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Cellular respiration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346761/ino80-chromatin-remodeling-coordinates-metabolic-homeostasis-with-cell-division
#1
Graeme J Gowans, Alicia N Schep, Ka Man Wong, Devin A King, William J Greenleaf, Ashby J Morrison
Adaptive survival requires the coordination of nutrient availability with expenditure of cellular resources. For example, in nutrient-limited environments, 50% of all S. cerevisiae genes synchronize and exhibit periodic bursts of expression in coordination with respiration and cell division in the yeast metabolic cycle (YMC). Despite the importance of metabolic and proliferative synchrony, the majority of YMC regulators are currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the INO80 chromatin-remodeling complex is required to coordinate respiration and cell division with periodic gene expression...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335583/the-effect-of-differentiation-and-tgf%C3%AE-on-mitochondrial-respiration-and-mitochondrial-enzyme-abundance-in-cultured-primary-human-skeletal-muscle-cells
#2
Christoph Hoffmann, Selina Höckele, Lisa Kappler, Martin Hrabĕ de Angelis, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Cora Weigert
Measuring mitochondrial respiration in cultured cells is a valuable tool to investigate the influence of physiological and disease-related factors on cellular metabolism; however, the details of the experimental workflow greatly influence the informative value of the results. Working with primary cells and cell types capable of differentiation can be particularly challenging. We present a streamlined workflow optimised for investigation of primary human skeletal muscle cells. We applied the workflow to differentiated and undifferentiated cells and we investigated the effect of TGFβ1 treatment...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330215/mir-195-regulates-metabolism-in-failing-myocardium-via-alterations-in-sirt3-expression-and-mitochondrial-protein-acetylation
#3
Xiaokan Zhang, Ruiping Ji, Xianghai Liao, Estibaliz Castillero, Peter J Kennel, Danielle L Brunjes, Marcus Franz, Sven Möbius-Winkler, Konstantinos Drosatos, Isaac George, Emily I Chen, Paolo C Colombo, P Christian Schulze
Background -Heart failure (HF) leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities of the failing myocardium coupled with an energy-depleted state and cardiac remodeling. The mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of mitochondrial function through regulating the mitochondrial acetylome. Interestingly, unique cardiac and systemic miRNAs have been shown to play an important role in cardiac remodeling by modulating key signaling elements in the myocardium...
January 12, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322248/a-reversible-liquid-drop-aggregation-controls-glucose-response-in-yeast
#4
REVIEW
Kobi Simpson-Lavy, Martin Kupiec
Glucose is the preferred carbon of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Depletion of glucose activates SNF1 (yeast AMP-activated protein kinase-AMPK), allowing cells to switch from fermentation to respiration. We have recently characterized the mechanism by which SNF1 activity is regulated by the Std1 protein, and its regulator Sip5. The hitherto uncharacterized protein kinase Vhs1 phosphorylates Sip5 in response to glucose availability, disengaging it from Std1 and promoting the sequestering of the SNF1 activator out of the nucleus into cytoplasmic puncta...
