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Literacy and public health

Kelly Jones, Ngara Keeler, Chris Morris, David Brennan, Kaye Roberts-Thompson, Lisa Jamieson
OBJECTIVE: To explore and document self-reported factors contributing to Indigenous Australians' attendance and non-attendance at South Australian public dental clinics. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people (18 males and 26 females) referred for oral care through the Aboriginal Liaison Program of the South Australian Dental Service. Thematic analysis was performed on 44 transcribed conversations and a conceptual model developed. RESULTS: Persons completing all recommended treatment reported high self-efficacy, health literacy, social cohesion and previous use of dental services and presence of a health advocate...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Carol J Howe, Donelle M Barnes, Griselle B Estrada, Ignacio Godinez
Hispanics who speak Spanish are at risk for low health literacy. We evaluated Spanish language hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM) patient education materials from U.S. federal agency public sector sources using the Suitability of Assessment (SAM) instrument. Mean readability for HTN materials was grade 7.9 and for DM materials was grade 6.6. Mean SAM score for HTN materials was 43.9 and for DM materials was 63.2. SAM scores were significantly better for DM than for HTN materials in overall score, content, graphics, layout, stimulation/motivation, and cultural appropriateness (p < ...
October 2016: Journal of Community Health Nursing
Sairam Parthasarathy, Mary A Carskadon, Girardin Jean-Louis, Judith Owens, Adam Bramoweth, Daniel Combs, Lauren Hale, Elizabeth Harrison, Chantelle N Hart, Brant P Hasler, Sarah M Honaker, Elisabeth Hertenstein, Samuel Kuna, Clete Kushida, Jessica C Levenson, Caitlin Murray, Allan I Pack, Vivek Pillai, Kristi Pruiksma, Azizi Seixas, Patrick Strollo, Saurabh S Thosar, Natasha Williams, Daniel Buysse
A wealth of scientific knowledge is being generated in sleep and circadian science. In order for us to realize the return on investment for such scientific knowledge and to improve the health of the nation, we need to disseminate and implement research findings into practice. An implementation gap - termed a "quality chasm" by the Institutes of Medicine - separates the scientific knowledge we possess and the implementation of such knowledge into preventative interventions or healthcare treatments. It is frequently reported that a time lag of 17 years transpires before medical research reaches clinical practice...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Christian Keinki, Richard Zowalla, Martin Wiesner, Marie Jolin Koester, Jutta Huebner
The improvement of health literacy in general and the information of individual patient is a major concern of the German national cancer plan and similar initiatives in other western countries. The aim of our study was to assess the readability and understandability of information booklets for cancer patients available at German Web sites. A support vector machine (SVM) was used to discriminate between laymen- and expert-centric patient information booklets about nine most common tumor types. All booklets had to be available for free at the Internet...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Kane Race, Toby Lea, Dean Murphy, Kiran Pienaar
There are complex historical connections between sexual minoritisation and desires to chemically alter bodily experience. For gay men, drug and alcohol use can be a creative or experimental response to social marginalisation - and not necessarily a problematic one in every instance. Numerous studies have found that infection with HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs) is more likely among gay and men who have sex with men (MSM) who use recreational drugs than those who do not, but the causal nature of these relations is uncertain...
October 7, 2016: Sexual Health
Ruth White, Chris Hayes, Scott White, Fiona J Hodson
There is a substantial clinical variation in the contemporary treatment of chronic noncancer pain reflecting different explanatory models and treatment emphasis. Hunter Integrated Pain Service and collaborators developed three key messaging videos outlining the foundations of chronic pain treatment, thus challenging unwarranted clinical variation and calling for greater therapeutic consistency. The videos were released on YouTube as a low-cost public health intervention. Each video used an evidenced informed script appropriate for low literacy and a cartoonist to provide matching images...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
Zdeněk Kučera, Jurgen Pelikan, Alena Šteflová
Health literacy survey was carried out at the end of 2014 in the context of preparation of implementation strategy of the Program Health 2020 in the Czech Republic. The survey was conducted by the National Institute of Public Health with financial support from the Ministry of Health and the Czech WHO office. Sociological survey replicated comparative research conducted in eight EU countries in the first half of this decade. Representative survey in 1037 respondents in the age over 16 years, selected in all regions of the country...
2016: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Julie Payne-Gagnon, Erik Breton, Jean-Paul Fortin, Lara Khoury, Lisa Dolovich, David Price, David Wiljer, Gillian Bartlett, Norman Archer
BACKGROUND: Healthcare stakeholders have a great interest in the adoption and use of electronic personal health records (ePHRs) because of the potential benefits associated with them. Little is known, however, about the level of adoption of ePHRs in Canada and there is limited evidence concerning their benefits and implications for the healthcare system. This study aimed to describe the current situation of ePHRs in Canada and explore stakeholder perceptions regarding barriers and facilitators to their adoption...
April 6, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Arpan V Prabhu, David R Hansberry, Nitin Agarwal, David A Clump, Dwight E Heron
PURPOSE: Physicians encourage patients to be informed about their health care options, but much of the online health care-related resources can be beneficial only if patients are capable of comprehending it. This study's aim was to assess the readability level of online patient education resources for radiation oncology to conclude whether they meet the general public's health literacy needs as determined by the guidelines of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the American Medical Association (AMA)...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Boniface Ikenna Eze, Obiekwe Okoye, Emmanuel Nwabueze Aguwa
AIM: To assess the public's knowledge of the differences between ophthalmologists and optometrists and identify the factors associated with knowledge. METHODS: The study was a population-based random survey of adults aged 18 years or older conducted in Enugu, south eastern Nigeria, between March and June, 2011. Data on respondents' socio-demographics, clinical profile, and knowledge of the differences between ophthalmologists and optometrists were collected using a 28-item questionnaire...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Lenna Dawkins-Moultin, Andrea McDonald, Lisako McKyer
While health literacy research has experienced tremendous growth in the last two decades, the field still struggles to devise interventions that lead to lasting change. Most health literacy interventions are at the individual level and focus on resolving clinician-patient communication difficulties. As a result, the interventions use a deficit model that treats health literacy as a patient problem that needs to be fixed or circumvented. We propose that public health health literacy interventions integrate the principles of socioecology and critical pedagogy to develop interventions that build capacity and empower individuals and communities...
