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Cellular respiration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533520/the-response-of-a-boreal-deep-sea-sponge-holobiont-to-acute-thermal-stress
#1
R Strand, S Whalan, N S Webster, T Kutti, J K H Fang, H M Luter, R J Bannister
Effects of elevated seawater temperatures on deep-water benthos has been poorly studied, despite reports of increased seawater temperature (up to 4 °C over 24 hrs) coinciding with mass mortality events of the sponge Geodia barretti at Tisler Reef, Norway. While the mechanisms driving these mortality events are unclear, manipulative laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify the effects of elevated temperature (up to 5 °C, above ambient levels) on the ecophysiology (respiration rate, nutrient uptake, cellular integrity and sponge microbiome) of G...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529153/model-of-vascular-desmoplastic-multispecies-tumor-growth
#2
Chin F Ng, Hermann B Frieboes
We present a three-dimensional nonlinear tumor growth model composed of heterogeneous cell types in a multicomponent-multispecies system, including viable, dead, healthy host, and extra-cellular matrix (ECM) tissue species. The model includes the capability for abnormal ECM dynamics noted in tumor development, as exemplified by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, including dense desmoplasia typically characterized by a significant increase of interstitial connective tissue. An elastic energy is implemented to provide elasticity to the connective tissue...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527631/the-thiol-switch-c684-in-mitofusin-2-mediates-redox-induced-alterations-of-mitochondrial-shape-and-respiration
#3
Osamah Thaher, Christina Wolf, Partha Narayan Dey, Alireza Pouya, Verena Wüllner, Stefan Tenzer, Axel Methner
Mitofusin-2 (MFN2) is a GTPase in the outer mitochondrial membrane involved in the regulation of mitochondrial fusion and bioenergetics. MFN2 also plays a role in mitochondrial fusion induced by changes in the intracellular redox state. Adding oxidized glutathione (GSSG), the core cellular stress indicator, to mitochondrial preparations stimulates mitochondrial fusion by inducing disulphide bond-mediated oligomer formation of MFN2 and its homolog MFN1 which involve cysteine 684 (C684) of MFN2. Mitochondrial hyperfusion represents an adaptive stress response that confers transient protection by increasing mitochondrial ATP production but how this depends on the thiol switch C684 in MFN2 has not been investigated...
May 17, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514055/caveolin-1-deficiency-induces-premature-senescence-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#4
Dong-Min Yu, Seung Hee Jung, Hyoung-Tae An, Sungsoo Lee, Jin Hong, Jun Sub Park, Hyun Lee, Hwayeon Lee, Myeong-Suk Bahn, Hyung Chul Lee, Na-Kyung Han, Jesang Ko, Jae-Seon Lee, Young-Gyu Ko
Paradoxical observations have been made regarding the role of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) during cellular senescence. For example, caveolin-1 deficiency prevents reactive oxygen species-induced cellular senescence despite mitochondrial dysfunction, which leads to senescence. To resolve this paradox, we re-addressed the role of caveolin-1 in cellular senescence in human diploid fibroblasts, A549, HCT116, and Cav-1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cav-1 deficiency (knockout or knockdown) induced cellular senescence via a p53-p21-dependent pathway, downregulating the expression level of the cardiolipin biosynthesis enzymes and then reducing the content of cardiolipin, a critical lipid for mitochondrial respiration...
May 17, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508297/adaptation-to-stochastic-temporal-variations-in-intratumoral-blood-flow-the-warburg-effect-as-a-bet-hedging-strategy
#5
Curtis A Gravenmier, Miriam Siddique, Robert A Gatenby
While most cancers promote ingrowth of host blood vessels, the resulting vascular network usually fails to develop a mature organization, resulting in abnormal vascular dynamics with stochastic variations that include slowing, cessation, and even reversal of flow. Thus, substantial spatial and temporal variations in oxygen concentration are commonly observed in most cancers. Cancer cells, like all living systems, are subject to Darwinian dynamics such that their survival and proliferation are dependent on developing optimal phenotypic adaptations to local environmental conditions...
