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Cellular respiration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334508/dietary-fatty-acids-influence-sperm-quality-and-function
#1
A Ferramosca, N Moscatelli, M Di Giacomo, V Zara
Recently, obesity has been linked to male infertility. In animal models the administration of a high-fat diet caused a reduction in sperm quality, by impairing gamete energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible effect of dietary fatty acids supplementation in the modulation of sperm energy metabolism and, in turn, in the improvement of sperm quality in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed for 4 weeks a standard diet (control group), a high-fat diet (enriched in 35% of fat and 15% sucrose), a high-fat diet supplemented with 2...
March 23, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325762/a-genetic-screen-reveals-that-synthesis-of-1-4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate-dhna-but-not-full-length-menaquinone-is-required-for-listeria-monocytogenes-cytosolic-survival
#2
Grischa Y Chen, Courtney E McDougal, Marc A D'Antonio, Jonathan L Portman, John-Demian Sauer
Through unknown mechanisms, the host cytosol restricts bacterial colonization; therefore, only professional cytosolic pathogens are adapted to colonize this host environment. Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive intracellular pathogen that is highly adapted to colonize the cytosol of both phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells. To identify L. monocytogenes determinants of cytosolic survival, we designed and executed a novel screen to isolate L. monocytogenes mutants with cytosolic survival defects. Multiple mutants identified in the screen were defective for synthesis of menaquinone (MK), an essential molecule in the electron transport chain...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320861/recycling-of-iron-via-autophagy-is-critical-for-the-transition-from-glycolytic-to-respiratory-growth
#3
Tetsuro Horie, Tomoko Kawamata, Miou Matsunami, Yoshinori Ohsumi
Autophagy is a bulk degradation process conserved from yeast to mammals. To examine the roles of autophagy in cellular metabolism, we generated autophagy-defective (atg) mutants in the X2180-1B strain background. We compared the growth of wild type (WT) and atg cells in minimal (synthetic dextrose, SD) and rich (yeast extract-peptone-dextrose, YEPD) medium, and found that mutations in the core autophagy machinery results in defects in the diauxic shift, the transition from fermentation to respiratory growth upon glucose depletion, specifically in SD...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316081/the-antidiabetic-drug-metformin-decreases-mitochondrial-respiration-and-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-activity-in-cultured-primary-rat-astrocytes
#4
Michaela C Hohnholt, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Helle S Waagepetersen, Ralf Dringen
Metformin is an antidiabetic drug that is used daily by millions of patients worldwide. Metformin is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and has recently been shown to increase glucose consumption and lactate release in cultured astrocytes. However, potential effects of metformin on mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism in astrocytes are unknown. We investigated this by mapping (13) C labeling in TCA cycle intermediates and corresponding amino acids after incubation of primary rat astrocytes with [U-(13) C]glucose...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302725/ankyrin-repeat-and-zinc-finger-domain-containing-1-mutations-are-associated-with-infantile-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Désirée Y van Haaften-Visser, Magdalena Harakalova, Enric Mocholi, Joris M van Montfrans, Abdul Elkadri, Ester Rieter, Karoline Fiedler, Peter M van Hasselt, Emily M M Triffaux, Mieke M van Haelst, Isaac J Nijman, Wigard P Kloosterman, Edward E S Nieuwenhuis, Aleixo M Muise, Edwin Cuppen, Roderick H J Houwen, Paul J Coffer
Infantile-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IO IBD) is an invalidating illness with an onset before two years of age and has a complex pathophysiology in which genetic factors are important. Homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing in an IO IBD patient and subsequent sequencing of the candidate gene in twelve additional IO IBD patients revealed two patients with two mutated Ankyrin Repeat and Zinc Finger Domain containing 1 (ANKZF1) alleles (homozygous ANKZF1 R585Q mutation and compound heterozygous ANKZF1 E152K and V32_Q87del mutations respectively) and two patients with one mutated ANKZF1 allele...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300162/platform-for-combined-analysis-of-functional-and-biomolecular-phenotypes-of-the-same-cell
#6
L Kelbauskas, S Ashili, J Zeng, A Rezaie, K Lee, D Derkach, B Ueberroth, W Gao, T Paulson, H Wang, Y Tian, D Smith, B Reid, Deirdre R Meldrum
Functional and molecular cell-to-cell variability is pivotal at the cellular, tissue and whole-organism levels. Yet, the ultimate goal of directly correlating the function of the individual cell with its biomolecular profile remains elusive. We present a platform for integrated analysis of functional and transcriptional phenotypes in the same single cells. We investigated changes in the cellular respiration and gene expression diversity resulting from adaptation to repeated episodes of acute hypoxia in a premalignant progression model...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295037/a-mutation-in-the-tmem65-gene-results-in-mitochondrial-myopathy-with-severe-neurological-manifestations
#7
Aisha Nazli, Adeel Safdar, Ayesha Saleem, Mahmood Akhtar, Lauren I Brady, Jeremy Schwartzentruber, Mark A Tarnopolsky