2016: Journal of Health Communication
Karina Friis, Mathias Lasgaard, Gillian Rowlands, Richard H Osborne, Helle T Maindal
Individuals with a lower education level frequently have unhealthier behaviors than individuals with a higher education level, but the pathway is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether health literacy mediates the association between educational attainment and health behavior (smoking, physical inactivity, poor diet) and obesity. The study included respondents ages 25 years or older drawn from a large population-based survey conducted in 2013 (N = 29,473). Two scales from the Health Literacy Questionnaire were used: (a) Understanding health information well enough to know what to do and (b) Ability to actively engage with health care providers...
2016: Journal of Health Communication
Richard O White, Rosette J Chakkalakal, Caroline A Presley, Aihua Bian, Jonathan S Schildcrout, Kenneth A Wallston, Shari Barto, Sunil Kripalani, Russell Rothman
Patient-provider communication is modifiable and is linked to diabetes outcomes. The association of communication quality with medical mistrust is unknown. We examined these factors within the context of a low-literacy/numeracy-focused intervention to improve diabetes care, using baseline data from diverse patients enrolled in a randomized trial of a health communication intervention. Demographics, measures of health communication (Communication Assessment Tool [CAT], Interpersonal Processes of Care survey [IPC-18]), health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults), depression, medical mistrust, and glycemic control were ascertained...
2016: Journal of Health Communication
Teresa Wagner, Calandra Lindstadt, Yongwoog Jeon, Michael Mackert
As more individuals turn to the Internet for health-related information and technology increases the availability and use of implantable medical devices (IMDs), the websites marketing these devices will increase. Healthy People 2020 mandates increased understandability and usability of health-related websites. This project used social cognitive theory (SCT) and health literacy constructs from the Institute of Medicine and National Institutes of Health to analyze eight IMD websites. Despite current recommendations, none of the websites considered for this study offered content of an appropriate reading level in conjunction with the United States average of eighth grade, and 75% of the sites failed to satisfy more than one health literacy construct...
2016: Journal of Health Communication
Caitlin G Allen, Colleen M McBride, Hector G Balcazar, Kim A Kaphingst
Poor understanding of gene-environment contributors to health conditions can lead the public to misinterpretations that overemphasize genetics as determinants of health. The present commentary calls for engaging the national community health worker (CHW) workforce to use community elicitation methods such as mental models approaches as a means to enhance the public's literacy regarding genetic and environmental or genomic contributions to health. We discuss three needs related to genomic literacy and suggest how CHWs are uniquely positioned to address these needs among diverse target audiences...
2016: Journal of Health Communication
(no author information available yet)
Health literacy is defined as the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand the basic health information and services they need to make appropriate health decisions. Multiple factors affect a patient's understanding of health information, including cultural factors, a physician's health knowledge and communication skills, the demands of the situation, the environment in which the health information is being conveyed, and time constraints. The responsibility for recognizing and addressing the problem of limited health literacy lies with all entities in the health care system, from primary care physicians to community-based or public health organizations...
October 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
(no author information available yet)
Health literacy is defined as the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand the basic health information and services they need to make appropriate health decisions. Multiple factors affect a patient's understanding of health information, including cultural factors, a physician's health know- ledge and communication skills, the demands of the situation, the environment in which the health information is being conveyed, and time constraints. The responsibility for recognizing and addressing the problem of limited health literacy lies with all entities in the health care system, from primary care physicians to community-based or public health organizations...
October 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Erika A Waters, Courtney Wheeler, Jada G Hamilton
Understanding that cancer is caused by both genetic and behavioral risk factors is an important component of genomic literacy. However, a considerable percentage of people in the United States do not endorse such multifactorial beliefs. Using nationally representative cross-sectional data from the U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (N = 2,529), we examined how information seeking, information scanning, and key information-processing characteristics were associated with endorsing a multifactorial model of cancer causation...
2016: Journal of Health Communication
Heather L Storer, Katyayani R Strohl
Teen dating violence (TDV) is a significant public health issue. Preventing TDV requires attention to risk and protective factors across ecological system levels. The media is one of the primary cultural drivers of societal-level social scripts about the causes of TDV. Framing theory asserts that the media's portrayal of social issues, including what contextual information is included and/or excluded, affects individual-level attitudes about TDV and potential policy responses. This study investigates the representation of TDV in young adult (YA) literature, a media genre that is marketed to adolescent audiences...
September 18, 2016: Violence Against Women
Alexandriah N Alas, Gena C Dunivan, Cecelia K Wieslander, Claudia Sevilla, Biatris Barrera, Rezoana Rashid, Sally Maliski, Karen Eilber, Rebecca G Rogers, Jennifer Tash Anger
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare perceptions and barriers between Spanish-speaking and English-speaking women in public and private hospitals being treated for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). METHODS: Eight focus groups, 4 in English and 4 in Spanish, were conducted at 3 institutions with care in female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery. Standardized questions were asked regarding patients' emotions to when they initially noticed the POP, if they sought family support, and their response to the diagnosis and treatment...
September 16, 2016: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
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