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Cellular respiration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103623/metabolic-inflexibility-with-obesity-and-the-effects-of-fenofibrate-on-skeletal-muscle-fatty-acid-oxidation
#1
Kristen E Boyle, Jacob E Friedman, Rachel C Janssen, Chantal Underkofler, Joseph A Houmard, Neda Rasouli
This study was designed to investigate mechanisms of lipid metabolic inflexibility in human obesity and the ability of fenofibrate (FENO) to increase skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in primary human skeletal muscle cell cultures (HSkMC) exhibiting metabolic inflexibility. HSkMC from 10 lean and 10 obese, insulin resistant subjects were treated with excess fatty acid for 24 h (24hFA) to gauge lipid-related metabolic flexibility. Metabolically inflexible HSkMC from obese individuals were then treated with 24hFA in combination with FENO to determine effectiveness for increasing FAO...
January 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103219/the-pharmacological-regulation-of-cellular-mitophagy
#2
Nikolaos D Georgakopoulos, Geoff Wells, Michelangelo Campanella
Small molecules are pharmacological tools of considerable value for dissecting complex biological processes and identifying potential therapeutic interventions. Recently, the cellular quality-control process of mitophagy has attracted considerable research interest; however, the limited availability of suitable chemical probes has restricted our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved. Current approaches to initiate mitophagy include acute dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) by mitochondrial uncouplers (for example, FCCP/CCCP) and the use of antimycin A and oligomycin to impair respiration...
January 19, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100784/mitochondrial-o-glcnac-transferase-mogt-regulates-mitochondrial-structure-function-and-survival-in-hela-cells
#3
Juliana L Sacoman, Raul Y Dagda, Amanda R Burnham-Marusich, Ruben K Dagda, Patricia M Berninsone
O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) catalyzes O-GlcNAcylation of target proteins and regulates numerous biological processes. OGT is encoded by a single gene that yields nucleocytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms. To date, the role of the mitochondrial isoform of OGT (mOGT) remains largely unknown. Using high-throughput proteomics, we identified 84 candidate mitochondrial glycoproteins, of which 44 are novel. Notably, two of the candidate glycoproteins identified (cytochrome oxidase 2 (COX2) and NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit 4 (MT-ND4)) are encoded by mitochondrial DNA...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100310/growth-inhibition-of-fungus-phycomyces-blakesleeanus-by-anion-channel-inhibitors-anthracene-9-carboxylic-and-niflumic-acid-attained-through-decrease-in-cellular-respiration-and-energy-metabolites
#4
Marina Stanić, Strahinja Križak, Mirna Jovanović, Tanja Pajić, Ana Ćirić, Milan Žižić, Joanna Zakrzewska, Tijana Cvetić Antić, Nataša Todorović, Miroslav Živić
Increasing resistance of fungal strains to known fungicides has prompted identification of new candidates for fungicides among substances previously used for other purposes. We have tested the effects of known anion channel inhibitors anthracene-9-carboxylic (A9C) and niflumic acid (NFA) on growth, energy metabolism and anionic current of mycelium of fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Both inhibitors significantly decreased growth and respiration of mycelium, but complete inhibition was only achieved by 100 or 500 µM NFA, for growth and respiration, respectively...
January 18, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099473/the-staphylococcus-aureus-srrab-regulatory-system-modulates-hydrogen-peroxide-resistance-factors-which-imparts-protection-to-aconitase-during-aerobic-growth
#5
Ameya A Mashruwala, Jeffrey M Boyd
The SrrAB two-component regulatory system (TCRS) positively influences the transcription of genes involved in aerobic respiration in response to changes in respiratory flux. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can arise as a byproduct of spontaneous interactions between dioxygen and components of respiratory pathways. H2O2 damages cellular factors including protein associated iron-sulfur cluster prosthetic groups. We found that a Staphylococcus aureus strain lacking the SrrAB two-component regulatory system (TCRS) is sensitive to H2O2 intoxication...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093725/shape-and-geometry-control-of-the-drosophila-tracheal-tubule
#6
REVIEW
Shigeo Hayashi, Bo Dong
For efficient respiration, tubular airways must be constructed with an optimal diameter and length for the dimensions of the body. In Drosophila, the growth of embryonic tracheal tubules proceeds in two dimensions, by axial elongation and diameter expansion. The growth forces in each dimension are controlled by distinct genetic programs and cellular mechanisms. Recent studies reveal that the apical cortex and the apical extracellular matrix filling the luminal space are essential for the generation, balancing, and equilibrium of these growth forces...
January 17, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093201/molecular-targets-of-the-warburg-effect-and-inflammatory-cytokines-in-the-pathogenesis-of-pulmonary-artery-hypertension
#7
REVIEW
Na Liu, Stephanie Parry, Yunbin Xiao, Shenghua Zhou, Qiming Liu
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive vascular disease characterized by increased pulmonary arterial pressure and vasoconstriction and structural remolding of pulmonary arterioles. Recent clinical and experimental studies have discovered the relationship between metabolic alterations and the pathogenesis of PAH. The primary metabolic alteration, previously demonstrated in various cancers, is a gradual change in energy generated from complete aerobic cellular respiration to from solely "aerobic glycolysis," termed the "Warburg effect...
