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Skeletal review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151144/parosteal-extra-axial-chordoma-of-the-second-metacarpal-bone-a-case-report-with-literature-review
#1
Shinji Tsukamoto, Daniel Vanel, Alberto Righi, Davide Maria Donati, Costantino Errani
Extra-axial chordoma is a chordoma that occurs in non-axial locations. It is a very rare tumor, with 20 cases reported to date; 14 in bone and six in soft tissue. Of the 14 skeletal extra-axial chordomas, ten were intramedullary and four were intracortical. We report the first case of parosteal extra-axial chordoma arising in the second metacarpal bone, expressing brachyury on immunohistochemical analysis, and describe the pathologic and radiologic findings. We suggest that extra-axial chordoma can occur in parosteal bone lesions or the hand, without features of bone distribution or bone-specific sites...
November 18, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151119/whole-body-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-detection-of-skeletal-metastases-in-children-and-young-people-with-primary-solid-tumors-systematic-review
#2
A M Smets, E E Deurloo, T J E Slager, J Stoker, S Bipat
BACKGROUND: Many solid neoplasms have a propensity for osteomedullary metastases of which detection is important for staging and subsequent treatment. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) has been shown to accurately detect osteomedullary metastases in adults, but these findings cannot be unconditionally extrapolated to staging of children with malignant solid tumors. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on the sensitivity of WB-MRI for detecting skeletal metastases in children with solid tumors...
November 18, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151015/diffuse-idiopathic-skeletal-hyperostosis-dish-as-a-cause-of-failure-following-distal-clavicle-excision-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
John Begly, Vineet Tyagi, Eric Strauss
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is common spinal condition characterized by increased calcification and ossification of ligaments and entheses, typically in the anterior aspect of the spine. However, extraspinal manifestations of the disease can occur and depending on the degree and location of involvement, may become symptomatic. We present the case of a 63-year-old male with a history of DISH, who failed initial open distal clavicle excision due to the postoperative development of heterotopic bone bridging across the acromioclavicular joint...
December 2017: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150918/central-role-of-transforming-ggrowth-factor-type-beta-1-in-skeletal-muscle-dysfunctions-an-update-on-therapeutic-strategies
#4
Johanna Abrigo, Felipe Simon, Daniel Cabrera, Gonzalo Cordova, Capucine Trollet, Claudio Cabello Verrugio
Among the soluble factors that regulate skeletal muscle function, Transforming Growth Factor type Beta 1 (TGF-b1) is one of the most studied. This factor inhibits myogenesis and regeneration by regulating the activity and function of satellite cells (SCs). Indeed, TGF-b has a central role in muscle pathologies in which there is development of fibrosis and/or atrophy of skeletal muscle. Thus, in this review we present the critical and recent antecedents regarding the mechanisms and cellular targets involved in the effects of TGF-b1 in the muscle, in pathological processes such as the inhibition of regeneration, fibrosis and atrophy...
November 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148179/clinical-implications-of-de-barsy-syndrome
#5
Lindsay L Warner, David A Olsen, Hugh M Smith
BACKGROUND: De Barsy syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by cutis laxa, progeroid appearance, ophthalmic opacification, skeletal malformations, growth delays, and intellectual disability. AIMS: The aim of this case series is to identify the anesthetic considerations in the clinical management of patients with de Barsy syndrome. METHODS: A retrospective case review from 1968 to 2016 was performed at a single tertiary medical center to identify patients with de Barsy syndrome who underwent anesthesia for diagnostic and surgical procedures...
November 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147909/the-role-of-the-antioxidant-protein-dj-1-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Daniel Eberhard, Eckhard Lammert
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide escalating health disorder resulting from insulin resistance and functional loss of insulin-producing beta cells that finally cause chronically elevated blood glucose concentrations. Here we review the role of ubiquitously expressed antioxidant protein DJ-1 in the pathogenesis of T2DM. In beta cells, DJ-1 protects against oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and streptozotocin- and cytokine-induced stress and preserves beta cell viability and insulin secretion...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146162/return-to-play-criteria-following-surgical-stabilization-for-traumatic-anterior-shoulder-instability-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Michael C Ciccotti, Usman Syed, Ryan Hoffman, Joseph A Abboud, Michael G Ciccotti, Kevin B Freedman
PURPOSE: To identify and describe in the existing literature any criteria used for return to play following surgical stabilization for traumatic, anterior shoulder instability. METHODS: We performed a systematic review evaluating surgical stabilization for primary traumatic anterior shoulder instability in skeletally mature patients with a minimum of 1-year follow-up using Level I to IV studies in PubMed and EMBASE from January 1994 to January 2017. RESULTS: Fifty-eight studies with at least 1 explicitly stated criterion for return to play were identified from a review of more than 5,100 published articles...
