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Cellular respiration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156421/impaired-mitochondrial-respiration-in-human-carotid-plaque-atherosclerosis-a-potential-role-for-pink1-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-energetics
#1
Craig K Docherty, Andy Carswell, Elaine Friel, John R Mercer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction are thought to play an essential role in ageing and the energetic decline of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) essential for maintaining plaque integrity. We aimed to better understand VSMCs and identify potentially useful compensatory pathways that could extend their lifespan. Moreover, we wanted to assess if defects in mitochondrial respiration exist in human atherosclerotic plaques and to identify the appropriate markers that may reflect a switch in VSMC energy metabolism...
November 13, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152582/the-genomic-landscape-of-the-fungus-specific-swi-snf-complex-subunit-snf6-in-candida-albicans
#2
Faiza Tebbji, Yaolin Chen, Adnane Sellam, Malcolm Whiteway
SWI/SNF is an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex that is required for the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. While most of the fungal SWI/SNF components are evolutionarily conserved with those of the metazoan SWI/SNF, subunits such as Snf6 are specific to certain fungi and thus represent potential antifungal targets. We have characterized the role of the Snf6 protein in Candida albicans. Our data showed that although there was low conservation of its protein sequence with other fungal orthologs, Snf6 was copurified with bona fide SWI/SNF complex subunits...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150559/a-program-for-iron-economy-during-deficiency-targets-specific-fe-proteins
#3
Laura J Hantzis, Gretchen E Kroh, Courtney E Jahn, Michael Cantrell, Graham Peers, Marinus Pilon, Karl Ravet
Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plants, utilized in nearly every cellular process. Because the adjustment of uptake under Fe limitation cannot satisfy all demands, plants need to acclimate their physiology and biochemistry, especially in their chloroplasts, which have a high demand for Fe. To investigate if a program exists for the utilization of Fe under deficiency, we analyzed how hydroponically grown Arabidopsis thaliana adjusts its physiology and Fe protein composition in vegetative photosynthetic tissue, during Fe deficiency...
November 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143358/melatonin-improves-survival-and-respiratory-activity-of-yeast-cells-challenged-by-alpha-synuclein-and-menadione
#4
Mariana A Zampol, Mario H Barros
One of the hallmarks of Parkinson disease is α-synuclein aggregate deposition that leads to ER stress, Golgi fragmentation, and impaired energy metabolism with consequent redox imbalance. In the last decade, many studies have used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model in order to explore the intracellular consequences of α-synuclein overexpression. In this study we propose to evaluate the respiratory outcome of yeast cells expressing α-synuclein. Cell viability, or growth on selective media for respiratory activity was mainly affected in the α-synuclein expressing cells if they were also treated with menadione, which stimulates ROS production...
November 16, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137417/inhibition-of-retinoic-acid-receptor-%C3%AE-signaling-confers-glycolytic-dependence-and-sensitization-to-dichloroacetate-in-melanoma-cells
#5
Cecilie Abildgaard, Christina Dahl, Ahmad Abdul-Al, Annette Christensen, Per Guldberg
Dysregulation of metabolism during melanoma progression is tightly associated with the acquisition of genetic and epigenetic alterations in regulators of metabolic pathways. Retinoic acid receptor beta (RARβ) is epigenetically silenced in a large proportion of melanomas, but a link between RARβ and metabolic rewiring of melanoma has not been established. Here, we show that in primary human melanocytes, all-trans retinoic acid (a RARβ agonist) induced growth inhibition accompanied by a decrease in both glycolytic and oxidative metabolism, whereas selective inhibition of RARβ led to an increase in the basal glycolytic rate and increased sensitivity to inhibition of glycolysis...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132538/immunometabolic-profiling-of-t-cells-from-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-reveals-an-impairment-in-glycolysis-and-mitochondrial-respiration
#6
Claudia La Rocca, Fortunata Carbone, Veronica De Rosa, Alessandra Colamatteo, Mario Galgani, Francesco Perna, Roberta Lanzillo, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Giuseppe Orefice, Ilaria Cerillo, Ciro Florio, Giorgia Teresa Maniscalco, Marco Salvetti, Diego Centonze, Antonio Uccelli, Salvatore Longobardi, Andrea Visconti, Giuseppe Matarese
BACKGROUND: Metabolic reprogramming is shaped to support specific cell functions since cellular metabolism controls the final outcome of immune response. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease resulting from loss of immune tolerance against central nervous system (CNS) myelin. Metabolic alterations of T cells occurring during MS are not yet well understood and their studies could have relevance in the comprehension of the pathogenetic events leading to loss of immune tolerance to self and to develop novel therapeutic strategies aimed at limiting MS progression...
