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Cellular respiration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778689/network-analysis-of-a-proposed-exit-pathway-for-protons-to-the-p-side-of-cytochrome-c-oxidase
#1
Xiuhong Cai, Kamran Haider, Jianxun Lu, Slaven Radic, Chang Yun Son, Qiang Cui, M R Gunner
Cytochrome c Oxidase (CcO) reduces O2 , the terminal electron acceptor, to water in the aerobic respiration electron transport chain. The energy released by O2 reductions is stored by removing eight protons from the high pH, N-side, of the membrane with four used for chemistry in the active site and four pumped to the low pH, P-side. The proton transfers must occur along controllable proton pathways that prevent energy dissipating movement towards the N-side. The CcO N-side has well established D- and K-channels to deliver protons to the protein interior...
May 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778214/emerging-roles-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-bacterial-physiology
#2
Elizabeth H Hutfless, Sujata S Chaudhari, Vinai C Thomas
Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent inhibitor of diverse cellular processes in bacteria. Therefore, it was surprising to discover that several bacterial species, primarily Gram-positive organisms, harboured a gene encoding nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Recent attempts to characterize bacterial NOS (bNOS) have resulted in the discovery of structural features that may allow it to function as a NO dioxygenase and produce nitrate in addition to NO. Consistent with this characterization, investigations into the biological function of bNOS have also emphasized a role for NOS-dependent nitrate and nitrite production in aerobic and microaerobic respiration...
2018: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776545/evolution-of-clinical-and-environmental-health-applications-of-exhaled-breath-research-review-of-methods-and-instrumentation-for-gas-phase-condensate-and-aerosols
#3
REVIEW
M Ariel Geer Wallace, Joachim D Pleil
Human breath, along with urine and blood, has long been one of the three major biological media for assessing human health and environmental exposure. In fact, the detection of odor on human breath, as described by Hippocrates in 400 BC, is considered the first analytical health assessment tool. Although less common in comparison to contemporary bio-fluids analyses, breath has become an attractive diagnostic medium as sampling is non-invasive, unlimited in timing and volume, and does not require clinical personnel...
September 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773647/altered-sterol-metabolism-in-budding-yeast-affects-mitochondrial-iron-sulfur-fe-s-cluster-synthesis
#4
Diane M Ward, Opal S Chen, Liangtao Li, Jerry Kaplan, Shah Alam Bhuiyan, Selvamuthu K Natarajan, Martin Bard, James E Cox
Ergosterol synthesis is essential for cellular growth and viability of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and intracellular sterol distribution and homeostasis are therefore highly regulated in this species. Erg25 is an iron-containing C4-methyl sterol oxidase that contributes to the conversion of 4,4-dimethylzymosterol to zymosterol, a precursor of ergosterol. The ERG29 gene encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein, and here we identified a role for Erg29 in the methyl sterol oxidase step of ergosterol synthesis...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773061/development-of-novel-therapeutics-targeting-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-mutations-in-cancer
#5
Horrick Sharma
Isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) are key metabolic enzymes that catalyze the conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (αKG). IDH 1 and IDH2 regulate several cellular processes, including oxidative respiration, glutamine metabolism, lipogenesis, and cellular defense against oxidative damage. Mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 have recently been observed in multiple tumor types, including gliomas, acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and chondrosarcoma. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations involve a gain in neomorphic activity that catalyze αKG conversion to (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate ((R)-2HG)...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771534/nitroxyl-modified-tobacco-mosaic-virus-as-a-metal-free-high-relaxivity-mri-and-epr-active-superoxide-sensor
#6
Madushani Dharmarwardana, Andre F Martins, Zhuo Chen, Philip Palacios, Chance M Nowak, Raymond P Welch, Shaobo Li, Michael Andrew Luzuriaga, Leonidas Bleris, Brad S Pierce, A Dean Sherry, Jeremiah J Gassensmith
Superoxide overproduction is known to occur in multiple disease states requiring critical care yet non-invasive detection of superoxide in deep tissue remains a challenge. Herein, we report a metal-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) active contrast agent prepared by "click conjugating" paramagnetic organic radical contrast agents (ORCAs) to the surface of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). While ORCAs are known to be reduced in vivo to an MRI/EPR silent state, their oxidation is facilitated specifically by reactive oxygen species-in particular superoxide-and are largely unaffected by peroxides and molecular oxygen...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771366/linking-stem-growth-respiration-to-the-seasonal-course-of-stem-growth-and-gpp-of-scots-pine
#7
Tommy Chan, Frank Berninger, Pasi Kolari, Eero Nikinmaa, Teemu Hölttä
Current methods to study relations between stem respiration and stem growth have been hampered by problems in quantifying stem growth from dendrometer measurements, particularly on a daily time scale. This is mainly due to the water-related influences within these measurements that mask growth. A previously published model was used to remove water-related influences from measured radial stem variations to reveal a daily radial growth signal (ΔˆGm). We analysed the intra- and inter-annual relations between ΔˆGm and estimated growth respiration rates (Rg) on a daily scale for 5 years...
