readily digestible source of glucose and indigestible nonnutritive components, respectively...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
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