December 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132331/adaptation-of-the-goldenbraid-modular-cloning-system-and-creation-of-a-toolkit-for-the-expression-of-heterologous-proteins-in-yeast-mitochondria
#7
Ana Pérez-González, Ryan Kniewel, Marcel Veldhuizen, Hemant K Verma, Mónica Navarro-Rodríguez, Luis M Rubio, Elena Caro
BACKGROUND: There is a need for the development of synthetic biology methods and tools to facilitate rapid and efficient engineering of yeast that accommodates the needs of specific biotechnology projects. In particular, the manipulation of the mitochondrial proteome has interesting potential applications due to its compartmentalized nature. One of these advantages resides in the fact that metalation occurs after protein import into mitochondria, which contains pools of iron, zinc, copper and manganese ions that can be utilized in recombinant metalloprotein metalation reactions...
November 13, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128527/endogenously-generated-dna-nucleobase-modifications-source-and-significance-as-possible-biomarkers-of-malignant-transformation-risk-and-role-in-anticancer-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Ryszard Olinski, Daniel Gackowski, Marcus S Cooke
The DNA of all living cells undergoes continuous structural and chemical alteration, which may be derived from exogenous sources, or endogenous, metabolic pathways, such as cellular respiration, replication and DNA demethylation. It has been estimated that approximately 70,000 DNA lesions may be generated per day in a single cell, and this has been linked to a wide variety of diseases, including cancer. However, it is puzzling why potentially mutagenic DNA modifications, occurring at a similar level in different organs/tissue, may lead to organ/tissue specific cancers, or indeed non-malignant disease - what is the basis for this differential response? We suggest that it is perhaps the precise location of damage, within the genome, that is a key factor...
November 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121267/loss-of-chchd10-chchd2-complexes-required-for-respiration-underlies-the-pathogenicity-of-a-chchd10-mutation-in-als
#9
Isabella R Straub, Alexander Janer, Woranontee Weraarpachai, Lorne Zinman, Janice Robertson, Ekaterina Rogaeva, Eric A Shoubridge
CHCHD10 and its paralogue CHCHD2 belong to a family of twin CX9C motif proteins, most of which localize to the intermembrane space of mitochondria. Dominant mutations in CHCHD10 cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia (ALS/FTD), and mutations in CHCHD2 have been associated with Parkinson's disease, but the function of these proteins remains unknown. Here we show that the p.R15L CHCHD10 variant in ALS patient fibroblasts destabilizes the protein, leading to a defect in the assembly of complex I, impaired cellular respiration, mitochondrial hyperfusion, an increase in the steady-state level of CHCHD2, and a severe proliferation defect on galactose, a substrate that forces cells to synthesize virtually all of their ATP aerobically...