May 16, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768440/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-a-stress-response-of-shewanella-oneidensis-deprived-of-background-levels-of-ionizing-radiation
#8
Hugo Castillo, Xiaoping Li, Faye Schilkey, Geoffrey B Smith
Natural ionizing background radiation has exerted a constant pressure on organisms since the first forms of life appeared on Earth, so that cells have developed molecular mechanisms to avoid or repair damages caused directly by radiation or indirectly by radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we investigated the transcriptional effect of depriving Shewanella oneidensis cultures of background levels of radiation by growing the cells in a mine 655 m underground, thus reducing the dose rate from 72...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767961/real-time-monitoring-of-tricarboxylic-acid-metabolites-in-exhaled-breath
#9
Alberto Tejero Rioseras, Kapil Dev Singh, Nora Nowak, Martin T Gaugg, Tobias Bruderer, Renato Zenobi, Pablo M-L Sinues
The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is one of the most important metabolic pathway for cellular respiration in aerobic organisms. It provides and collects intermediates for many other interconnecting pathways and acts as a hub connecting metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids. Alteration in intracellular levels of its intermediates has been linked with a wide range of illnesses ranging from cancer to cellular necrosis or liver cirrhosis. Therefore, there exists an intrinsic interest in monitoring such metabolites...
May 16, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767788/acute-maneb-exposure-significantly-alters-both-glycolysis-and-mitochondrial-function-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#10
Colin C Anderson, Stefanos Aivazidis, Crystal L Kuzyk, Abhilasha Jain, James R Roede
The pesticides paraquat (PQ) and maneb (MB) have been described as environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD), with mechanisms associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. A combined exposure of PQ and MB in murine models and neuroblastoma cells has been utilized to further advance understanding of the PD phenotype. MB acts as a redox modulator through alkylation of protein thiols and has been previously characterized to inhibit complex III of the electron transport chain (ETC) and uncouple the mitochondrial proton gradient...
May 14, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760206/alternative-oxidase-activity-reduces-stress-in-vibrio-fischeri-cells-exposed-to-nitric-oxide
#11
Anne K Dunn
Alternative oxidase (Aox) is a non-energy conserving respiratory oxidase found in certain eukaryotes and bacteria, whose role in physiology is not entirely clear. Using the genetically tractable bacterium Vibrio fischeri as a model organism, we have identified a role for Aox to reduce levels of stress in cells exposed to oxygen and nitric oxide (NO). In V. fischeri lacking the NO-detoxifying enzyme flavohemoglobin (Hmp), deletion of aox in cells grown in the presence of oxygen and NO results in alterations to the transcriptome that include increases in transcripts mapping to stress-related genes...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756604/alkaloids-nitric-oxide-and-nitrite-reductases-evolutionary-coupling-as-key-regulators-of-cellular-bioenergetics-with-special-relevance-to-the-human-microbiome
#12
George B Stefano, Richard M Kream
Typical alkaloids expressed by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are small heterocyclic compounds containing weakly basic nitrogen groups that are critically important for mediating essential biological activities. The prototype opiate alkaloid morphine represents a low molecular mass heterocyclic compound that has been evolutionarily fashioned from a relatively restricted role as a secreted antimicrobial phytoalexin into a broad spectrum regulatory molecule. As an essential corollary, positive evolutionary pressure has driven the development of a cognate 6-transmembrane helical (TMH) domain μ3 opiate receptor that is exclusively responsive to morphine and related opiate alkaloids...
May 14, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748969/persulfide-synthases-function-coupled-with-translation-and-mediate-sulfur-respiration
#13
REVIEW
Shigemoto Fuji, Tomohiro Sawa, Hozumi Motohashi, Takaaki Akaike
Cysteine persulfide and polysulfide are produced in cells and exist in abundance in both low-molecular-weight and protein fractions. However, the mechanism of regulation of the formation of cellular cysteine polysulfides and the physiological functions of cysteine persulfides/polysulfides produced in cells are not fully understood. We recently demonstrated that cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CARS) is novel cysteine persulfide synthase. CARS is involved in protein polysulfidation that is coupled with translation...