January 10, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320743/a-p300-and-sirt1-regulated-acetylation-switch-of-c-ebp%C3%AE-controls-mitochondrial-function
#5
Mohamad A Zaini, Christine Müller, Tristan V de Jong, Tobias Ackermann, Götz Hartleben, Gertrud Kortman, Karl-Heinz Gührs, Fabrizia Fusetti, Oliver H Krämer, Victor Guryev, Cornelis F Calkhoven
Cellular metabolism is a tightly controlled process in which the cell adapts fluxes through metabolic pathways in response to changes in nutrient supply. Among the transcription factors that regulate gene expression and thereby cause changes in cellular metabolism is the basic leucine-zipper (bZIP) transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα). Protein lysine acetylation is a key post-translational modification (PTM) that integrates cellular metabolic cues with other physiological processes...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317713/comparison-of-changes-in-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-between-keratinocytes-in-human-external-auditory-canal-skin-and-cholesteatomas-from-normoxia-to-hypoxia
#6
Cheng-Ping Shih, Jen-Tin Lee, Hang-Kang Chen, Yi-Chun Lin, Hsin-Chien Chen, Yuan-Yung Lin, Chao-Yin Kuo, Yu-Ting Chen, Chih-Hung Wang
Cholesteatoma has attracted many studies seeking to uncover its nature and the pathogenesis of related diseases. However, no researchers have explored the mitochondrial bioenergetics of cholesteatoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the energy demand and differential mitochondrial respiration profiles between keratinocytes in external auditory canal (EAC) skin and cholesteatoma samples cultured in normoxic (20% O2) and hypoxic (5% O2) conditions. Enhanced cellular proliferation of both types of keratinocytes was found in hypoxia compared to normoxia...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317239/protective-effect-of-mitochondrial-targeted-antioxidant-mitoq-against-iron-ion-56fe-radiation-induced-brain-injury-in-mice
#7
Lu Gan, Zhenhua Wang, Jing Si, Rong Zhou, Chao Sun, Yang Liu, Yancheng Ye, Yanshan Zhang, Zhiyuan Liu, Hong Zhang
Exposure to iron ion 56Fe radiation (IR) during space missions poses a significant risk to the central nervous system and radiation exposure is intimately linked to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MitoQ is a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant that has been shown to decrease oxidative damage and lower mitochondrial ROS in a number of animal models. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate role of the mitochondrial targeted antioxidant MitoQ against 56Fe particle irradiation-induced oxidative damage and mitochondria dysfunction in the mouse brains...
January 6, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316629/increase-of-salt-tolerance-in-carbon-starved-cells-of-rhodopseudomonas-palustris-depending-on-photosynthesis-or-respiration
#8
Sawa Wasai, Nanako Kanno, Katsumi Matsuura, Shin Haruta
Bacteria in natural environments are frequently exposed to nutrient starvation and survive against environmental stresses under non-growing conditions. In order to determine the energetic influence on survivability during starvation, changes in salt tolerance were investigated using the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris after carbon starvation under photosynthetic conditions in comparison with anaerobic and aerobic dark conditions. Tolerance to a treatment with high concentration of salt (2...
January 6, 2018: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310935/degradation-of-brown-adipocyte-purine-nucleotides-regulates-uncoupling-protein-1-activity
#9
Tobias Fromme, Karin Kleigrewe, Andreas Dunkel, Angelika Retzler, Yongguo Li, Stefanie Maurer, Natascha Fischer, Rolf Diezko, Timo Kanzleiter, Verena Hirschberg, Thomas Hofmann, Martin Klingenspor
OBJECTIVE: Non-shivering thermogenesis in mammalian brown adipose tissue depends on thermogenic uncoupling protein 1. Its activity is triggered by free fatty acids while purine nucleotides mediate inhibition. During activation, it is thought that free fatty acids overcome purine-mediated inhibition. We measured the cellular concentration and the release of purine nucleotide metabolites to uncover a possible role of purine nucleotide degradation in uncoupling protein 1 activation. METHODS: With mass spectrometry, purine nucleotide metabolites were quantified in cellular homogenates and supernatants of cultured primary brown adipocytes...
December 26, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301906/a-role-for-respiration-in-regulating-meiosis-initiation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#10
Haichao Zhao, Qian Wang, Chao Liu, Yongliang Shang, Fuping Wen, Fang Wang, Weixiao Liu, Wei Xiao, Wei Li
Meiosis is a specific type of cell division that is essential for sexual reproduction in most eukaryotes. Mitochondria are crucial cellular organelles that play important roles in reproduction, though the detailed mechanism by which the mitochondrial respiratory chain functions during meiosis remains elusive. Here, we show that components of the respiratory chain (Complexes I-V) play essential roles in meiosis initiation during the sporulation of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Any functional defects in the complex I component Ndi1p resulted in the abolishment of sporulation...