Recent research has suggested that transmembrane protein 65 (TMEM65) is localized within the inner mitochondrial membrane. Little else is known about its function. In this study we investigated the location and function of TMEM65. Further, we report the functional consequences of a novel homozygous splice variant (c.472+1G>A) in the TMEM65 gene in a patient with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. Here we investigated the location of TMEM65 by immunofluorescence staining of the protein and by immunoblotting of the isolated mitochondrial fractions in healthy fibroblasts and those from the patient...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287504/high-resolution-respirometry-to-assess-mitochondrial-function-in-permeabilized-and-intact-cells
#8
Siamak Djafarzadeh, Stephan M Jakob
A high-resolution oxygraph is a device for measuring cellular oxygen consumption in a closed-chamber system with very high resolution and sensitivity in biological samples (intact and permeabilized cells, tissues or isolated mitochondria). The high-resolution oxygraph device is equipped with two chambers and uses polarographic oxygen sensors to measure oxygen concentration and calculate oxygen consumption within each chamber. Oxygen consumption rates are calculated using software and expressed as picomoles per second per number of cells...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286170/depletion-of-oxaloacetate-decarboxylase-fahd1-inhibits-mitochondrial-electron-transport-and-induces-cellular-senescence-in-human-endothelial-cells
#9
Michele Petit, Rafal Koziel, Solmaz Etemad, Haymo Pircher, Pidder Jansen-Dürr
In this study we report the identification of FAH domain containing protein 1 (FAHD1), a recently described member of the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) superfamily of metabolic enzymes, as a novel player in the regulation of cellular senescence. FAHD1 was found in a proteomic screen searching for mitochondrial proteins, which are differentially regulated in mitochondria from young and senescent human endothelial cells, and subsequently identified as oxaloacetate decarboxylase. We report here that depletion of FAHD1 from human endothelial cells inhibited mitochondrial energy metabolism and subsequently induced premature senescence...
March 8, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285094/identifying-the-molecular-functions-of-electron-transport-proteins-using-radial-basis-function-networks-and-biochemical-properties
#10
Nguyen-Quoc-Khanh Le, Trinh-Trung-Duong Nguyen, Yu-Yen Ou
The electron transport proteins have an important role in storing and transferring electrons in cellular respiration, which is the most proficient process through which cells gather energy from consumed food. According to the molecular functions, the electron transport chain components could be formed with five complexes with several different electron carriers and functions. Therefore, identifying the molecular functions in the electron transport chain is vital for helping biologists understand the electron transport chain process and energy production in cells...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276312/targeting-and-insertion-of-membrane-proteins
#11
Andreas Kuhn, Hans-Georg Koch, Ross E Dalbey
The insertion and assembly of proteins into the inner membrane of bacteria are crucial for many cellular processes, including cellular respiration, signal transduction, and ion and pH homeostasis. This process requires efficient membrane targeting and insertion of proteins into the lipid bilayer in their correct orientation and proper conformation. Playing center stage in these events are the targeting components, signal recognition particle (SRP) and the SRP receptor FtsY, as well as the insertion components, the Sec translocon and the YidC insertase...
March 2017: EcoSal Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276021/assessing-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-in-isolated-mitochondria-from-various-mouse-tissues-using-seahorse-xf96-analyzer
#12
Arcangela Iuso, Birgit Repp, Caroline Biagosch, Caterina Terrile, Holger Prokisch
Working with isolated mitochondria is the gold standard approach to investigate the function of the electron transport chain in tissues, free from the influence of other cellular factors. In this chapter, we outline a detailed protocol to measure the rate of oxygen consumption (OCR) with the high-throughput analyzer Seahorse XF96. More importantly, this protocol wants to provide practical tips for handling many different samples at once, and take a real advantage of using a high-throughput system. As a proof of concept, we have isolated mitochondria from brain, heart, liver, muscle, kidney, and lung of a wild-type mouse, and measured basal respiration (State II), ADP-stimulated respiration (State III), non-ADP-stimulated respiration (State IVo), and FCCP-stimulated respiration (State IIIu) using respiratory substrates specific to the respiratory chain complex I (RCCI) and complex II (RCCII)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273203/liver-metabolic-changes-induced-by-conjugated-linoleic-acid-in-calorie-restricted-rats
#13
Camila de Moraes, Camila Andrea de Oliveira, Maria Esméria Corezola do Amaral, Gabriela Arcurio Landini, Rosana Catisti
Objective: Complexes like conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduce the percentage of body fat by increasing energy expenditure, fat oxidation, or both. The aim of this study was to verify if CLA is able to mimic caloric restriction (CR), and determine the effects of CLA on liver metabolic profile of young adult male Wistar rats. Materials and methods: We divided 36 animals into the following groups: 1) Control; 2) CLA (1% of daily food intake, 21 days, orogastric intubation); 3) Restr (fed 60% of the diet offered to controls); and 4) CLA Restr...
