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Literacy and public health

Walter Ricciardi, Stefania Boccia
The greater personalization of healthcare represents a driver of innovation for research, and for the healthcare systems and industries as a whole. Still policy-makers, healthcare professionals, citizens and private companies need to take some steps to realize the potential for such a radical shift. In this paper, we illustrate the challenges, the benefits and consequences that might accompany the implementation of personalized healthcare, and the steps that policy-makers and practitioners would need to take to realise its potential...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
Els L M Maeckelberghe, Peter Schröder-Bäck
Public Health (PH) in Europe has become much more vocal about its moral understandings since 1992. The rising awareness that PH issues were inseparable from issues of human rights and social justice almost self-evidently directed the agenda of EUPHA and the European Public Health (EPH)-conferences. Problems of cultural and behavioural change, and environmental issues on a global scale were also added. The Section Ethics in PH invited the EPH community to join in 'arm chair thinking': coming together at conferences not only to share the 'how' and 'what' of PH research, practices and policies but also the 'why'...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
Bonnie J Wakefield, Carolyn L Turvey, Kim M Nazi, John E Holman, Timothy P Hogan, Stephanie L Shimada, Diana R Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Significant resources are being invested into eHealth technology to improve health care. Few resources have focused on evaluating the impact of use on patient outcomes A standardized set of metrics used across health systems and research will enable aggregation of data to inform improved implementation, clinical practice, and ultimately health outcomes associated with use of patient-facing eHealth technologies. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this project was to conduct a systematic review to (1) identify existing instruments for eHealth research and implementation evaluation from the patient's point of view, (2) characterize measurement components, and (3) assess psychometrics...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Wanda Martin, Joan Wharf Higgins, Bernadette Bernie Pauly, Marjorie MacDonald
BACKGROUND: Strengthening public health systems has been a concern in Canada in the wake of public health emergencies. In one Canadian province, British Columbia, a high priority has been placed on the role of evidence to guide decision making; however, there are numerous challenges to using evidence in practice. The National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools therefore developed the Evidence Informed Public Health Framework (EIPH), a seven step guide to assist public health practitioners to use evidence in practice...
October 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
Wanda Whitney, Alla Keselman, Betsy Humphreys
The field of librarianship has a history of involvement in patient education, general literacy and information literacy efforts. This history and prominent placement in communities make libraries and librarians an excellent resource in advancing health literacy practice and research. This chapter provides an overview of health literacy and health information literacy efforts in US libraries over the past two decades. The chapter begins with the description of the role of the US National Library of Medicine in developing resources, programs, and partnerships serving health information needs of the public...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Diane Levin-Zamir, Angela Yee Man Leung, Sarity Dodson, Gillian Rowlands
International and cultural perspectives of health literacy help deepen the understanding of the global context within which health literacy plays an important role. Throughout this chapter, we explore the significance of health literacy initiatives, interventions, practices, and research for addressing health challenges on a variety of levels in the international and global context. More specifically, in this chapter, the notion of health literacy as a dynamic construct is introduced, after which we examine health literacy throughout the life course, emphasizing the impact of health literacy among children and the elderly in their families and in the community...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Bradford W Hesse, Alexandra J Greenberg, Emily B Peterson, Wen-Ying Sylvia Chou
The contemporary healthcare system can help improve health literacy outcomes in two ways: first, by nurturing the skills and motivations needed for patients to be actively engaged in their own health and healthcare decisions; and, second, by creating a prepared and proactive healthcare system that adapts to patients' capacities and needs in efficacious ways. In 2001, the National Cancer Institute launched the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) as a way for researchers and planners to understand how the public is interacting with a rapidly changing health information environment...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Linda Neuhauser
Health communication is an essential health promotion strategy to convert scientific findings into actionable, empowering information for the public. Health communication interventions have shown positive outcomes, but many efforts have been disappointing. A key weakness is that expert-designed health communication is often overly generic and not adequately aligned with the abilities, preferences and life situations of specific audiences. The emergence of the field of health literacy is providing powerful theoretical guidance and practice strategies...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Cynthia Baur, Linda Harris, Elizabeth Squire
This chapter presents the U.S. National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy and its unique contribution to public health and health care in the U.S. The chapter details what the National Action Plan is, how it evolved, and how it has influenced priorities for health literacy improvement work. Examples of how the National Action Plan fills policy and research gaps in health care and public health are included. The first part of the chapter lays the foundation for the development of the National Action Plan, and the second part discusses how it can stimulate positive organizational change to help create health literate organizations and move the nation towards a health literate society...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Lyla Hernandez, Melissa French, Ruth Parker
In 2004 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion, highlighted that "efforts to improve quality, to reduce costs, and to reduce disparities cannot succeed without efforts to improve health literacy" [1]. The IOM report emphasized that poor health literacy is a major challenge for individuals who need to find, understand, and use information to make informed decisions for health. Following the publication of the 2004 report and in response to rising interest in health literacy in the U...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Sandra A Smith, Lauren N Carroll