May 15, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507099/carbon-dioxide-dependent-regulation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-family-members-relb-and-p100-gives-molecular-insight-into-co2-dependent-immune-regulation
#6
Ciara E Keogh, Carsten C Scholz, Javier Rodriguez, Andrew C Selfridge, Alexander von Kriegshiem, Eoin P Cummins
CO2 is a physiological gas normally produced in the body during aerobic respiration. Hypercapnia (elevated blood pCO2 > ≈ 50mmHg) is a feature of several lung pathologies e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Hypercapnia is associated with increased susceptibility to bacterial infections and suppression of inflammatory signaling. The NF-κB pathway has been implicated in these effects, however, the molecular mechanisms underpinning cellular sensitivity of the NF-κB pathway to CO2 is not fully elucidated...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507069/saers-is-responsive-to-cellular-respiratory-status-and-regulates-fermentative-biofilm-formation-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Ameya A Mashruwala, Casey M Gries, Tyler D Scherr, Tammy Kielian, Jeffrey M Boyd
Biofilms are multicellular communities of microorganisms living as a quorum rather than as individual cells. The bacterial human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus uses oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor during respiration. Infected human tissues are hypoxic or anoxic. We recently reported that impaired respiration elicits a programmed cell lysis (PCL) phenomenon in S. aureus leading to the release of cellular polymers that are utilized to form biofilms. PCL is dependent upon the AtlA murein hydrolase and is regulated, in part, by the SrrAB two-component regulatory system (TCRS)...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507012/dietary-factors-promoting-brown-and-beige-fat-development-and-thermogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Meshail Okla, Jiyoung Kim, Karsten Koehler, Soonkyu Chung
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that has a high capacity to dissociate cellular respiration from ATP utilization, resulting in the release of stored energy as heat. Adult humans possess a substantial amount of BAT in the form of constitutively active brown fat or inducible beige fat. BAT activity in humans is inversely correlated with adiposity, blood glucose concentrations, and insulin sensitivity; this suggests that strategies aimed at BAT-mediated bioenergetics are an attractive therapeutic target in combating the continuing epidemic of obesity and diabetes...
May 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505496/inactivation-of-gram-bacteria-salmonella-enterica-by-chlorophyllin-based-photosensitization-mechanism-of-action-and-new-strategies-to-enhance-the-inactivation-efficiency
#9
Irina Buchovec, Viktorija Lukseviciūtė, Rita Kokstaite, Danute Labeikyte, Laura Kaziukonyte, Zivile Luksiene
This study is focused on the enhancement of susceptibility of Gram (-) bacteria S. enterica to chlorophyllin-based (Chl) photosensitization combining it with other antimicrobial tools. In order to find best combinations, the mechanism by which Chl-based photosensitization inactivates bacteria must be identified. Data confirmed that photosensitization (Chl 1.5×10(-5)M, for 1-120min, 405nm, 0-46.1J/cm(2)) reduced S. enterica population, just by 2.05 log (CFU/ml). Fluorimetric measurements indicated that just minor part of Chl was bound to Salmonella in suspension...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504693/cyclin-dependent-kinase-7-is-a-therapeutic-target-in-high-grade-glioma
#10
S A Greenall, Y C Lim, C B Mitchell, K S Ensbey, B W Stringer, A L Wilding, G M O'Neill, K L McDonald, D J Gough, B W Day, T G Johns
High-grade glioma (HGG) is an incurable brain cancer. The transcriptomes of cells within HGG tumors are highly heterogeneous. This renders the tumors unresponsive or able to adapt to therapeutics targeted at single pathways, thereby causing treatment failure. To overcome this, we focused on cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7), a ubiquitously expressed molecule involved in two major drivers of HGG pathogenesis: cell cycle progression and RNA polymerase-II-based transcription. We tested the activity of THZ1, an irreversible CDK7 inhibitor, on patient-derived primary HGG cell lines and ex vivo HGG patient tissue slices, using proliferation assays, microarray analysis, high-resolution respirometry, cell cycle analysis and in vivo tumor orthografts...