November 7, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118026/carbon-monoxide-in-lung-cell-physiology-and-disease
#10
Stefan W Ryter, Kevin C Ma, Augustine M K Choi
Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced gas that has gained recognition as a biological signal transduction effector with properties similar, but not identical, to that of nitric oxide (NO). CO, which binds primarily to heme iron, may activate the hemoprotein guanylate cyclase (sGC), although with lower potency than NO. Furthermore, CO can modulate the activities of several cellular signaling molecules such as p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, JNK, AKT, NF-κB, and others. Emerging studies suggest that mitochondria, the energy-generating organelle of cells, represent a key target of CO action in eukaryotes...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118025/specialized-ribosomes-and-specific-ribosomal-protein-paralogs-control-translation-of-mitochondrial-proteins
#11
Nadav Segev, Jeffrey E Gerst
Genome duplication in eukaryotes created paralog pairs of ribosomal proteins (RPs) that show high sequence similarity/identity. However, individual paralogs can confer vastly different effects upon cellular processes, e.g., specific yeast paralogs regulate actin organization, bud site selection, and mRNA localization, although how specificity is conferred is unknown. Changes in the RP composition of ribosomes might allow for specialized translation of different subsets of mRNAs, yet it is unclear whether specialized ribosomes exist and if paralog specificity controls translation...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115384/atorvastatin-protects-the-proliferative-ability-of-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-inhibited-by-angiotensin-ii-by-changing-mitochondrial-energy-metabolism
#12
Ye Chang, Yuan Li, Ning Ye, Xiaofan Guo, Zhao Li, Guozhe Sun, Yingxian Sun
This study aimed to explore whether angiotensin II (Ang II) inhibits the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by changing mitochondrial energy metabolism, and whether atorvastatin has a protective role via restoration of endothelial function. HUVECs were treated with 1 µM Ang II alone or with 10 µM atorvastatin for 24 h. Proliferation was detected by MTT assay, cell counting, 5‑ethynyl‑2'‑deoxyuridine assay and real‑time cell analyzer. Mitochondrial energy metabolism including oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate were measured using a Seahorse metabolic flux analyzer...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109116/mitochondrial-dynamics-and-respiration-within-cells-with-increased-open-pore-cytoskeletal-meshes
#13
David H Jang, Sarah C Seeger, Martha E Grady, Frances C Shofer, David M Eckmann
The cytoskeletal architecture directly affects the morphology, motility, and tensional homeostasis of the cell. In addition, the cytoskeleton is important for mitosis, intracellular traffic, organelle motility, and even cellular respiration. The organelle responsible for a majority of the energy conversion for the cell, the mitochondrion, has a dependence on the cytoskeleton for mobility and function. In previous studies, we established that cytoskeletal inhibitors altered the movement of the mitochondria, their morphology, and their respiration in human dermal fibroblasts...
November 6, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107655/cytochromes-bd-i-and-bo3-are-essential-for-the-bactericidal-effect-of-microcinj25-on-escherichia-coli-cells
#14
A E Galván, M C Chalón, L A Schurig-Briccio, R A Salomón, C J Minahk, R B Gennis, A Bellomio
Microcin J25 has two targets in sensitive bacteria, the RNA polymerase, and the respiratory chain through inhibition of cellular respiration. In this work, the effect of microcin J25 in E. coli mutants that lack the terminal oxidases cytochrome bd-I and cytochrome bo3 was analyzed. The mutant strains lacking cytochrome bo3 or cytochrome bd-I were less sensitive to the peptide. In membranes obtained from the strain that only expresses cytochrome bd-I a great ROS overproduction was observed in the presence of microcin J25...
October 28, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103146/rna-cytosine-methyltransferase-nsun3-regulates-embryonic-stem-cell-differentiation-by-promoting-mitochondrial-activity
#15
Lukas Trixl, Thomas Amort, Alexandra Wille, Manuela Zinni, Susanne Ebner, Clara Hechenberger, Felix Eichin, Hanna Gabriel, Ines Schoberleitner, Anming Huang, Paolo Piatti, Roxana Nat, Jakob Troppmair, Alexandra Lusser
Chemical modifications of RNA have been attracting increasing interest because of their impact on RNA fate and function. Therefore, the characterization of enzymes catalyzing such modifications is of great importance. The RNA cytosine methyltransferase NSUN3 was recently shown to generate 5-methylcytosine in the anticodon loop of mitochondrial tRNA(Met). Further oxidation of this position is required for normal mitochondrial translation and function in human somatic cells. Because embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are less dependent on oxidative phosphorylation than somatic cells, we examined the effects of catalytic inactivation of Nsun3 on self-renewal and differentiation potential of murine ESCs...
