keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Skeletal review

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788396/injury-surveillance-and-reporting-for-trainees-with-bone-stress-injury-current-practices-and-recommendations
#1
Scott C Dembowski, Bradley S Tragord, Amy F Hand, Iván R Rohena-Quinquilla, Ian E Lee, David C Thoma, Joseph M Molloy
Background: Musculoskeletal injuries, including lower extremity bone stress injuries (BSI) significantly impact initial entry training (IET) in the U.S. Army due to limited duty days, trainee attrition, early medical discharge, and related financial costs. Factors complicating trainee BSI surveillance include inconsistent BSI coding practices, attrition documentation as both administrative separations and medical discharges and the inability to code for BSI grade or severity when using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th revision (ICD-10) codes...
May 18, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787394/new-developments-in-the-genetic-diagnosis-of-short-stature
#2
Youn Hee Jee, Jeffrey Baron, Ola Nilsson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genome-wide approaches including genome-wide association studies as well as exome and genome sequencing represent powerful new approaches that have improved our ability to identify genetic causes of human disorders. The purpose of this review is to describe recent advances in the genetic causes of short stature. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to SHOX deficiency which is one of the most common causes of isolated short stature, PAPPA2, aggrecan, C-natriuretic peptide, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), NPR2 (CNP receptor), protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11(PTPN11) (and other rasopathies), Fibrillin 1 (FBN1), IHH and BMP2 have been identified in isolated growth disorders with or without other mild skeletal findings...
May 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786645/skeletal-muscle-micrornas-as-key-players-in-the-pathogenesis-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Lorena Di Pietro, Wanda Lattanzi, Camilla Bernardini
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, for which, to date, no effective treatment to ameliorate the clinical manifestations is available. The long-standing view of ALS as affecting only motor neurons has been challenged by the finding that the skeletal muscle plays an active role in the disease pathogenesis and can be a valuable target for therapeutic strategies. In recent years, non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, have emerged as important molecules that play key roles in several cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying various human conditions...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786553/from-skeletal-development-to-the-creation-of-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-bone-forming-progenitors
#4
REVIEW
Wai Long Tam, Frank P Luyten, Scott J Roberts
Bone has many functions. It is responsible for protecting the underlying soft organs, it allows locomotion, houses the bone marrow and stores minerals such as calcium and phosphate. Upon damage, bone tissue can efficiently repair itself. However, healing is hampered if the defect exceeds a critical size and/or is in compromised conditions. The isolation or generation of bone-forming progenitors has applicability to skeletal repair and may be used in tissue engineering approaches. Traditionally, bone engineering uses osteochondrogenic stem cells, which are combined with scaffold materials and growth factors...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785242/role-of-oxidative-stress-as-key-regulator-of-muscle-wasting-during-cachexia
#5
REVIEW
Johanna Ábrigo, Alvaro A Elorza, Claudia A Riedel, Cristian Vilos, Felipe Simon, Daniel Cabrera, Lisbell Estrada, Claudio Cabello-Verrugio
Skeletal muscle atrophy is a pathological condition mainly characterized by a loss of muscular mass and the contractile capacity of the skeletal muscle as a consequence of muscular weakness and decreased force generation. Cachexia is defined as a pathological condition secondary to illness characterized by the progressive loss of muscle mass with or without loss of fat mass and with concomitant diminution of muscle strength. The molecular mechanisms involved in cachexia include oxidative stress, protein synthesis/degradation imbalance, autophagy deregulation, increased myonuclear apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783715/location-location-location-signals-in-muscle-specification
#6
REVIEW
Chih-Ning Chang, Chrissa Kioussi
Muscles control body movement and locomotion, posture and body position and soft tissue support. Mesoderm derived cells gives rise to 700 unique muscles in humans as a result of well-orchestrated signaling and transcriptional networks in specific time and space. Although the anatomical structure of skeletal muscles is similar, their functions and locations are specialized. This is the result of specific signaling as the embryo grows and cells migrate to form different structures and organs. As cells progress to their next state, they suppress current sequence specific transcription factors (SSTF) and construct new networks to establish new myogenic features...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781327/the-progress-of-aav-mediated-gene-therapy-in-neuromuscular-disorders
#7
Sara Aguti, Alberto Malerba, Haiyan Zhou
The well-defined genetic causes and monogenetic nature of many neuromuscular disorders, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), present gene therapy as a prominent therapeutic approach. The novel variants of adeno-associated virus (AAV) can achieve satisfactory transduction efficiency of exogenous genes through the central nervous system and body-wide in skeletal muscle. Areas covered: In this review, we summarize the strategies of AAV gene therapy that are currently under preclinical and clinical evaluation for the treatment of degenerative neuromuscular disorders, with a focus on diseases such as DMD and SMA...