January 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273177/acute-exhaustive-aerobic-exercise-training-impair-cardiomyocyte-function-and-calcium-handling-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#14
Kristine Ljones, Henning Ofstad Ness, Karin Solvang-Garten, Svein Erik Gaustad, Morten Andre Høydal
INTRODUCTION: Recent data from long-distance endurance participants suggest that cardiac function is impaired after completion. Existing data further indicate that right ventricular function is more affected than left ventricular function. The cellular mechanisms underpinning cardiac deterioration are limited and therefore the aim of this study was to examine cardiomyocyte and molecular responses of the right and left ventricle to an acute bout of exhaustive endurance exercise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to sedentary controls or acute exhaustive endurance exercise consisting of a 120 minutes long forced treadmill run...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270511/quantifying-intracellular-rates-of-glycolytic-and-oxidative-atp-production-and-consumption-using-extracellular-flux-measurements
#15
Shona A Mookerjee, Akos A Gerencser, David G Nicholls, Martin D Brand
Partitioning of ATP generation between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation is central to cellular bioenergetics but cumbersome to measure. We describe here how rates of ATP generation by each pathway can be calculated from simultaneous measurements of extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption. We update theoretical maximum ATP yields by mitochondria and cells catabolizing differ- ent substrates. Mitochondrial P/O ratios are 2.73 for oxidation of pyruvate plus malate and 1.64 for oxidation of succinate...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263181/the-cancer-warburg-effect-may-be-a-testable-example-of-the-minimum-entropy-production-rate-principle
#16
Bartolome Sabater, Dolores Marin
Cancer cells consume more glucose by glycolytic fermentation to lactate than by respiration, a characteristic known as the Warburg effect. In contrast with the 34 moles of ATP produced by respiration, fermentation produces two moles of ATP per mole of glucose consumed, which poses a puzzle on the function of the Warburg effect. Productions of free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) per mole linearly vary with the fraction (x) of glucose consumed by fermentation that is frequently estimated around 0...
March 6, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246402/grape-seed-proanthocyanidins-prevent-irradiation-induced-differentiation-of-human-lung-fibroblasts-by-ameliorating-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#17
XiaoHong Yang, Tao Liu, Bo Chen, Fangqin Wang, Qunfang Yang, XiaoHong Chen
Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF) is a long-term adverse effect of curative radiotherapy. The accumulation of myofibroblasts in fibroblastic foci is a pivotal feature of RILF. In the study, we found the inhibitory effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on irradiation-induced differentiation of human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL1). To explore the mechanism by which GSPs inhibit fibroblast differentiation, we measured the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, mitochondrial function, mitochondrial dynamics, glycolysis and the signaling molecules involved in fibroblast transdifferentiation...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245898/glutamate-impairs-mitochondria-aerobic-respiration-capacity-and-enhances-glycolysis-in-cultured-rat-astrocytes
#18
Xu Yan, Zhong Fang Shi, Li Xin Xu, Jia Xin Li, Min Wu, Xiao Xuan Wang, Mei Jia, Li Ping Dong, Shao Hua Yang, Fang Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of glutamate on metabolism, shifts in glycolysis and lactate release in rat astrocytes. METHODS: After 10 days, secondary cultured astrocytes were treated with 1 mmol/L glutamate for 1 h, and the oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and extra cellular acidification rate (ECAR) was analyzed using a Seahorse XF 24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Cell viability was then evaluated by MTT assay. Moreover, changes in extracellular lactate concentration induced by glutamate were tested with a lactate detection kit...
January 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237099/assessment-of-glycolytic-flux-and-mitochondrial-respiration-in-the-course-of-autophagic-responses
#19
V Sica, J M Bravo-San Pedro, F Pietrocola, V Izzo, M C Maiuri, G Kroemer, L Galluzzi
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that mediates prominent homeostatic functions, both at the cellular and organismal level. Indeed, baseline autophagy not only ensures the disposal of cytoplasmic entities that may become cytotoxic upon accumulation, but also contributes to the maintenance of metabolic fitness in physiological conditions. Likewise, autophagy plays a fundamental role in the cellular and organismal adaptation to homeostatic perturbations of metabolic, physical, or chemical nature...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235666/identification-of-novel-anti-cancer-agents-by-applying-insilico-methods-for-inhibition-of-tspo-protein
#20
Manan Bhargavi, Sree Kanth Sivan, Sarita Rajender Potlapally
Cancer is a genomic disease characterised as impaired cellular energy metabolism. Cancer cells derive most of their energy from oxidative phosphorylation unlike normal ones during cell progression TSPO protein present in external mitochondrial membrane, is involved in various cellular functions like Cell proliferation, mitochondrial respiration, synthesis of steroids and also participates in import of cholesterol into the inner mitochondrial membrane from outside of the membrane of mitochondria. The 3D model of TSPO protein is built using comparative homology modelling techniques and validated by proSA, Ramachandran plot and ERRAT in the present work...
February 14, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
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