January 4, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301859/parl-partitions-the-lipid-transfer-protein-stard7-between-the-cytosol-and-mitochondria
#11
Shotaro Saita, Takashi Tatsuta, Philipp A Lampe, Tim König, Yohsuke Ohba, Thomas Langer
Intramembrane-cleaving peptidases of the rhomboid family regulate diverse cellular processes that are critical for development and cell survival. The function of the rhomboid protease PARL in the mitochondrial inner membrane has been linked to mitophagy and apoptosis, but other regulatory functions are likely to exist. Here, we identify the START domain-containing protein STARD7 as an intramitochondrial lipid transfer protein for phosphatidylcholine. We demonstrate that PARL-mediated cleavage during mitochondrial import partitions STARD7 to the cytosol and the mitochondrial intermembrane space...
January 4, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300489/itraq-based-proteomic-analysis-reveals-recovery-of-impaired-mitochondrial-function-in-ischemic-myocardium-by-shenmai-formula
#12
Yi Wang, Yu Zhao, Wei Jiang, Xiaoping Zhao, Guanwei Fan, Han Zhang, Peiqiang Shen, Jiangmin He, Xiaohui Fan
Shenmai formula (SM) is a traditional medicinal remedy for treating cardiovascular diseases in China since 800 years ago, however its mechanism of action remains unclear. To explore the mechanism underlying cardioprotective effects of SM, iTRAQ-based proteomic approach was applied to analyze protein of myocardium in rats with myocardial ischemic injury. Upon treatment with SM and its two major components Red ginseng (RG) and Radix Ophiopogonis (OP), 101 differentially expressed proteins were filtered from a total of 711 detected and annotated proteins...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297947/loss-of-function-mutations-in-isca2-disrupt-4fe-4s-cluster-machinery-and-cause-a-fatal-leukodystrophy-with-hyperglycinemia-and-mtdna-depletion
#13
Joseph T Alaimo, Arnaud Besse, Charlotte L Alston, Ki Pang, Vivek Appadurai, Monisha Samanta, Patroula Smpokou, Robert McFarland, Robert W Taylor, Penelope E Bonnen
Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are essential co-factors for proteins that participate in fundamental cellular processes including metabolism, DNA replication and repair, transcriptional regulation, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). ISCA2 plays a role in the biogenesis of Fe-S clusters and a recent report described subjects displaying infantile-onset leukodystrophy due to bi-allelic mutation of ISCA2. We present two additional unrelated cases, and provide a more complete clinical description that includes hyperglycinemia, leukodystrophy of the brainstem with longitudinally extensive spinal cord involvement, and mtDNA deficiency...
January 3, 2018: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297292/repositioning-drugs-by-targeting-network-modules-a-parkinson-s-disease-case-study
#14
Zongliang Yue, Itika Arora, Eric Y Zhang, Vincent Laufer, S Louis Bridges, Jake Y Chen
BACKGROUND: Much effort has been devoted to the discovery of specific mechanisms between drugs and single targets to date. However, as biological systems maintain homeostasis at the level of functional networks robustly controlling the internal environment, such networks commonly contain multiple redundant mechanisms designed to counteract loss or perturbation of a single member of the network. As such, investigation of therapeutics that target dysregulated pathways or processes, rather than single targets, may identify agents that function at a level of the biological organization more relevant to the pathology of complex diseases such as Parkinson's Disease (PD)...
