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Carbohydrate metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926951/insights-into-the-hexose-liver-metabolism-glucose-versus-fructose
#1
REVIEW
Bettina Geidl-Flueck, Philipp A Gerber
High-fructose intake in healthy men is associated with characteristics of metabolic syndrome. Extensive knowledge exists about the differences between hepatic fructose and glucose metabolism and fructose-specific mechanisms favoring the development of metabolic disturbances. Nevertheless, the causal relationship between fructose consumption and metabolic alterations is still debated. Multiple effects of fructose on hepatic metabolism are attributed to the fact that the liver represents the major sink of fructose...
September 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924478/a-rare-cause-of-metabolic-acidosis-ketoacidosis-in-a-non-diabetic-lactating-woman
#2
Gordon Sloan, Amjad Ali, Jonathan Webster
Ketoacidosis occurring during lactation has been described infrequently. The condition is incompletely understood, but it appears to be associated with a combination of increased metabolic demands during lactation, reduction in carbohydrate intake and acute illness. We present a case of a 27-year-old woman, 8 weeks post-partum, who was exclusively breastfeeding her child whilst following a low carbohydrate diet. She developed gastroenteritis and was unable to tolerate an oral diet for several days. She presented with severe metabolic acidosis on admission with a blood 3-hydroxybutyrate of 5...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923586/genetic-code-asymmetry-supports-diversity-through-experimentation-with-posttranslational-modifications
#3
REVIEW
James W Dennis
Protein N-glycosylation has been identified in all three domains of life presumably conserved for its early role in glycoprotein folding. However, the N-glycans added to proteins in the secretory pathway of multicellular organisms are remodeling in the Golgi, increasing structural diversity exponentially and adding new layers of functionality in immunity, metabolism and other systems. The branching and elongation of N-glycan chains found on cell surface receptors generates a gradation of affinities for carbohydrate-binding proteins, the galectin, selectin and siglec families...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923496/deficiency-of-the-mitochondrial-nad-kinase-causes-stress-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice
#4
Kezhong Zhang, Hyunbae Kim, Zhiyao Fu, Yining Qiu, Zhao Yang, Jiemei Wang, Deqiang Zhang, Xin Tong, Lei Yin, Jing Li, Jianmei Wu, Nathan R Qi, Sander M Houten, Ren Zhang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) kinase (NADK2, also called MNADK) catalyzes phosphorylation of NAD to yield NADP. Little is known about the functions of mitochondrial NADP and MNADK in liver physiology and pathology. We investigated the effects of reduced mitochondrial NADP by deleting MNADK in mice. METHODS: We generated MNADK-knockout (KO) mice on a C57BL/6NTac background; mice with a wild-type Mnadk gene were used as controls...
September 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922744/sugar-transporters-in-plants-new-insights-and-discoveries
#5
Benjamin T Julius, Kristen A Leach, Thu M Tran, Rachel A Mertz, David M Braun
Carbohydrate partitioning is the process of carbon assimilation and distribution from source tissues, such as leaves, to sink tissues, such as stems, roots and seeds. Sucrose, the primary carbohydrate transported long distance in many plant species, is loaded into the phloem and unloaded into distal sink tissues. However, many factors, both genetic and environmental, influence sucrose metabolism and transport. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of sugar transporters and sucrose metabolic enzymes is key to improving agriculture...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920721/-changes-in-carbohydrate-metabolism-after-kidney-transplantation-and-their-effects-on-cardiovascular-risk
#6
Bernadett Borda, Edit Szederkényi, Zoltán Hódi, Aurél Ottlakán, Viktor Szabó, György Lázár
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of deaths after transplantation, with diabetes mellitus being the main risk factor in development. AIM: The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of new onset diabetes mellitus in connection with the cardiovascular risk predicted by the HEART Score. METHOD: 44 patients were involved in our study; after overview of baseline data, OGTT was performed, followed by patient classification into the following groups: normal, impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance, and new onset diabetes mellitus...
September 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920150/molecular-basis-of-cd-2-stress-response-in-candida-tropicalis
#7
Zaman Khan, Abdul Rehman, Muhammad Atif Nisar, Saima Zafar, Syed Zajif Hussain, Inga Zerr, Irshad Hussain, Muhammad Waseem, Muhammad Arif
This study examines the bioremediation potential and cadmium-induced cellular response on a molecular level in Candida tropicalis 3Aer. Spectroscopic analysis clearly illustrated the involvement of yeast cell wall components in biosorption. Cadmium bioaccumulation was confirmed by TEM, SEM, and EDX examination. TEM images revealed extracellular as well as cytoplasmic and vacuolar cadmium nanoparticle formation, further validated by presence of ycf1 gene and increased biosynthesis of GSH under cadmium stress...
