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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931248/postpartum-depression-and-infant-feeding-practices-in-a-low-income-urban-settlement-in-nairobi-kenya
#1
Beatrice A Madeghe, Violet N Kimani, Ann Vander Stoep, Semret Nicodimos, Manasi Kumar
BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression can compromise caregiving activities, including infant feeding practices, resulting in child malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of postpartum depression on infant feeding practices and malnutrition among women in an urban low income settlement in Nairobi-Kenya. We conducted a cross-sectional study based in Kariobangi North Health Centre in Nairobi County. The study sample included 200 mother-infant pairs visiting the Maternal and Child Health clinics for infant immunization at 6-14 weeks postpartum...
December 8, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931215/why-the-convention-on-the-rights-of-the-child-must-become-a-guiding-framework-for-the-realization-of-the-rights-of-children-affected-by-tuberculosis
#2
Robindra Basu Roy, Nicola Brandt, Nicolette Moodie, Mitra Motlagh, Kumanan Rasanathan, James A Seddon, Anne K Detjen, Beate Kampmann
BACKGROUND: Until recently, paediatric tuberculosis (TB) has been relatively neglected by the broader TB and the maternal and child health communities. Human rights-based approaches to children affected by TB could be powerful; however, awareness and application of such strategies is not widespread. DISCUSSION: We summarize the current challenges faced by children affected by TB, including: consideration of their family context; the limitations of preventive, diagnostic and treatment options; paucity of paediatric-specific research; failure in implementation of interventions; and stigma...
December 8, 2016: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931195/prediction-of-spontaneous-closure-of-isolated-ventricular-septal-defects-in-utero-and-postnatal-life
#3
Xing Li, Gui-Xian Song, Li-Jie Wu, Yu-Mei Chen, Yi Fan, Yun Wu, Ya-Hui Shen, Li Cao, Ling-Mei Qian
BACKGROUND: Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a highly prevalent fetal congenital heart defect, which can become spontaneously closed during infancy. The current study aims to characterize fetal VSDs that were subsequently spontaneously closed in the first 2 years of life in eastern China. METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2013, 257 fetal patients diagnosed with isolated VSD by fetal echocardiography at Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, China, were enrolled in the study...
December 8, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931152/planting-the-seed-origins-composition-and-postnatal-health-significance-of-the-fetal-gastrointestinal-microbiota
#4
Lisa F Stinson, Matthew S Payne, Jeffrey A Keelan
It has long been assumed that establishment of the fetal microbiome commences with the birthing process. However, recent studies have found bacterial DNA in umbilical cord blood, placenta, amniotic fluid, meconium, and fetal membranes in healthy normal pregnancies, leading to suggestions that the seeding of the fetal microbiome may commence in utero long before delivery. The origins of the microbiota of the fetal gastrointestinal (GI) tract have not yet been conclusively determined, although bacterial translocation from the maternal circulation, or ascension from the vagina, are both likely to be contributing pathways...
December 8, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929416/from-consultation-to-application-practical-solutions-for-improving-maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-for-adolescent-aboriginal-mothers-at-a-local-level
#5
Tracy Reibel, Paula Wyndow, Roz Walker
Adolescent pregnancy has been typically linked to a range of adverse outcomes for mother and child. In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have a higher proportion of adolescent births compared with other adolescent Australian women, and are at greater risk of poorer psychosocial and clinical outcomes if they are not well supported during pregnancy and beyond. Drawing on existing literature and consultations with young Aboriginal women and health professionals supporting pregnant Aboriginal women in Western Australia, this paper discusses the importance of creating models of antenatal care using a "social determinants of health" framework...
December 6, 2016: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928874/improving-quality-of-care-through-payment-for-performance-examining-effects-on-the-availability-and-stock-out-of-essential-medical-commodities-in-tanzania
#6
Peter Binyaruka, Josephine Borghi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of payment for performance (P4P) on the availability and stock-out rate of reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) medical commodities in Tanzania and assess the distributional effects. METHODS: The availability of RMNCH commodities (medicines, supplies and equipment) on the day of the survey, and stock-outs for at least one day in the 90 days prior to the survey, was measured in 75 intervention and 75 comparison facilities in January 2012 and 13 months later...
November 5, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926804/the-impact-of-racism-and-midwifery-s-lack-of-racial-diversity-a-literature-review
#7
REVIEW
Jyesha Wren Serbin, Elizabeth Donnelly
INTRODUCTION: The United States is increasingly racially diverse. Racial disparities in maternal-child health persist. Despite national calls for workforce diversification, more than 90% of certified nurse-midwives are white. This systematic review examines how racism and midwifery's lack of racial diversity impact both midwives and their patients. METHODS: Databases were searched in January 2016 for studies that explored 1) racially concordant or racially discordant maternity care provided, at least in part, by midwives; 2) women of color's experience of race and discrimination in maternity care provided, at least in part, by midwives; and 3) midwives of color's experience of race and discrimination in clinical, educational, and/or professional settings...