December 28, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287743/a-novel-ex-vivo-method-for-measuring-whole-brain-metabolism-in-model-systems
#15
Kathryn E Neville, Timothy L Bosse, Mia Klekos, John F Mills, Steven E Weicksel, James S Waters, Marla Tipping
BACKGROUND: Many neuronal and glial diseases have been associated with changes in metabolism. Therefore, metabolic reprogramming has become an important area of research to better understand disease at the cellular level, as well as to identify targets for treatment. Model systems are ideal for interrogating metabolic questions in a tissue dependent context. However, while new tools have been developed to study metabolism in cultured cells there has been less progress towards studies in vivo and ex vivo...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284039/from-in-vivo-to-in-vitro-major-metabolic-alterations-take-place-in-hepatocytes-during-and-following-isolation
#16
Shamir Cassim, Valérie-Ann Raymond, Pascal Lapierre, Marc Bilodeau
The liver plays a key role in maintaining physiological homeostasis and hepatocytes are largely responsible for this. The use of isolated primary hepatocytes has become an essential tool for the study of nutrient physiology, xenobiotic metabolism and several liver pathologies. Since hepatocytes are removed from their normal environment, the isolation procedure and in vitro culture of primary hepatocytes is partially known to induce undesired metabolic changes. We aimed to perform a thorough metabolic profiling of primary cells before, during and after isolation using state-of-the-art techniques...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273520/progress-in-understanding-mechanisms-of-opioid-induced-gastrointestinal-adverse-effects-and-respiratory-depression
#17
REVIEW
Mohammad Zafar Imam, Andy Kuo, Sussan Ghassabian, Maree T Smith
Opioids evoke analgesia through activation of opioid receptors (predominantly the μ opioid receptor) in the central nervous system. Opioid receptors are abundant in multiple regions of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system including enteric neurons. Opioid-related adverse effects such as constipation, nausea, and vomiting pose challenges for compliance and continuation of the therapy for chronic pain management. In the post-operative setting opioid-induced depression of respiration can be fatal...
December 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273412/versatility-of-microglial-bioenergetic-machinery-under-starving-conditions
#18
Adam M Nagy, Rebeka Fekete, Gergo Horvath, Gabor Koncsos, Csilla Kriston, Anna Sebestyen, Zoltan Giricz, Zsuzsanna Kornyei, Emilia Madarasz, Laszlo Tretter
Microglia are highly dynamic cells in the brain. Their functional diversity and phenotypic versatility brought microglial energy metabolism into the focus of research. Although it is known that microenvironmental cues shape microglial phenotype, their bioenergetic response to local nutrient availability remains unclear. In the present study effects of energy substrates on the oxidative and glycolytic metabolism of primary - and BV-2 microglial cells were investigated. Cellular oxygen consumption, glycolytic activity, the levels of intracellular ATP/ADP, autophagy, mTOR phosphorylation, apoptosis and cell viability were measured in the absence of nutrients or in the presence of physiological energy substrates: glutamine, glucose, lactate, pyruvate or ketone bodies...
December 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248819/elemental-sulfur-reduction-to-h2s-by-tetrahymena-thermophila
#19
Dennis G Searcy
Eukaryotic nucleocytoplasm is believed to be descended from ancient Archaea that respired on elemental sulfur. If so, a vestige of sulfur reduction might persist in modern eukaryotic cells. That was tested in Tetrahymena thermophila, chosen as a model organism. When oxygenated, the cells consumed H2S rapidly, but when made anoxic they produced H2S mostly by amino acid catabolism. That could be inhibited by adding aminooxyacetic acid, and then H2S production from elemental sulfur became more evident. Anoxic cell lysates produced H2S when provided with sulfur and NADH, but not with either substrate alone...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237479/birth-delivery-method-affects-expression-of-immune-genes-in-lung-and-jejunum-tissue-of-neonatal-beef-calves
#20
Carla Surlis, Keelan McNamara, Eoin O'Hara, Sinead Waters, Marijke Beltman, Joseph Cassidy, David Kenny
BACKGROUND: Caesarean section is a routine veterinary obstetrical procedure employed to alleviate dystocia in cattle. However, CS, particularly before the onset of labour, is known to negatively affect neonatal respiration and metabolic adaptation in humans, though there is little published information for cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of elective caesarean section (ECS) or normal trans-vaginal (TV) delivery, on lung and jejunal gene expression profiles of neonatal calves...
December 14, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
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