January 13, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091991/trophic-transfer-and-effects-of-gold-nanoparticles-aunps-in-gammarus-fossarum-from-contaminated-periphytic-biofilm
#8
Magalie Baudrimont, Jennifer Andrei, Stéphane Mornet, Patrice Gonzalez, Nathalie Mesmer-Dudons, Pierre-Yves Gourves, Ali Jaffal, Odile Dedourge-Geffard, Alain Geffard, Olivier Geffard, Jeanne Garric, Agnès Feurtet-Mazel
This work addressed the trophic transfer and effects of functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) from periphytic biofilms to the crustacean Gammarus fossarum. Biofilms were exposed for 48 h to 10 nm positively charged functionalized AuNPs at two concentrations, 4.6 and 46 mg/L, and crustaceans G. fossarum grazed on these for 7 days, with daily biofilm renewal. Gold bioaccumulation in biofilm and crustacean were measured to estimate the trophic transfer ratio of these AuNP, and, for the first time, a transcriptomic approach and transmission electron microscopy observations in the crustacean were made...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091535/visualization-of-the-role-of-host-heme-on-the-virulence-of-the-heme-auxotroph-streptococcus-agalactiae
#9
Laetitia Joubert, Jean-Baptiste Dagieu, Annabelle Fernandez, Aurélie Derré-Bobillot, Elise Borezée-Durant, Isabelle Fleurot, Alexandra Gruss, Delphine Lechardeur
Heme is essential for several cellular key functions but is also toxic. Whereas most bacterial pathogens utilize heme as a metabolic cofactor and iron source, the impact of host heme during bacterial infection remains elusive. The opportunist pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae does not synthesize heme but still uses it to activate a respiration metabolism. Concomitantly, heme toxicity is mainly controlled by the HrtBA efflux transporter. Here we investigate how S. agalactiae manages heme toxicity versus benefits in the living host...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087774/the-origin-of-mitochondrial-cristae-from-alphaproteobacteria
#10
Sergio A Muñoz-Gómez, Jeremy G Wideman, Andrew J Roger, Claudio H Slamovits
Mitochondria are the respiratory organelles of eukaryotes and their evolutionary history is deeply intertwined with that of eukaryotes. The compartmentalization of respiration in mitochondria occurs within cristae, whose evolutionary origin has remained unclear. Recent discoveries, however, have revived the old notion that mitochondrial cristae could have had a pre-endosymbiotic origin. Mitochondrial cristae are likely homologous to the intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMs) used by diverse alphaproteobacteria for harnessing energy...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087461/low-glucose-stress-decreases-cellular-nadh-and-mitochondrial-atp-in-colonic-epithelial-cancer-cells-influence-of-mitochondrial-substrates
#11
Magdalena L Circu, Ronald E Maloney, Tak Yee Aw
In this study, we investigated how colonic epithelial cells maintained pyridine nucleotide (NADH/NAD(+)) redox homeostasis upon acute metabolic variation imposed by glucose deprivation or supplementation with mitochondrial substrates, succinate and malate/glutamate (M/G). Our results showed that low glucose caused cellular NADH/NAD(+) redox imbalance that diminished lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and resulted in lower lactate contents. The concurrent activation of malic enzyme (ME) suggested a role for malate in preserving cellular pyruvate that remained unchanged at low glucose...
January 10, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087421/physiology-anaerobes-and-the-origin-of-mitosing-cells-50-years-on
#12
William F Martin
Endosymbiotic theory posits that some organelles or structures of eukaryotic cells stem from free-living prokaryotes that became endosymbionts within a host cell. Endosymbiosis has a long and turbulent history of controversy and debate going back over 100 years. The 1967 paper by Lynn Sagan (later Lynn Margulis) forced a reluctant field to take endosymbiotic theory seriously and to incorporate it into the fabric of evolutionary thinking. Margulis envisaged three cellular partners associating in series at eukaryotic origin: the host (an engulfing bacterium), the mitochondrion (a respiring bacterium), and the flagellum (a spirochaete), with lineages descended from that flagellated eukaryote subsequently acquiring plastids from cyanobacteria, but on multiple different occasions in her 1967 account...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081256/inhibition-of-acetyl-coa-carboxylase-1-acc1-and-2-acc2-reduces-proliferation-and-de-novo-lipogenesis-of-egfrviii-human-glioblastoma-cells
#13
Jessica E C Jones, William P Esler, Rushi Patel, Adhiraj Lanba, Nicholas B Vera, Jeffrey A Pfefferkorn, Cecile Vernochet
Tumor cell proliferation and migration processes are regulated by multiple metabolic pathways including glycolysis and de novo lipogenesis. Since acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is at the junction of lipids synthesis and oxidative metabolic pathways, we investigated whether use of a dual ACC inhibitor would provide a potential therapy against certain lipogenic cancers. The impact of dual ACC1/ACC2 inhibition was investigated using a dual ACC1/ACC2 inhibitor as well as dual siRNA knock down on the cellular viability and metabolism of two glioblastoma multiform cancer cell lines, U87 and a more aggressive form, U87 EGFRvIII...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078787/targeting-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-by-artesunate-through-inhibiting-akt-mtor-and-inducing-oxidative-stress
#14
Qin Li, Wei Ni, Zhifeng Deng, Minghe Liu, Lazhi She, Qiong Xie
Drug repurposing has become an alternative therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment given the known pharmacokinetics and toxicity. The inhibitory effects of artesunate have been reported in various cancers. In this work, we investigated the effects of artesunate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We demonstrate that artesunate significantly inhibits proliferation via arresting NPC cells at G2/M phase. It also induces apoptosis through caspase-dependent and mitochondria-independent pathways in multiple NPC cell lines...