May 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781248/the-role-of-3d-printing-in-treating-craniomaxillofacial-congenital-anomalies
#8
REVIEW
Christopher D Lopez, Lukasz Witek, Andrea Torroni, Roberto L Flores, David B Demissie, Simon Young, Bruce N Cronstein, Paulo G Coelho
Craniomaxillofacial congenital anomalies comprise approximately one third of all congenital birth defects and include deformities such as alveolar clefts, craniosynostosis, and microtia. Current surgical treatments commonly require the use of autogenous graft material which are difficult to shape, limited in supply, associated with donor site morbidity and cannot grow with a maturing skeleton. Our group has demonstrated that 3D printed bio-ceramic scaffolds can generate vascularized bone within large, critical-sized defects (defects too large to heal spontaneously) of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton...
May 20, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780738/effect-of-rapid-maxillary-expansion-on-glenoid-fossa-and-condyle-fossa-relationship-in-growing-patients-megp-study-protocol-for-a-controlled-clinical-trial
#9
Mona Sayegh Ghoussoub, Khaldoun Rifai, Robert Garcia, Ghassan Sleilaty
Aims and Objectives: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthodontic nonsurgical procedure aiming at increasing the width of the maxilla by opening mainly the intermaxillary suture in patients presenting a transverse maxillary skeletal deficiency. The objectives of the current prospective controlled clinical and radiographic study are to evaluate the hypothesis that RME in growing patients will result in radiographic changes at the level of interglenoid fossa distance, condyle-fossa relationship, and nasal cavity widths compared to the group who received no treatment initially and served as untreated control...
March 2018: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779902/molecular-genetics-and-metabolism-special-edition-diagnosis-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-mucopolysaccharidosis-iva
#10
REVIEW
Hira Peracha, Kazuki Sawamoto, Lauren Averill, Heidi Kecskemethy, Mary Theroux, Mihir Thacker, Kyoko Nagao, Christian Pizarro, William Mackenzie, Hironori Kobayashi, Seiji Yamaguchi, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Kenji Orii, Tadao Orii, Toshiyuki Fukao, Shunji Tomatsu
Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA, Morquio A syndrome) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of specific glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) and keratan sulfate (KS), which are mainly synthesized in the cartilage. Therefore, the substrates are stored primarily in the cartilage and its extracellular matrix (ECM), leading to a direct impact on bone development and successive systemic skeletal spondylepiphyseal dysplasia...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779598/metabolic-myopathies-and-the-respiratory-system
#11
REVIEW
Patrick Koo, Jigme M Sethi
Metabolic myopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by inherited defects of enzymatic pathways involved in muscle cellular energetics and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. Skeletal and respiratory muscles are most affected. There are multiple mechanisms of disease. The age of onset and prognosis vary. Metabolic myopathies cause exercise intolerance, myalgia, and increase in muscle breakdown products during exercise. Some affect smooth muscle like the diaphragm and cause respiratory failure...
June 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779594/disorders-of-the-diaphragm
#12
REVIEW
F Dennis McCool, Kamran Manzoor, Taro Minami
Pathologic processes that involve the central nervous system, phrenic nerve, neuromuscular junction, and skeletal muscle can impair diaphragm function. When these processes are of sufficient severity to cause diaphragm dysfunction, respiratory failure may be a consequence. This article reviews basic diaphragm anatomy and physiology and then discusses diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to disorders that result in unilateral or bilateral diaphragm dysfunction. This discussion provides a context in which disorders of the diaphragm and their implications on respiratory function can be better appreciated...
June 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779049/biochemical-and-functional-interplay-between-ion-channels-and-the-components-of-the-dystrophin-associated-glycoprotein-complex
#13
REVIEW
Margarita Leyva-Leyva, Alejandro Sandoval, Ricardo Felix, Ricardo González-Ramírez
Dystrophin is a cytoskeleton-linked membrane protein that binds to a larger multiprotein assembly called the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC). The deficiency of dystrophin or the components of the DGC results in the loss of connection between the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix with significant pathophysiological implications in skeletal and cardiac muscle as well as in the nervous system. Although the DGC plays an important role in maintaining membrane stability, it can also be considered as a versatile and flexible molecular complex that contribute to the cellular organization and dynamics of a variety of proteins at specific locations in the plasma membrane...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777919/brain-to-bone-what-is-the-contribution-of-the-brain-to-skeletal-homeostasis
#14
REVIEW
Anna Idelevich, Roland Baron
The brain, which governs most, if not all, physiological functions in the body, from the complexities of cognition, learning and memory, to the regulation of basal body temperature, heart rate and breathing, has long been known to affect skeletal health. In particular, the hypothalamus - located at the base of the brain in close proximity to the medial eminence, where the blood-brain-barrier is not as tight as in other regions of the brain but rather "leaky", due to fenestrated capillaries - is exposed to a variety of circulating body cues, such as nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids), and hormones (insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin) [1-3]...