May 15, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502921/umbilical-cord-mscs-reverse-d-galactose-induced-hepatic-mitochondrial-dysfunction-via-activation-of-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#11
Weihong Yan, Dong Li, Tong Chen, Guiying Tian, Panpan Zhou, Xiuli Ju
Mitochondria are the central hubs for cellular bioenergetics and are crucial to cell survival. It is well accepted that compromised mitochondrial function is linked with hepatocytes injury and contribute to progression of liver diseases. Despite the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation on hepatic disorders have been extensively investigated, the effects of MSCs on mitochondrial function in liver injury models remain unknown. Here we investigated the effects of treatment with umbilical cord (UC) MSC in a rat model of D-Gal induced liver injury, characterized by organ damage, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction...
May 13, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501637/serial-endosymbiosis-or-singular-event-at-the-origin-of-eukaryotes
#12
Nick Lane
'On the Origin of Mitosing Cells' heralded a new way of seeing cellular evolution, with symbiosis at its heart. Lynn Margulis (then Sagan) marshalled an impressive array of evidence for endosymbiosis, from cell biology to atmospheric chemistry and Earth history. Despite her emphasis on symbiosis, she saw plenty of evidence for gradualism in eukaryotic evolution, with multiple origins of mitosis and sex, repeated acquisitions of plastids, and putative evolutionary intermediates throughout the microbial world...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500049/metabolic-adaptation-to-nutrients-involves-co-regulation-of-gene-expression-by-the-rna-helicase-dbp2-and-the-cyc8-co-repressor-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#13
Siwen Wang, Zheng Xing, Pete E Pascuzzi, Elizabeth J Tran
Cells fine-tune their metabolic programs according to nutrient availability in order to maintain homeostasis. This is achieved largely through integrating signaling pathways and the gene expression program, allowing cells to adapt to nutritional change. Dbp2, a member of the DEAD-box RNA helicase family in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been proposed to integrate gene expression with cellular metabolism. Prior work from our laboratory has reported the necessity of DBP2 in proper gene expression, particularly for genes involved in glucose-dependent regulation...
May 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482088/therapeutic-concentrations-of-antidepressants-inhibit-pancreatic-beta-cell-function-via-mitochondrial-complex-inhibition
#14
Ekramy Elmorsy, Ayat Al-Ghafari, Ahmed N M Helaly, Ahmed S Hisab, Bettina Oehrle, Paul A Smith
Diabetes mellitus risk is increased by prolonged usage of antidepressants (ADs). Although various mechanisms are suggested for their diabetogenic potential, whether a direct effect of ADs on pancreatic β-cells is involved is unclear. We examined this idea for three ADs: paroxetine, clomipramine and, with particular emphasis, fluoxetine, on insulin secretion, mitochondrial function, cellular bioenergetics, KATP channel activity and caspase activity in murine and human cell-line models of pancreatic β-cells...
May 8, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476035/rewiring-carbohydrate-catabolism-differentially-affects-survival-of-pancreatic-cancer-cell-lines-with-diverse-metabolic-profiles
#15
Tiziana Tataranni, Francesca Agriesti, Vitalba Ruggieri, Carmela Mazzoccoli, Vittorio Simeon, Ilaria Laurenzana, Rosella Scrima, Valerio Pazienza, Nazzareno Capitanio, Claudia Piccoli
An increasing body of evidence suggests that targeting cellular metabolism represents a promising effective approach to treat pancreatic cancer, overcome chemoresistance and ameliorate patient's prognosis and survival. In this study, following whole-genome expression analysis, we selected two pancreatic cancer cell lines, PANC-1 and BXPC-3, hallmarked by distinct metabolic profiles with specific concern to carbohydrate metabolism. Functional comparative analysis showed that BXPC-3 displayed a marked deficit of the mitochondrial respiratory and oxidative phosphorylation activity and a higher production of reactive oxygen species and a reduced NAD+/NADH ratio, indicating their bioenergetic reliance on glycolysis and a different redox homeostasis as compared to PANC-1...