November 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926654/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-and-ethical-approaches-to-the-identification-of-pregnant-women-who-use-drugs
#8
Mishka Terplan, Howard Minkoff
The United States is experiencing an epidemic of opioid use, addiction, and neonatal abstinence syndrome. Consequentially, a great deal of public, and public health, attention has turned toward the timely recognition of pregnant women who use drugs. We explore the clinical efficacy and ethical acceptability of different methods of identification-contrasting drug testing (using biologic samples such as urine) with screening (using an instrument or questionnaire) under both universal and selective approaches within the current legal and social landscape, which is fraught with potential adverse consequences for both the woman and her child...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924741/health-and-health-related-indicators-in-slum-rural-and-urban-communities-a-comparative-analysis
#9
Blessing U Mberu, Tilahun Nigatu Haregu, Catherine Kyobutungi, Alex C Ezeh
BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924165/assessment-of-global-dna-methylation-in-the-first-trimester-fetal-tissues-exposed-to-maternal-cigarette-smoking
#10
Svetlana Fa, Trine Vilsbøll Larsen, Katrine Bilde, Tina F Daugaard, Emil H Ernst, Rasmus H Olesen, Linn S Mamsen, Erik Ernst, Agnete Larsen, Anders L Nielsen
AIMS: Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of negative health consequences for the exposed child. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a likely link between the prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and the increased risk in later life for diverse pathologies. Maternal smoking induces gene-specific DNA methylation alterations as well as global DNA hypermethylation in the term placentas and hypomethylation in the cord blood. Early pregnancy represents a developmental time where the fetal epigenome is remodeled and accordingly can be expected to be highly prone to exposures with an epigenetic impact...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924107/newborn-healthcare-in-urban-india
#11
REVIEW
J Sharma, D Osrin, B Patil, S B Neogi, M Chauhan, R Khanna, R Kumar, V K Paul, S Zodpey
The rapid population growth in urban India has outpaced the municipal capacity to build essential infrastructures that make life in cities safe and healthy. Local and national governments alike are grappling with the challenges of urbanization with thousands migrating from villages to cities. Thus, urbanization in India has been accompanied by a concentration of poverty and urban public healthcare has emerged as one of the most pressing priorities facing our country. Newborn mortality rates in urban settings are lower than rural areas, early neonatal deaths account for greater proportion than late neonatal deaths...
December 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922982/mir-21-is-overexpressed-in-hydatidiform-mole-tissues-and-promotes-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-in-choriocarcinoma-cells
#12
Ya-Xin Wang, Jiu-Ru Zhao, Yue-Ying Xu, Wei-Bin Wu, Hui-Juan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to make clear whether miR-21 was dysregulated in hydatidiform mole (HM) tissues and choriocarcinoma (CCA) cells, to elucidate whether aberrant miR-21 expression would affect the function of CCA cells, and to find out whether there was a relationship between miR-21 and AKT, PDCD4, and PTEN in CCA cells. METHODS: Fresh and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded trophoblastic tissues (normal first trimester placentas and HMs) were retrieved from the biobank in the International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922238/parental-perception-and-child-s-nutritional-status
#13
S Songül Yalçın, Esra Serdaroğlu, O Tolga İnce
Childhood obesity is a health hazard increasing worldwide. Preschool period which is under supervision of parents is a critical period to detect overweight and take precautions. We studied the factors affecting parental estimation of their preschool child's weight. Three hundred sixty seven mothers completed questionnaires consisting of child's and parents' anthropometric measurements, parents' assessment of their child's and their own weight status, and general information about their lifestyle. Mothers also chose their wish for current and future body image of their child from child drawings representing percentiles...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922070/deep-sequencing-of-the-16s-ribosomal-rna-of-the-neonatal-oral-microbiome-a-comparison-of-breast-fed-and-formula-fed-infants
#14
S S Al-Shehri, E L Sweeney, D M Cowley, H G Liley, P D Ranasinghe, B G Charles, P N Shaw, D Vagenas, J A Duley, C L Knox
In utero and upon delivery, neonates are exposed to a wide array of microorganisms from various sources, including maternal bacteria. Prior studies have proposed that the mode of feeding shapes the gut microbiota and, subsequently the child's health. However, the effect of the mode of feeding and its influence on the development of the neonatal oral microbiota in early infancy has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to compare the oral microbiota of healthy infants that were exclusively breast-fed or formula-fed using 16S-rRNA gene sequencing...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920351/effects-of-pediatric-anticipatory-guidance-on-mothers-of-young-children
#15
Hui-Chin Hsu, Shih-Yu Lee, Chin-Man Lai, Wan-Ling Tsai, Hsiao-Tung Chiu
Provision of anticipatory guidance to parents during well-child visits is a defining component of pediatric primary care. Using nationally representative data from the 2000 U.S. National Survey of Early Childhood Health, this study addressed the questions of whether, how, and what mothers of children below age 3 with different ethnic/racial background could benefit from anticipatory guidance. Structural equation modeling results showed that across ethnic/racial groups, guidance was directly associated with decreased maternal stress and directly and indirectly associated with effective parenting practices in child development, discipline, and safety...
