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Carbohydrate metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913282/proteomics-provides-insights-into-biological-pathways-altered-by-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-and-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-in-sorghum-grown-in-marginal-soil
#1
Faten Dhawi, Rupali Datta, Wusirika Ramakrishna
Sorghum is an economically important crop, a model system for gene discovery and a biofuel source. Sorghum seedlings were subjected to three microbial treatments, plant growth promoting bacteria (B), arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi mix with two Glomus species (G. aggregatum and G. etunicatum), Funelliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis (My), and B and My combined (My+B). Proteomic analysis was conducted followed by integration with metabolite, plant biomass and nutrient data. Out of 366 differentially expressed proteins in sorghum roots, 44 upregulated proteins overlapping among three treatment groups showed positive correlation with sorghum biomass or element uptake or both...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913012/hyperglycemic-high-anion-gap-metabolic-acidosis-in-patients-receiving-sglt-2-inhibitors-for-diabetes-management
#2
Juliette Sandifer Kum-Nji, Aidar R Gosmanov, Helmut Steinberg, Samuel Dagogo-Jack
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are a class of antidiabetic medications that improve glycemic control via inhibiting the reabsorption of filtered glucose and are approved for use in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). These drugs have recently been associated with euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). An increasing number of cases of SGLT-2i-associated DKA have occurred in patients with T2DM. Herein, we describe five episodes of hyperglycemic DKA in four type 2 diabetes patients receiving SGLT-2i therapy...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910746/nutrition-and-diabetes-mellitus-how-are-they-interlinked
#3
Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has risen exponentially, and the number of incidences increases every day. The purpose of this article is to summarize the experimental evidence supporting the important association between nutrition and diet-based therapy for the control and management of T2DM. Evidence from several in vitro, in vivo, and human studies broadly found that nutrition-based therapy enriched with several important phytochemical constituents modulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and it ameliorates glucolipotoxicity and insulin resistance...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910718/substituting-poly-and-mono-unsaturated-fat-for-dietary-carbohydrate-reduces-hyperinsulinemia-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#4
Dalia Perelman, Nicole Coghlan, Cindy Lamendola, Susan Carter, Fahim Abbasi, Tracey McLaughlin
OBJECTIVE: Hyperinsulinemia is a prevalent feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), contributing to metabolic and reproductive manifestations of the syndrome. Weight loss reduces hyperinsulinemia but weight regain is the norm, thus preventing long-term benefits. In the absence of weight loss, replacement of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) with mono/polyunsaturated fat reduces ambient insulin concentrations in non-PCOS subjects. The current study evaluated whether this dietary intervention could ameliorate hyperinsulinemia in women with PCOS...
December 2, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909055/molecular-identification-of-d-ribulokinase-in-budding-yeast-and-mammals
#5
Charandeep Singh, Enrico Glaab, Carole L Linster
Proteomes of even well characterized organisms still contain a high percentage of proteins with unknown or uncertain molecular and/or biological function. A significant fraction of those proteins are predicted to have catalytic properties. Here we aimed at identifying the function of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ydr109c protein and of its human homolog FGGY, both of which belong to the broadly conserved FGGY family of carbohydrate kinases. Functionally identified members of this family phosphorylate 3- to 7-carbon sugars or sugar derivatives, but the endogenous substrate of S...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908734/triosephosphate-isomerase-1-suppresses-growth-migration-and-invasion-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#6
Hao Jiang, Ning Ma, Yurong Shang, Wentao Zhou, Tianwei Chen, Dongxian Guan, Jingjing Li, Jingjing Wang, Erbin Zhang, Yuanyuan Feng, Fenfen Yin, Yanmei Yuan, Yuanyuan Fang, Lin Qiu, Dong Xie, Dongzhi Wei
Metabolic dysregulation is one of the most common and recognizable features of cancer. Triosephosphate isomerase 1 (TPI1), which catalyzes the interconversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and d-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) during glycosis and gluconeogenesis, is a crucial enzyme in the carbohydrate metabolism. However, the biological function and mechanism of TPI1 in cancer remain largely unknown. In this study, we have found that TPI1 expression was greatly decreased in clinical HCC samples, positively correlated with overall survival, and negatively associated with histological differentiation, tumor size and organ metastasis...
November 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908407/effects-of-fluoride-on-insulin-signaling-and-bone-metabolism-in-ovariectomized-rats
#7
Amanda Gomes Pereira, Fernando Yamamoto Chiba, Maria Sara de Lima Coutinho Mattera, Renato Felipe Pereira, Rita de Cássia Alves Nunes, Thaís Verônica Saori Tsosura, Roberta Okamoto, Doris Hissako Sumida
Fluoride is an essential trace element for the maintenance of bone health owing to its capacity to stimulate proliferation and osteoblastic activity that can lead to increased bone formation. However, excessive sodium fluoride (NaF) intake can impair carbohydrate metabolism thereby promoting hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and changes in insulin signaling. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic treatment with NaF in bone metabolism, insulin signaling, and plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), osteocalcin (OCN), and fluoride in ovariectomized rats...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907861/in-situ-time-lapse-study-of-extracellular-polymeric-substance-discharge-in-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm
#8
Bernard Haochih Liu, Li-Chieh Yu
Streptococcus mutans is one of the main pathogens that cause tooth decay. By metabolizing carbohydrates, S. mutans emits extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that adheres to the tooth surface and forms layers of biofilm. Periodontal disease occurs due to the low pH environment created by S. mutans biofilm, and such an acidic environment gradually erodes tooth enamel. Since the existence of EPS is essential in the formation of biofilm, the in-situ investigation of its generation and distribution in real time is the key to the control and suppression of S...