April 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470519/assaying-mitochondrial-respiration-as-an-indicator-of-cellular-metabolism-and-fitness
#16
Natalia Smolina, Joseph Bruton, Anna Kostareva, Thomas Sejersen
Mitochondrial respiration is the most important generator of cellular energy under most circumstances. It is a process of energy conversion of substrates into ATP. The Seahorse equipment allows measuring oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in living cells and estimates key parameters of mitochondrial respiration in real-time mode. Through use of mitochondrial inhibitors, four key mitochondrial respiration parameters can be measured: basal, ATP production-linked, maximal, and proton leak-linked OCR. This approach requires application of mitochondrial inhibitors-oligomycin to block ATP synthase, FCCP-to make the inner mitochondrial membrane permeable for protons and allow maximum electron flux through the electron transport chain, and rotenone and antimycin A-to inhibit complexes I and III, respectively...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469622/the-involvement-of-nitric-oxide-in-integration-of-plant-physiological-and-ultrastructural-adjustments-in-response-to-arsenic
#17
Fernanda S Farnese, Juraci A Oliveira, Elder A S Paiva, Paulo E Menezes-Silva, Adinan A da Silva, Fernanda V Campos, Cléberson Ribeiro
High arsenic (As) concentrations are toxic to all the living organisms and the cellular response to this metalloid requires the involvement of cell signaling agents, such as nitric oxide (NO). The As toxicity and NO signaling were analyzed in Pistia stratiotes leaves. Plants were exposed to four treatments, for 24 h: control; SNP [sodium nitroprusside (NO donor); 0.1 mg L(-1)]; As (1.5 mg L(-1)) and As + SNP (1.5 and 0.1 mg L(-1), respectively). The absorption of As increased the concentration of reactive oxygen species and triggered changes in the primary metabolism of the plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467726/hiv-patient-systemic-mitochondrial-respiration-improves-with-exercise
#18
Morgan Kocher, Mindy McDermott, Rachel Lindsey, Cecilia Shikuma, Mariana Gerschenson, Dominic Chow, Lindsay Kohorn, Ronald K Hetzler, Iris Kimura
INTRODUCTION: In HIV-infected individuals, impaired mitochondrial function may contribute to cardio-metabolic disease as well as to fatigue and frailty. Aerobic exercise improves total body energy reserves; however its impact at the cellular level is unknown. We assessed alterations in cellular bioenergetics in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and after a 12 week aerobic exercise study in sedentary HIV-infected subjects on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) who successfully completed a 12 week aerobic exercise program...
May 3, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464422/recombinant-ostreolysin-induces-brown-fat-like-phenotype-in-hib-1b-cells
#19
Tom Oren, Lili Nimri, Einav Yehuda-Shnaidman, Katy Staikin, Yitzhak Hadar, Assaf Friedler, Hadar Amartely, Michal Slutzki, Antonella Di Pizio, Masha Y Niv, Irena Peri, Lutz Graeve, Betty Schwartz
SCOPE: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the main regulator of thermogenesis by increasing energy expenditure through the uncoupling of oxidative metabolism from ATP synthesis. There is a growing body of evidence for BAT being the key responsible organ in combating obesity and its related disorders. Herein we propose the fungal protein ostreolysin (Oly), which has been previously shown to bind to cholesterol-enriched raft-like membrane domains (lipid rafts) of mammalian cells, as a suitable candidate for interaction with brown preadipocytes...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461233/inhibition-of-reductase-systems-by-2-aapa-modulates-peroxiredoxin-oxidation-and-mitochondrial-function-in-a172-glioblastoma-cells
#20
Luiz Felipe de Souza, Ariana Ern Schmitz, Luana Caroline Schüler da Silva, Karen Andrinéia de Oliveira, Cláudia Beatriz Nedel, Carla Inês Tasca, Andreza Fabro de Bem, Marcelo Farina, Alcir Luiz Dafre
Thiol homeostasis has a critical role in the maintenance of proper cellular functions and survival, being coordinated by the action of several reductive enzymes, including glutathione (GSH)/glutathione reductase (GR) and thioredoxin (Trx)/thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) systems. Here, we investigated the effects of the GR inhibitor 2-acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethylsulfanylthiocarbonylamino)phenylthiocarbamoylsulfanyl]propionic acid (2-AAPA) on the activity of thiol reductases (GR and TrxR), redox balance and mitochondrial function of A172 glioblastoma cells...
April 29, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
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