November 13, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142783/birth-order-and-maternal-age-for-reported-cases-of-severe-prenatal-cortical-hyperostosis-caffey-silverman-disease
#8
Rolf R Engel, Raul F Cifuentes
The spectrum of prenatal cortical hyperostosis includes a mild phenotype that typically presents after 35 weeks of gestation, and a severe form that presents earlier. The skeletal and systemic manifestations of the severe phenotype remain unexplained. A review of reported cases indicates that older mothers and firstborn infants are overrepresented. This combination suggests decreased fertility. Fourteen years after the birth of the present case, his mother presented with renal failure from multiple myeloma raising the possibility that a maternal antibody may play a role in the etiology of severe prenatal Caffey disease...
July 2017: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142340/clinical-pearls-etiologies-of-superscan-appearance-on-fluorine-18-fludeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography
#9
REVIEW
John Joseph Manov, Patrick J Roth, Russ Kuker
The term "superscan" usually refers to a characteristic pattern on skeletal scintigraphy consisting of symmetrically intense and diffuse radiotracer uptake in the skeleton with absent or diminished visualization of the genitourinary system and soft tissues. Superscans and superscan-like appearances have also been described on fluorine-18-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18-F-FDG PET/CT). We review reported cases of 18-F-FDG PET/CT superscans and propose criteria for differentiating pathologic superscans from physiologic causes...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140834/prognostic-factors-in-patients-with-metastatic-spinal-cord-compression-secondary-to-melanoma-a-systematic-review
#10
Nicholas J Hadden, Jerome R D McIntosh, Samuel Jay, Paula J Whittaker
Melanoma is one of the most common primary tumours associated with metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC). The aim of this review is to identify prognostic factors specifically for MSCC secondary to melanoma. A systematic search of literature was performed in MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library to identify studies reporting prognostic factors for patients with MSCC secondary to melanoma. Two studies, involving a total of 39 patients, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The variables associated with increased survival were receiving postoperative radiotherapy, receiving chemotherapy, perioperative lactate dehydrogenase level less than or equal to 8...
November 14, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138679/modulatory-mechanism-of-polyphenols-and-nrf2-signaling-pathway-in-lps-challenged-pregnancy-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Tarique Hussain, Bie Tan, Gang Liu, Ghulam Murtaza, Najma Rahu, Muhammad Saleem, Yulong Yin
Early embryonic loss and adverse birth outcomes are the major reproductive disorders that affect both human and animals. The LPS induces inflammation by interacting with robust cellular mechanism which was considered as a plethora of numerous reproductive disorders such as fetal resorption, preterm birth, teratogenicity, intrauterine growth restriction, abortion, neural tube defects, fetal demise, and skeletal development retardation. LPS-triggered overproduction of free radicals leads to oxidative stress which mediates inflammation via stimulation of NF-κB and PPARγ transcription factors...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137117/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-proteomics-literature-on-the-response-of-human-skeletal-muscle-to-obesity-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-t2dm-versus-exercise-training
#12
REVIEW
Kanchana Srisawat, Sam O Shepherd, Paulo J Lisboa, Jatin G Burniston
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of proteomics literature that reports human skeletal muscle responses in the context of either pathological decline associated with obesity/T2DM and physiological adaptations to exercise training. Literature was collected from PubMed and DOAJ databases following PRISMA guidelines using the search terms 'proteom*', and 'skeletal muscle' combined with either 'obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance' or 'exercise, training'. Eleven studies were included in the systematic review, and meta-analysis was performed on a sub-set (four studies) of the reviewed literature that reported the necessary primary data...
November 11, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135689/vldl-triglyceride-accumulation-in-skeletal-muscle-and-adipose-tissue-in-type-2-diabetes
#13
Esben Søndergaard, Søren Nielsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Insulin resistance is closely linked to accumulation of lipid outside adipose tissue (ectopic fat storage). VLDL particles transport lipids from the liver to peripheral tissues. However, whether abnormalities in VLDL-triglyceride storage in muscle and adipose tissue exist in type 2 diabetes has previously been unknown, primarily because of methodological difficulties. Here, we review recent research on VLDL-triglyceride storage. RECENT FINDINGS: In a recent study, men with type 2 diabetes had increased skeletal muscle VLDL-triglyceride storage compared to weight-matched nondiabetic men, potentially leading to intramyocellular triglyceride accumulation...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132091/effect-of-anti-diabetic-drugs-on-bone-metabolism-evidence-from-preclinical-and-clinical-studies
#14
REVIEW
Mohammad Adil, Rashid Ali Khan, Abul Kalam, Shiva Kumar Venkata, Amit Dattatraya Kandhare, Pinaki Ghosh, Manju Sharma
Diabetes mellitus is associated with abnormal bone health and an increased risk of fracture even though patients have normal or higher BMD. The mechanisms behind diabetes mellitus- induced various skeletal disorders remain unclear. Anti-diabetic drugs may have negative or positive impact on bone metabolism. For instance, thiazolidinediones increases the bone loss and risk of fracture possibly through PPARγ activation in bone marrow cells and hamper osteoblastogenesis via decreasing Runx2 transcription factor, IGF-1 and Wnt signalling pathways...