January 11, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076767/-s-pot-on-mitochondria-cannabinoids-disrupt-cellular-respiration-to-limit-neuronal-activity
#15
Tibor Harkany, Tamas L Horvath
Classical views posit G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor 1s (CB1Rs) at the cell surface with cytosolic Giα-mediated signal transduction. Hebert-Chatelain et al. (2016) instead place CB1Rs at mitochondria limiting neuronal respiration by soluble adenylyl cyclase-dependent modulation of complex I activity. Thus, neuronal bioenergetics link to synaptic plasticity and, globally, learning and memory.
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073937/activity-of-tachykinin1-expressing-pet1-raphe-neurons-modulates-the-drive-to-breathe
#16
Morgan L Hennessy, Andrea Corcoran, Rachael D Brust, Eugene E Nattie, Susan Dymecki
: Homeostatic control of breathing, heart rate, and body temperature relies on circuits within the brainstem modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT). Mounting evidence points to specialized neuronal subtypes within the 5-HT system, which have borne out in functional studies, including the modulation of distinct facets of homeostatic control. These functional differences, read out at the organismal level, are likely subserved by differences among 5-HT neuron subtypes at the cellular and molecular levels, including differences in the capacity to co-express other neurotransmitters such as glutamate, GABA, thyrotropin releasing hormone, and substance P encoded by the Tachykinin-1 (Tac1) gene...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069950/chronic-innate-immune-activation-of-tbk1-suppresses-mtorc1-activity-and-dysregulates-cellular-metabolism
#17
Maroof Hasan, Vijay K Gonugunta, Nicole Dobbs, Aktar Ali, Guillermo Palchik, Maria A Calvaruso, Ralph J DeBerardinis, Nan Yan
Three-prime repair exonuclease 1 knockout (Trex1(-/-)) mice suffer from systemic inflammation caused largely by chronic activation of the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes-TANK-binding kinase-interferon regulatory factor 3 (cGAS-STING-TBK1-IRF3) signaling pathway. We showed previously that Trex1-deficient cells have reduced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we performed detailed metabolic analysis in Trex1(-/-) mice and cells that revealed both cellular and systemic metabolic defects, including reduced mitochondrial respiration and increased glycolysis, energy expenditure, and fat metabolism...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067471/traditional-and-novel-tools-to-probe-the-mitochondrial-metabolism-in-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Yanfei Zhang, José L Avalos
Mitochondrial metabolism links energy production to other essential cellular processes such as signaling, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition to producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as an energy source, mitochondria are responsible for the synthesis of a myriad of important metabolites and cofactors such as tetrahydrofolate, α-ketoacids, steroids, aminolevulinic acid, biotin, lipoic acid, acetyl-CoA, iron-sulfur clusters, heme, and ubiquinone. Furthermore, mitochondria and their metabolism have been implicated in aging and several human diseases, including inherited mitochondrial disorders, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and cancer...
January 9, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067254/unusual-respiratory-capacity-and-nitrogen-metabolism-in-a-parcubacterium-od1-of-the-candidate-phyla-radiation
#19
Cindy J Castelle, Christopher T Brown, Brian C Thomas, Kenneth H Williams, Jillian F Banfield
The Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR) is a large group of bacteria, the scale of which approaches that of all other bacteria. CPR organisms are inferred to depend on other community members for many basic cellular building blocks and all appear to be obligate anaerobes. To date, there has been no evidence for any significant respiratory capacity in an organism from this radiation. Here we report a curated draft genome for 'Candidatus Parcunitrobacter nitroensis' a member of the Parcubacteria (OD1) superphylum of the CPR...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066829/the-multifaceted-role-of-nrf2-in-mitochondrial-function
#20
REVIEW
Kira M Holmström, Rumen V Kostov, Albena T Dinkova-Kostova
The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the master regulator of the cellular redox homeostasis. Nrf2 target genes comprise of a large network of antioxidant enzymes, proteins involved in xenobiotic detoxification, repair and removal of damaged proteins, inhibition of inflammation, as well as other transcription factors. In recent years it has emerged that as part of its role as a regulator of cytoprotective gene expression, Nrf2 impacts mitochondrial function. Increased Nrf2 activity defends against mitochondrial toxins...
December 2016: Curr Opin Toxicol
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