Scientific discovery and global health policy are moving health literacy promotion and maternal-child health from the fringes of research and public health to the forefront of healthcare reform [1]. In 2011 the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Shanghai Declaration [2]. The Declaration highlights new understanding of the origins of health and disease in early development. It calls on all nations to apply this knowledge to reduce the burdens of chronic disease and related disparities worldwide. The Declaration recommends a specific intervention strategy: promote health literacy across the life course, particularly in parents and children, and empower women...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Andrew Pleasant
Canyon Ranch Institute and Health Literacy Media are a 501(c)3 non-profit public charity working to improve health based on the best evidence-based practices of health literacy and integrative health. As an organization, we offer a spectrum of health literacy work extending from plain language services to intensive community-based interventions. (See & In this chapter, we discuss the methodologies and outcomes of two of those community-based interventions - the Canyon Ranch Institute Life Enhancement Program and our Theater for Health program...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Rima E Rudd
Definitions, by their very nature, establish a shared understanding of words and concepts but also set parameters for inquiry and measures. Health literacy, a term that emerged in the 1990s, has been defined in numerous ways over time and is still considered an evolving concept. This chapter provides a discussion of the difficulties inherent in restricted definitions that have led to research gaps. The discussion highlights the need for an expanded understanding of health literacy and it identifies missing elements...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Juergen M Pelikan, Kristin Ganahl
This chapter is concerned with the difference of measuring health literacy of general population for purposes of public health as differentiated from measuring personal health literacy of individuals within health care services. The evolution of concept, measurement and empirical research of health literacy in the last decades is discussed, and the position of measuring comprehensive health literacy in general populations, especially by the European Health Literacy Survey (HLS-EU) study, is defined. Main features of the HLS-EU conceptual and logic model, definition, instruments and study design are described...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Brittany K Bohrer, Ian A Carroll, Kelsie T Forbush, Po-Yi Chen
OBJECTIVE: Eating disorders (EDs) are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, yet up to 45% of individuals with EDs never receive treatment for their eating-related problems. This study sought to identify whether comorbidity, suicidality, discrimination, family cohesion, employment status, income, sex, age, marital status, religious belongingness, and ED-specific variables (body mass index and past-year ED diagnoses) were associated with treatment seeking in a nationally representative sample of individuals with EDs (N = 595; 77...
September 30, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
H Y Lee, J Lee, C Henning-Smith, J Choi
OBJECTIVES: This study identifies whether, and how, human papillomavirus (HPV) literacy and predisposing, enabling, and need factors are associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion among young adults in Minnesota. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey design. METHODS: Using a sample of 170 young adults (aged 18-26 years), we used logistic regression models to identify factors associated with HPV vaccination initiation and completion, including HPV literacy, adjusting for relevant predisposing, enabling, and need factors...
September 19, 2017: Public Health
Joana Santos, Irina Kislaya, Liliana Antunes, Ana João Santos, Ana Paula Paula Rodrigues, Mariana Neto, Carlos Matias Dias
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is a major public health problem and it is related to socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study is to describe socioeconomic inequalities in the distribution of diabetes in the population with 25 years or more, resident in Portugal in 2014. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from the Health National Survey 2014 was analysed, n = 16 786. We estimated the prevalence of diabetes in the population and stratified by socioeconomic variables namely educational level and income...
August 31, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Daniel Terry, Shalley Robins, Samantha Gardiner, Ruby Wyett, Md Rafiqul Islam
BACKGROUND: Asthma remains a leading cause of illness, where primary care can assist to reduce hospitalisations through prevention, controlling acute episodes, and overall management of asthma. In Victoria, Asthma hospitalisations were as high as 3.1 hospitalisations per 1000 population in 1993-94. The primary aims of this study are to: determine if changes in asthma hospitalisations have occurred between 2010 and 2015; determine the key factors that impact asthma hospitalisation over time; and verify whether rural and urban asthma hospitalisations are disparate...
September 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
Hanne Nissen Bjørnsen, Mary Elizabeth Bradley Eilertsen, Regine Ringdal, Geir Arild Espnes, Unni Karin Moksnes
BACKGROUND: Mental health literacy (MHL), or the knowledge and abilities necessary to benefit mental health, is a significant determinant of mental health and has the potential to benefit both individual and public mental health. MHL and its measures have traditionally focused on knowledge and beliefs about mental -ill-health rather than on mental health. No measures of MHL addressing knowledge of good or positive mental health have been identified. AIM: This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument measuring adolescents' knowledge of how to obtain and maintain good mental health and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the instrument...
September 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
Vânia Gaio, Liliana Antunes, Sónia Namorado, Marta Barreto, Ana Gil, Irina Kyslaya, Ana Paula Rodrigues, Ana Santos, Linn Bøhler, Emília Castilho, Patrícia Vargas, Isabel do Carmo, Baltazar Nunes, Carlos Matias Dias
Obesity is recognised as a serious public health issue, due to its associated morbidity and mortality. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Portuguese population through direct measurements obtained by the 1st National Health Examination Survey (INSEF 2015) and to identify its associated sociodemographic factors. INSEF was a nationally representative cross-sectional prevalence study conducted on 4911 Portuguese adults aged 25-74 years, in 2015. Height and weight were measured according to the European Health Examination Survey procedures...
September 12, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
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