May 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775742/ryanodine-receptor-ca-2-release-channel-post-translational-modification-central-player-in-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-disease
#15
Amanda Denniss, Angela F Dulhunty, Nicole A Beard
Calcium release from internal stores is a quintessential event in excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac and skeletal muscle. The ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channel is embedded in the internal sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ store, which releases Ca2+ into the cytoplasm, enabling contraction. Ryanodine receptors form the hub of a macromolecular complex extending from the extracellular space to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Ryanodine receptor activity is influenced by the integrated effects of associated co-proteins, ions, and post-translational phosphor and redox modifications...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773338/taking-stock-a-systematic-review-of-archaeological-evidence-of-cancers-in-human-and-early-hominin-remains
#16
Kathryn J Hunt, Charlotte Roberts, Casey Kirkpatrick
This study summarizes data from 154 paleopathological studies documenting 272 archaeologically recovered individuals exhibiting skeletal or soft tissue evidence of cancer (malignant neoplastic disease) between 1.8 million years ago and 1900 CE. The paper reviews and summarizes the temporal, spatial and demographic distribution of the evidence and the methods used to provide the cancer diagnoses. Metastasis to bone is the most widely reported evidence (n = 161), followed by multiple myeloma (n = 55)...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772730/at-the-crossroads-of-clinical-and-preclinical-research-for-muscular-dystrophy-are-we-closer-to-effective-treatment-for-patients
#17
REVIEW
Kinga I Gawlik
Among diseases affecting skeletal muscle, muscular dystrophy is one of the most devastating and complex disorders. The term 'muscular dystrophy' refers to a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases associated with a primary muscle defect that leads to progressive muscle wasting and consequent loss of muscle function. Muscular dystrophies are accompanied by numerous clinical complications and abnormalities in other tissues that cause extreme discomfort in everyday life. The fact that muscular dystrophy often takes its toll on babies and small children, and that many patients die at a young age, adds to the cruel character of the disease...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769826/effects-of-gymnastics-activities-on-bone-accrual-during-growth-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Jaak Jürimäe, Rita Gruodyte-Raciene, Adam D G Baxter-Jones
The amount of bone gained during childhood and adolescence impacts greatly on lifetime skeletal health. The purpose of this review is to summarize current evidence of the effects of gymnastics activities on bone mineral accrual during growth and to describe possible factors that influence bone mineral gains. The PubMed and SportDiscus databases were searched, and a total of 24 articles met the selection criteria and were included in this review. Artistic and rhythmic gymnasts presented higher bone mineral density and content values compared to untrained controls, despite possible negative effects associated with hormonal levels, dietary restrictions and body fat...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768366/case-report-a-rare-case-of-focal-myositis-presenting-as-sartorius-muscle-contracture-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#19
Jin Wang, Juyang Jiao, Guanglei Zhao, Jingsheng Shi, Jun Xia
RATIONALE: Focal myositis (FM) is a very rare myopathy of unknown etiology characterized by focal enlargement within one single skeletal muscle. In particular, it occurs only involving the Sartorius muscle has never been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 25-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with progressive restricted left hip joint extension, left thigh discomfort and gait disturbance for 6 years. DIAGNOSES: Combining clinical manifestations with results of radiological and pathological examinations, it was consistent with the diagnosis of FM INTERVENTIONS:: The patient received a surgery under general anesthesia to release the contracted Sartorius tendon...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767564/interorgan-metabolic-crosstalk-in-human-insulin-resistance
#20
Sofiya Gancheva, Tomas Jelenik, Elisa Álvarez-Hernández, Michael Roden
Excessive energy intake and reduced energy expenditure drive the development of insulin resistance and metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolic signals derived from dietary intake or secreted from adipose tissue, gut, and liver contribute to energy homeostasis. Recent metabolomic studies identified novel metabolites and enlarged our knowledge on classic metabolites. This review summarizes the evidence of their roles as mediators of interorgan crosstalk and regulators of insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
keyword
keyword
88430
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"