November 24, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907030/sensitive-and-simplified-detection-of-antibiotic-influence-on-the-dynamic-and-versatile-changes-of-fecal-short-chain-fatty-acids
#9
Xiaoya Zhao, Zhenzuo Jiang, Fan Yang, Yan Wang, Xiumei Gao, Yuefei Wang, Xin Chai, Guixiang Pan, Yan Zhu
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced by anaerobic fermentation of mainly indigestible dietary carbohydrates by gut microbiota, have a profound influence on intestinal function and host energy metabolism. Antibiotics may seriously disturb the balance of fecal SCFAs. To evaluate the impacts of antibiotics on fecal SCFAs produced by gut microbiota, a simple, reproducible and accurate gas chromatography (GC) method, which can simultaneously analyze seven SCFAs in fecal samples, was developed and validated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906079/muscle-specific-loss-of-bmal1-leads-to-disrupted-tissue-glucose-metabolism-and-systemic-glucose-homeostasis
#10
Brianna D Harfmann, Elizabeth A Schroder, Maureen T Kachman, Brian A Hodge, Xiping Zhang, Karyn A Esser
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the USA, and disruption of circadian rhythms is gaining recognition as a contributing factor to disease prevalence. This disease is characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance and symptoms caused by failure to produce and/or respond to insulin. The skeletal muscle is a key insulin-sensitive metabolic tissue, taking up ~80 % of postprandial glucose. To address the role of the skeletal muscle molecular clock to insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, we generated an inducible skeletal muscle-specific Bmal1 (-/-) mouse (iMSBmal1 (-/-))...
March 30, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905883/carbohydrate-metabolism-in-oenococcus-oeni-a-genomic-insight
#11
Alice Cibrario, Claire Peanne, Marine Lailheugue, Hugo Campbell-Sills, Marguerite Dols-Lafargue
BACKGROUND: Oenococcus oeni is the bacterial species that drives malolactic fermentation in most wines. Several studies have described a high intraspecific diversity regarding carbohydrate degradation abilities but the link between the phenotypes and the genes and metabolic pathways has been poorly described. RESULTS: A collection of 41 strains whose genomic sequences were available and representative of the species genomic diversity was analyzed for growth on 18 carbohydrates relevant in wine...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904974/heat-stress-affects-carbohydrate-metabolism-during-cold-induced-sweetening-of-potato-solanum-tuberosum-l
#12
Derek J Herman, Lisa O Knowles, N Richard Knowles
Tolerance to heat stress for retention of low-temperature sweetening-resistant phenotype in potato is conferred by insensitivity of acid invertase activity to cold induction. Heat stress exacerbated cold sweetening (buildup of reducing sugars) of the LTS (low-temperature sweetening)-susceptible potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Ranger Russet and Russet Burbank, and completely abolished the resistance to cold sweetening in the LTS-resistant cultivars/clones, Sage Russet, GemStar Russet, POR06V12-3 and A02138-2...