September 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919842/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-nutrient-timing
#8
REVIEW
Chad M Kerksick, Shawn Arent, Brad J Schoenfeld, Jeffrey R Stout, Bill Campbell, Colin D Wilborn, Lem Taylor, Doug Kalman, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Richard B Kreider, Darryn Willoughby, Paul J Arciero, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Michael J Ormsbee, Robert Wildman, Mike Greenwood, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Alan A Aragon, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review regarding the timing of macronutrients in reference to healthy, exercising adults and in particular highly trained individuals on exercise performance and body composition. The following points summarize the position of the ISSN:Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of whole foods, fortified foods and dietary supplements. The timing of energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients may enhance recovery and tissue repair, augment muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and improve mood states following high-volume or intense exercise...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918775/frankia-asymbiotica-sp-nov-a-non-infective-actinobacterium-isolated-from-morella-californica-root-nodule
#9
Imen Nouioui, Abdellatif Gueddou, Faten Ghodhbane-Gtari, Manfred Rhode, Maher Gtari, Hans-Peter Klenk
The taxonomic status of strain M16386T, a nitrogen-fixing but non-nodulating isolate from Morella californica, was established on the basis of a polyphasic approach. The strain grows as branched hyphae, with vesicles and non-motile productive multilocular sporangia. It metabolizes short fatty acids, TCA cycle intermediates and carbohydrates as carbon sources, and fixes nitrogen in the absence of combined nitrogen source in the growth media. Chemotaxonomic traits of strain M16386T are consistent with its affiliation to the genus Frankia...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918740/methylglyoxal-and-small-heat-shock-proteins
#10
REVIEW
M V Sudnitsyna, N B Gusev
Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound formed during glucose metabolism and able to modify phospholipids, nucleic acids, and proteins belonging to the so-called dicarbonyl proteome. Small heat shock proteins participating in protection of the cell against different unfavorable conditions can be modified by methylglyoxal. The probability of methylglyoxal modification is increased in the case of distortion of glucose metabolism (diabetes), in the case of utilization of glycolysis as the main source of energy (malignancy), and/or at low rate of modified protein turnover...
July 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918505/purification-and-characterization-of-skeletal-muscle-pyruvate-kinase-from-the-hibernating-ground-squirrel-urocitellus-richardsonii-potential-regulation-by-posttranslational-modification-during-torpor
#11
Ryan A V Bell, Kenneth B Storey
Ground squirrel torpor during winter hibernation is characterized by numerous physiological and biochemical changes, including alterations to fuel metabolism. During torpor, many tissues switch from carbohydrate to lipid catabolism, often by regulating key enzymes within glycolytic and lipolytic pathways. This study investigates the potential regulation of pyruvate kinase (PK), a key member of the glycolytic pathway, within the skeletal muscle of hibernating ground squirrels. PK was purified from the skeletal muscle of control and torpid Richardson's ground squirrels, and PK kinetics, structural stability, and posttranslational modifications were subsequently assessed...
September 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915790/the-process-related-dynamics-of-microbial-community-during-a-simulated-fermentation-of-chinese-strong-flavored-liquor
#12
Yanyan Zhang, Xiaoyu Zhu, Xiangzhen Li, Yong Tao, Jia Jia, Xiaohong He
BACKGROUND: Famous Chinese strong-flavored liquor (CSFL) is brewed by microbial consortia in a special fermentation pit (FT). However, the fermentation process was not fully understood owing to the complicate community structure and metabolism. In this study, the process-related dynamics of microbial communities and main flavor compounds during the 70-day fermentation process were investigated in a simulated fermentation system. RESULTS: A three-phase model was proposed to characterize the process of the CSFL fermentation...
September 15, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914437/salutary-potential-of-ethanolic-extract-of-avocado-fruit-on-anomalous-carbohydrate-metabolic-key-enzymes-in-hepatic-and-renal-tissues-of-hyperglycaemic-albino-rats
#13
U S Mahadeva Rao
OBJECTIVE: To assess the beneficial potential of ethanolic extract of avocado fruit on abnormal carbohydrate metabolic key enzymes in hepatic and renal tissues in streptozotocin (STZ) induced hyperglycemic albino rats. METHODS: Twenty-four male albino rats were randomly divided into four groups with six in each group by simple random sampling method. Group 1 as control rats; Group 2 as STZ induced diabetic rats; Group 3 as diabetic rats treated with avocado fruit extract (AFE), 300 mg/kg as aqueous suspension orally for 30 days; Group 4 as diabetic rats treated with gliclazide (5 mg/kg) in aqueous solution orally for 30 days...
September 15, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913631/comparative-proteomic-analysis-and-characterization-of-benzo-a-pyrene-removal-by-microbacterium-sp-strain-m-csw3-under-denitrifying-conditions
#14
Wei Qin, FuQiang Fan, Yi Zhu, Yingying Wang, Xiang Liu, Aizhong Ding, Junfeng Dou
High-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are persistent organic pollutants with great environmental and human health risks and the associated bioremediation activities have always been hampered by the lack of powerful bacterial species under redox conditions. A Microbacterium sp. strain capable of using benzo(a)pyrene as sole carbon and energy sources under denitrifying conditions was isolated. The difference in protein expression during BaP removal and removal characterization were investigated...