May 10, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746243/steps-toward-understanding-mitochondrial-fe-s-cluster-biogenesis
#14
Andrew Melber, Dennis R Winge
Iron-sulfur clusters (Fe/S clusters) are essential cofactors required throughout the clades of biology for performing a myriad of unique functions including nitrogen fixation, ribosome assembly, DNA repair, mitochondrial respiration, and metabolite catabolism. Although Fe/S clusters can be synthesized in vitro and transferred to a client protein without enzymatic assistance, biology has evolved intricate mechanisms to assemble and transfer Fe/S clusters within the cellular environment. In eukaryotes, the foundation of all cellular clusters starts within the mitochondria...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746240/biochemical-reconstitution-and-spectroscopic-analysis-of-iron-sulfur-proteins
#15
Sven-Andreas Freibert, Benjamin D Weiler, Eckhard Bill, Antonio J Pierik, Ulrich Mühlenhoff, Roland Lill
Iron-sulfur (Fe/S) proteins are involved in numerous key biological functions such as respiration, metabolic processes, protein translation, DNA synthesis, and DNA repair. The simplest types of Fe/S clusters include [2Fe-2S], [3Fe-4S], and [4Fe-4S] forms that sometimes are present in multiple copies. De novo assembly of Fe/S cofactors and their insertion into apoproteins in living cells requires complex proteinaceous machineries that are frequently highly conserved. In eukaryotes such as yeast and mammals, the mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster assembly machinery and the cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly system consist of more than 30 components that cooperate in the generation of some 50 cellular Fe/S proteins...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741354/extracellular-potassium-and-glutamate-interact-to-modulate-mitochondria-in-astrocytes
#16
Theresa S Rimmele, Haissa de Castro Abrantes, Joel Wellbourne-Wood, Sylvain Lengacher, Jean-Yves Chatton
Astrocytes clear glutamate and potassium, both of which are released into the extracellular space during neuronal activity. These processes are intimately linked with energy metabolism. Whereas astrocyte glutamate uptake causes cytosolic and mitochondrial acidification, extracellular potassium induces bicarbonate-dependent cellular alkalinization. This study aimed at quantifying the combined impact of glutamate and extracellular potassium on mitochondrial parameters of primary cultured astrocytes. Glutamate in 3mM potassium caused a stronger acidification of mitochondria compared to cytosol...
May 9, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740695/metabolic-influence-of-walnut-phenolic-extract-on-mitochondria-in-a-colon-cancer-stem-cell-model
#17
Jina Choi, Phil-Kyung Shin, Yuri Kim, Chang Pyo Hong, Sang-Woon Choi
PURPOSE: Walnut phenolic extract (WPE) reduces proliferation and enhances differentiation of colon cancer stem cells (CSCs). The present study investigated the metabolic influence of WPE on the mitochondrial function of colon CSCs to determine its underlying mechanism. METHODS: CD133+ CD44+ HCT116 colon cancer cells were selected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and were treated with or without 40 µg/mL WPE. RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which were further validated with RT-PCR...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735671/long-distance-electron-transport-in-individual-living-cable-bacteria
#18
Jesper T Bjerg, Henricus T S Boschker, Steffen Larsen, David Berry, Markus Schmid, Diego Millo, Paula Tataru, Filip J R Meysman, Michael Wagner, Lars Peter Nielsen, Andreas Schramm
Electron transport within living cells is essential for energy conservation in all respiring and photosynthetic organisms. While a few bacteria transport electrons over micrometer distances to their surroundings, filaments of cable bacteria are hypothesized to conduct electric currents over centimeter distances. We used resonance Raman microscopy to analyze cytochrome redox states in living cable bacteria. Cable-bacteria filaments were placed in microscope chambers with sulfide as electron source and oxygen as electron sink at opposite ends...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732085/discovery-of-the-novel-autophagy-inhibitor-aumitin-that-targets-mitochondrial-complex-i
#19
Lucas Robke, Yushi Futamura, Georgios Konstantinidis, Julian Wilke, Harumi Aono, Zhwan Mahmoud, Nobumoto Watanabe, Yao-Wen Wu, Hiroyuki Osada, Luca Laraia, Herbert Waldmann
Macroautophagy is a conserved eukaryotic process for degradation of cellular components in response to lack of nutrients. It is involved in the development of diseases, notably cancer and neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease. Small molecule autophagy modulators have proven to be valuable tools to dissect and interrogate this crucial metabolic pathway and are in high demand. Phenotypic screening for autophagy inhibitors led to the discovery of the novel autophagy inhibitor aumitin. Target identification and confirmation revealed that aumitin inhibits mitochondrial respiration by targeting complex I...
March 21, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725322/infection-by-a-giant-virus-aav-induces-widespread-physiological-reprogramming-in-aureococcus-anophagefferens-ccmp1984-a-harmful-bloom-algae
#20
Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Eric R Gann, Steven W Wilhelm
While viruses with distinct phylogenetic origins and different nucleic acid types can infect and lyse eukaryotic phytoplankton, "giant" dsDNA viruses have been found to be associated with important ecological processes, including the collapse of algal blooms. However, the molecular aspects of giant virus-host interactions remain largely unknown. Aureococcus anophagefferens virus (AaV), a giant virus in the Mimiviridae clade, is known to play a critical role in regulating the fate of brown tide blooms caused by the pelagophyte Aureococcus anophagefferens...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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