November 30, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904969/metabolic-responses-and-omics-technologies-for-elucidating-the-effects-of-heat-stress-in-dairy-cows
#13
REVIEW
Li Min, Shengguo Zhao, He Tian, Xu Zhou, Yangdong Zhang, Songli Li, Hongjian Yang, Nan Zheng, Jiaqi Wang
Heat stress (HS) negatively affects various industries that rely on animal husbandry, particularly the dairy industry. A better understanding of metabolic responses in HS dairy cows is necessary to elucidate the physiological mechanisms of HS and offer a new perspective for future research. In this paper, we review the current knowledge of responses of body metabolism (lipid, carbohydrate, and protein), endocrine profiles, and bovine mammary epithelial cells during HS. Furthermore, we summarize the metabolomics and proteomics data that have revealed the metabolite profiles and differentially expressed proteins that are a feature of HS in dairy cows...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904629/effect-of-various-kinds-of-beverages-on-stress-oxidative-f2-isoprostane-serum-lipid-and-blood-glucose-of-elite-taekwondo-players
#14
Zahra Maghsoudi, Ashfin Shiranian, Gholamreza Askai, Reza Ghaisvand
BACKGROUND: Athletes' recovery is important in improving their performance. Nutritional strategies can be effective in enhancing recovery rate. Choosing the best food items in appropriate intervals can play effective roles in resynthesis of fuels and recovery of muscle injury. Beverage micro and macronutrient content are helpful in fuel restoration. In this study, we assess the effects of various kinds of beverages on oxidative stress, muscle injury, and metabolic risk factors in taekwondo players...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904462/overexpression-of-a-pathogenesis-related-protein-10-enhances-biotic-and-abiotic-stress-tolerance-in-rice
#15
Jingni Wu, Sang Gon Kim, Kyu Young Kang, Ju-Gon Kim, Sang-Ryeol Park, Ravi Gupta, Yong Hwan Kim, Yiming Wang, Sun Tae Kim
Pathogenesis-related proteins play multiple roles in plant development and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we characterize a rice defense related gene named "jasmonic acid inducible pathogenesis-related class 10" (JIOsPR10) to gain an insight into its functional properties. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed up-regulation of JIOsPR10 under salt and drought stress conditions. Constitutive over-expression JIOsPR10 in rice promoted shoot and root development in transgenic plants, however, their productivity was unaltered...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903830/early-life-sugar-consumption-affects-the-rat-microbiome-independently-of-obesity
#16
Emily E Noble, Ted M Hsu, Roshonda B Jones, Anthony A Fodor, Michael I Goran, Scott E Kanoski
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome has been implicated in various metabolic and neurocognitive disorders and is heavily influenced by dietary factors, but there is a paucity of research on the effects of added sugars on the gut microbiome. OBJECTIVE: With the use of a rodent model, our goal was to determine how added-sugar consumption during the juvenile and adolescent phase of development affects the gut microbiome. METHODS: Forty-two juvenile male Sprague-Dawley rats [postnatal day (PND) 26; 50-70 g] were given access to 1 of 3 different 11%-carbohydrate solutions designed to model a range of monosaccharide ratios commonly consumed in sugar-sweetened beverages: 1) 35% fructose:65% glucose, 2) 50% fructose:50% glucose, 3) 65% fructose:35% glucose, and 4) control (no sugar)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903745/inhibiting-microglia-expansion-prevents-diet-induced-hypothalamic-and-peripheral-inflammation
#17
Caroline André, Omar Guzman-Quevedo, Charlotte Rey, Julie Rémus-Borel, Samantha Clark, Ashley Castellanos-Jankiewicz, Elodie Ladeveze, Thierry Leste-Lasserre, Agnes Nadjar, Djoher Nora Abrous, Sophie Laye, Daniela Cota
Cell proliferation and neuroinflammation in the adult hypothalamus may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we tested whether the intertwining of these two processes has a role in the metabolic changes caused by three weeks of saturated high-fat diet (HFD) consumption.As compared to chow, HFD-fed mice rapidly increased body weight and fat mass, and specifically showed increased microglia number in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. Microglia expansion required the adequate presence of fats and carbohydrates in the diet, since feeding mice a very high-fat, very low-carbohydrate diet did not affect cell proliferation...
November 30, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903520/visceral-adiposity-and-metabolic-syndrome-after-very-high-fat-and-low-fat-isocaloric-diets-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Vivian L Veum, Johnny Laupsa-Borge, Øyvin Eng, Espen Rostrup, Terje H Larsen, Jan Erik Nordrehaug, Ottar K Nygård, Jørn V Sagen, Oddrun A Gudbrandsen, Simon N Dankel, Gunnar Mellgren
BACKGROUND: Different aspects of dietary pattern, including macronutrient and food profiles, may affect visceral fat mass and metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that consuming energy primarily from carbohydrate or fat in diets with similar food profiles would differentially affect the ability to reverse visceral adiposity and metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: Forty-six men (aged 30-50 y) with body mass index (in kg/m(2)) >29 and waist circumference >98 cm were randomly assigned to a very high-fat, low-carbohydrate (VHFLC; 73% of energy fat and 10% of energy carbohydrate) or low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LFHC; 30% of energy fat and 53% of energy carbohydrate) diet for 12 wk...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903152/obesity-and-cancer-mechanisms-cancer-metabolism
#19
Benjamin D Hopkins, Marcus D Goncalves, Lewis C Cantley
Obesity is a risk factor for cancer development and is associated with poor prognosis in multiple tumor types. The positive energy balance linked with obesity induces a variety of systemic changes including altered levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, adiponectin, steroid hormones, and cytokines. Each of these factors alters the nutritional milieu and has the potential to create an environment that favors tumor initiation and progression. Although the complete ramifications of obesity as it relates to cancer are still unclear, there is convincing evidence that reducing the magnitude of the systemic hormonal and inflammatory changes has significant clinical benefits...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902743/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-spirulina-platensis-in-response-to-low-temperature-stress
#20
Qingye Li, Rong Chang, Yijun Sun, Bosheng Li
Low temperature (LT) is one of the most important abiotic stresses that can significantly reduce crop yield. To gain insight into how Spirulina responds to LT stress, comprehensive physiological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Significant decreases in growth and pigment levels as well as excessive accumulation of compatible osmolytes were observed in response to LT stress. An isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics approach was used to identify changes in protein abundance in Spirulina under LT...
2016: PloS One
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