September 14, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912693/octopamine-underlies-the-counter-regulatory-response-to-a-glucose-deficit-in-honeybees-apis-mellifera
#15
Christina Buckemüller, Oliver Siehler, Josefine Göbel, Richard Zeumer, Anja Ölschläger, Dorothea Eisenhardt
An animal's internal state is a critical parameter required for adaptation to a given environment. An important aspect of an animal's internal state is the energy state that is adjusted to the needs of an animal by energy homeostasis. Glucose is one essential source of energy, especially for the brain. A shortage of glucose therefore triggers a complex response to restore the animal's glucose supply. This counter-regulatory response to a glucose deficit includes metabolic responses like the mobilization of glucose from internal glucose stores and behavioral responses like increased foraging and a rapid intake of food...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912444/pan-genomic-and-transcriptomic-analyses-of-leuconostoc-mesenteroides-provide-insights-into-its-genomic-and-metabolic-features-and-roles-in-kimchi-fermentation
#16
Byung Hee Chun, Kyung Hyun Kim, Hye Hee Jeon, Se Hee Lee, Che Ok Jeon
The genomic and metabolic features of Leuconostoc (Leu) mesenteroides were investigated through pan-genomic and transcriptomic analyses. Relatedness analysis of 17 Leu. mesenteroides strains available in GenBank based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, average nucleotide identity, in silico DNA-DNA hybridization, molecular phenotype, and core-genome indicated that Leu. mesenteroides has been separated into different phylogenetic lineages. Pan-genome of Leu. mesenteroides strains, consisting of 999 genes in core-genome, 1,432 genes in accessory-genome, and 754 genes in unique genome, and their COG and KEGG analyses showed that Leu...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911640/long-term-feeding-of-red-algae-gelidium-amansii-ameliorates-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-in-a-high-fructose-diet-impaired-glucose-tolerance-rat-model
#17
Hshuan-Chen Liu, Chun-Ju Chang, Tsung-Han Yang, Meng-Tsan Chiang
This study was designed to investigate the effect of Gelidium amansii (GA) on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats with high fructose (HF) diet (57.1% w/w). Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HF diet to induce glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia. The experiment was divided into three groups: (1) control diet group (Con); (2) HF diet group (HF); and (3) HF with GA diet group (HF + 5% GA). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 23 weeks. The results showed that GA significantly decreased retroperitoneal fat mass weight of HF diet-fed rats...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910703/long-term-manganese-toxicity-induced-alterations-of-physiology-and-leaf-protein-profiles-in-two-citrus-species-differing-in-manganese-tolerance
#18
Xiang You, Lin-Tong Yang, Yi-Ping Qi, Peng Guo, Ning-Wei Lai, Xin Ye, Qiang Li, Li-Song Chen
Manganese (Mn)-intolerant 'Sour pummelo' (Citrus grandis) and Mn-tolerant 'Xuegan' (Citrus sinensis) seedlings were irrigated for 17 weeks with 2 (control) or 600μM (Mn-toxicity or -excess) MnSO4. C. sinensis had higher Mn-tolerance than C. grandis, as indicated by the higher photosynthesis rates in Mn-excess C. sinensis leaves. Under Mn-toxicity, Mn levels were similar between C. sinensis and C. grandis roots, but lower in C. sinensis leaves than in C. grandis leaves. This might be responsible for C. sinensis Mn-tolerance...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910412/transcriptional-responses-in-the-hepatopancreas-of-eriocheir-sinensis-exposed-to-deltamethrin
#19
Zongying Yang, Yiliu Zhang, Yingying Jiang, Fengjiao Zhu, Liugen Zeng, Yulan Wang, Xiaoqing Lei, Yi Yao, Yujie Hou, Liangqing Xu, Chunxian Xiong, Xianle Yang, Kun Hu
Deltamethrin is an important pesticide widely used against ectoparasites. Deltamethrin contamination has resulted in a threat to the healthy breeding of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. In this study, we investigated transcriptional responses in the hepatopancreas of E. sinensis exposed to deltamethrin. We obtained 99,087,448, 89,086,478, and 100,117,958 raw sequence reads from control 1, control 2, and control 3 groups, and 92,094,972, 92,883,894, and 92,500,828 raw sequence reads from test 1, test 2, and test 3 groups, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910323/comparative-proteomic-analyses-reveal-the-proteome-response-to-short-term-drought-in-italian-ryegrass-lolium-multiflorum
#20
Ling Pan, Zhongfu Yang, Jianping Wang, Pengxi Wang, Xiao Ma, Meiliang Zhou, Ji Li, Nie Gang, Guangyan Feng, Junming Zhao, Xinquan Zhang
Drought is a major abiotic stress that impairs growth and productivity of Italian ryegrass. Comparative analysis of drought responsive proteins will provide insight into molecular mechanism in Lolium multiflorum drought tolerance. Using the iTRAQ-based approach, proteomic changes in tolerant and susceptible lines were examined in response to drought condition. A total of 950 differentially accumulated proteins was found to be involved in carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and signal transduction pathway, such as β-D-xylosidase, β-D-glucan glucohydrolase, glycerate dehydrogenase, Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase, glutamine synthetase 1a, Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, diacylglycerol, and inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate, which might contributed to enhance drought tolerance or adaption in Lolium multiflorum...
2017: PloS One
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