May 25, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131758/titin-gene-and-protein-functions-in-passive-and-active-muscle
#15
Wolfgang A Linke
The thin and thick filaments of muscle sarcomeres are interconnected by the giant protein titin, which is a scaffolding filament, signaling platform, and provider of passive tension and elasticity in myocytes. This review summarizes recent insight into the mechanisms behind how titin gene mutations cause hereditary cardiomyopathy and how titin protein is mechanically active in skeletal and cardiac myocytes. A main theme is the evolving role of titin as a modulator of contraction. Topics include strain-sensing via titin in the sarcomeric A-band as the basis for length-dependent activation, titin elastic recoil and refolding of titin domains as an energy source, and Ca(2+)-dependent stiffening of titin stretched during eccentric muscle contractions...
November 13, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131558/cytologic-findings-of-an-adult-rhabdomyoma-in-the-parapharyngeal-space-a-report-of-a-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Josephine Kamtai Dermawan, Erika Doxtader, Deborah J Chute, Maria Luisa Policarpio-Nicolas
Adult extracardiac rhabdomyomas are rare benign mesenchymal tumor arising from skeletal muscle. While they are often located in the larynx and pharynx, the incidence in the parapharyngeal area is extremely rare with only 1 documented cytology case report to date. We report a case of an adult extracardiac rhabdomyoma in the parapharyngeal space diagnosed cytologically with subsequent histologic confirmation. The patient is a 57-year-old man with history of weight loss, hematuria, dysphagia, and airway encroachment...
November 12, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131244/a-review-on-irisin-a-new-protagonist-that-mediates-muscle-adipose-bone-neuron-connectivity
#17
B Grygiel-Górniak, M Puszczewicz
Physical activity improves the quality of life and decreases the risk of several diseases (i.e. stroke, hypertension, myocardial infarction, obesity, and malignancies). Skeletal muscles are considered as an endocrine organ that produces myokines characterized by a paracrine or endocrine activity. Irisin is a circulating hormone-like myokine and is secreted as a product of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 from skeletal muscle in response to exercise. This molecule regulates the energy metabolism and acts in adipose tissue, bones, and nervous system...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127759/is-irisin-the-new-player-in-exercise-induced-adaptations-or-not-a-2017-update
#18
REVIEW
Ioannis G Fatouros
Irisin is produced by a proteolytic cleavage of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) and has emerged as a potential mediator of exercise-induced energy metabolism. The purpose of this study was to review the results of studies that investigated irisin responses to acute and chronic exercise and provide an update. A comprehensive search in the databases of MEDLINE was performed (74 exercise studies). The focus of the analysis was on data concerning FNDC5 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle and circulating irisin concentration relatively to exercise mode, intensity, frequency and duration and the characteristics of the sample used...
November 11, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127046/function-of-the-myogenic-regulatory-factors-myf5-myod-myogenin-and-mrf4-in-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells-and-regenerative-myogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Peter S Zammit
Discovery of the myogenic regulatory factor family of transcription factors MYF5, MYOD, Myogenin and MRF4 was a seminal step in understanding specification of the skeletal myogenic lineage and control of muscle differentiation during development. These factors are also involved in specification of the muscle satellite cell lineage, which becomes the resident stem cell compartment in adult skeletal muscle. While MYF5, MYOD, Myogenin and MRF4 have subtle roles in mature muscle, they again play a crucial role in directing satellite cell function to regenerate skeletal muscle: linking the genetic control of developmental and regenerative myogenesis...
November 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126696/coordination-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis-by-pgc-1%C3%AE-in-human-skeletal-muscle-a-re-evaluation
#20
REVIEW
Hashim Islam, Brittany A Edgett, Brendon J Gurd
The transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) is proposed to coordinate skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis through the integrated induction of nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded gene transcription. This paradigm is based largely on experiments demonstrating PGC-1α's ability to co-activate various nuclear transcription factors that increase the expression of mitochondrial genes, as well PGC-1α's direct interaction with mitochondrial transcription factor A within mitochondria to increase the transcription of mitochondrial DNA...
November 7, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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