December 5, 2016: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920225/log-logistic-proportional-odds-model-for-analyzing-infant-mortality-in-bangladesh
#16
Most Fatima-Tuz-Zahura, Khandoker Akib Mohammad, Wasimul Bari
Log-logistic parametric survival regression model has been used to find out the potential determinants of infant mortality in Bangladesh using the data extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. First, nonparametric product-limit approach has been used to examine the unadjusted association between infant mortality and covariate of interest. It is found that maternal education, membership of nongovernmental organizations, age of mother at birth, sex of child, size of child at birth, and place of delivery play an important role in reducing the infant mortality, adjusting relevant covariates...
December 5, 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920131/maternal-urinary-bisphenol-a-concentration-during-midterm-pregnancy-and-children-s-blood-pressure-at-age-4
#17
Sanghyuk Bae, Youn-Hee Lim, Young Ah Lee, Choong Ho Shin, Se-Young Oh, Yun-Chul Hong
Bisphenol A (BPA) has been reported to be associated with adverse health effects, including high blood pressure (BP). BPA is also suspected to cross placenta in pregnancy and might affect children's health. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to BPA on the BP of the child at the age of 4. We followed up 645 children at the age of 4 who were born from women who participated midterm during their pregnancy in a birth cohort study from August 2008 to July 2011. Because BPA and BP showed nonlinear association, we constructed a piecewise regression model to examine the association between urinary BPA concentration of mother at around 20 weeks of gestation and BP of the child at age 4 and to determine threshold level of BPA for the association...
December 5, 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918878/maternal-mental-health-over-the-course-of-four-years-following-childbirth-the-contribution-of-birth-circumstances-and-psycho-social-factors
#18
Ginna Porat-Zyman, Orit Taubman Ben-Ari, Iris Morag, Jacob Kuint
We aimed to identify mothers at risk for poorer maternal mental health (MMH) one month post-partum and to determine changes in MMH over four years in relation to birth circumstances (singleton/twins, full-term/pre-term infant/s, first/non-first child), internal resources (adult attachment styles), and external resources (marital quality and maternal grandmother's support) at one month post-partum. The mediating effects of external resources were also investigated. Questionnaires were completed between 2001 and 2012 by 561 Israeli mothers...
December 5, 2016: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917765/safeguarding-maternal-and-child-health-in-south-africa-by-starting-the-child-support-grant-before-birth-design-lessons-from-pregnancy-support-programmes-in-27-countries
#19
M F Chersich, S Luchters, D Blaauw, F Scorgie, E Kern, A Van den Heever, H Rees, E Peach, S Kharadi, S Fonn
BACKGROUND: Deprivation during pregnancy and the neonatal period increases maternal morbidity, reduces birth weight and impairs child development, with lifelong consequences. Many poor countries provide grants to mitigate the impact of poverty during pregnancy. South Africa (SA) offers a post-delivery Child Support Grant (CSG), which could encompass support during pregnancy, informed by lessons learnt from similar grants. OBJECTIVES: To review design and operational features of pregnancy support programmes, highlighting features that promote their effectiveness and efficiency, and implications thereof for SA...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917035/polyglandular-autoimmune-syndrome-in-pregnancy-case-report
#20
Basilio Pecorino, Maria Cristina Teodoro, Paolo Scollo
Type III Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome is a multiple endocrine disorders disease determined by autoimmunity; it can be diagnosed if a patient is affected by Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and another autoimmune disease, except Addison Disease, for example Autoimmune Hashimoto Thyroiditis or Celiac Disease. R.D., 34-year-old woman (gravida 2 para 1), was referred to the High Risk Pregnancy Outpatient Clinic at Cannizzaro Hospital in Catania at 8 weeks' gestation. She was affected from type III Polyglandular Autoimmune Disease (Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Autoimmune Hashimoto Thyroiditis and Celiac Disease)...
September 2016: Italian Journal of Gynaecology & Obstetrics: Official Publication of the Societa Italiana di Ginecologia e Ostetricia (SIGO)
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