November 4, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096320/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-parkinsonian-mesenchymal-stem-cells-impairs-differentiation
#16
Plamena R Angelova, Mario Barilani, Christopher Lovejoy, Marta Dossena, Mariele Viganò, Agostino Seresini, Daniela Piga, Sonia Gandhi, Gianni Pezzoli, Andrey Y Abramov, Lorenza Lazzari
Sporadic cases account for 90-95% of all patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD). Atypical Parkinsonism comprises approximately 20% of all patients with parkinsonism. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) belongs to the atypical parkinsonian diseases and is histopathologically classified as a tauopathy. Here, we report that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow of patients with PSP exhibit mitochondrial dysfunction in the form of decreased membrane potential and inhibited NADH-dependent respiration...
October 20, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091835/biomarker-and-histopathological-responses-of-lates-calcarifer-on-exposure-to-sub-lethal-concentrations-of-chlorpyrifos
#17
S R Marigoudar, D Mohan, A Nagarjuna, P Karthikeyan
Bioassay tests on fingerlings (3.0 ± 0.5cm) of euryhyaline fish Lates calcarifer were conducted using customized continuous flow through system and derived 96h acute toxicity value for chlorpyrifos (CPF). Based on the measured concentration of CPF mean median lethal concentration (LC50) of 1.07µg/l with lower and upper 95% confidence limits (0.95 and 1.19µg/l). No observed Effect Concentration (NOEC), Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) and chronic values were found to be 0.4, 0.09 and 0.07µg/l respectively...
October 29, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075202/mitochondrial-atp-depletion-disrupts-caco-2-monolayer-integrity-and-internalizes-claudin-7
#18
Lonneke M JanssenDuijghuijsen, Sander Grefte, Vincent C J de Boer, Lara Zeper, Dorien A M van Dartel, Inge van der Stelt, Melissa Bekkenkamp-Grovenstein, Klaske van Norren, Harry J Wichers, Jaap Keijer
Objective:In vivo studies suggest that intestinal barrier integrity is dependent on mitochondrial ATP production. Here, we aim to provide mechanistic support, using an in vitro model mimicking the oxidative in vivo situation. Methods: Human Caco-2 cells were cultured for 10 days in culture flasks or for 14 days on transwell inserts in either glucose-containing or galactose-containing medium. Mitochondria were visualized and cellular respiration and levels of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins were determined...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074197/mitochondrial-dysfunction-perturbations-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-biogenesis-involved-in-endothelial-injury-induced-by-silica-nanoparticles
#19
Caixia Guo, Ji Wang, Li Jing, Ru Ma, Xiaoying Liu, Lifang Gao, Lige Cao, Junchao Duan, Xianqing Zhou, Yanbo Li, Zhiwei Sun
As silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) pervade the global economy, however, the followed emissions during the manufacturing, use, and disposal stages inevitably bring an environmental release, potentially result in harmful impacts. Endothelial dysfunction precedes cardiovascular disease, and is often accompanied by mitochondrial impairment and dysfunction. We had reported endothelial dysfunction induced by SiNPs, however, the related mechanisms by which SiNPs interact with mitochondria are not well understood. In the present study, we examined SiNPs-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and further demonstrated their adverse effects on mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis in endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
October 24, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070809/efficient-protein-production-by-yeast-requires-global-tuning-of-metabolism
#20
Mingtao Huang, Jichen Bao, Björn M Hallström, Dina Petranovic, Jens Nielsen
The biotech industry relies on cell factories for production of pharmaceutical proteins, of which several are among the top-selling medicines. There is, therefore, considerable interest in improving the efficiency of protein production by cell factories. Protein secretion involves numerous intracellular processes with many underlying mechanisms still remaining unclear. Here, we use RNA-seq to study the genome-wide transcriptional response to protein secretion in mutant yeast strains. We find that many cellular processes have to be attuned to support efficient protein secretion...
October 25, 2017: Nature Communications
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