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Carbohydrate metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166659/sex-specific-influences-of-mtdna-mitotype-and-diet-on-mitochondrial-functions-and-physiological-traits-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Wen C Aw, Michael R Garvin, Richard G Melvin, J William O Ballard
Here we determine the sex-specific influence of mtDNA type (mitotype) and diet on mitochondrial functions and physiology in two Drosophila melanogaster lines. In many species, males and females differ in aspects of their energy production. These sex-specific influences may be caused by differences in evolutionary history and physiological functions. We predicted the influence of mtDNA mutations should be stronger in males than females as a result of the organelle's maternal mode of inheritance in the majority of metazoans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166321/adipose-lipolysis-unchanged-by-preexercise-carbohydrate-regardless-of-glycemic-index
#2
Daniel A Baur, Brandon D Willingham, Kyle A Smith, Jacob N Kisiolek, Margaret C Morrissey, Patrick G Saracino, Tristan J Ragland, Michael J Ormsbee
PURPOSE: To determine the impact of pre-exercise carbohydrate of different glycemic indices on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) metabolism and running performance. METHODS: Ten trained male runners completed three experimental trials consisting of 30 min at 60% VO2max, 30 min at 75% VO2max, and a 5-km time trial (TT). Thirty min prior to exercise, participants consumed one of three beverages: 1) 75 g low glycemic index modified starch supplement (UCAN), 2) 75 g high glycemic index glucose-based supplement (G), or 3) a flavor-matched non-caloric placebo (PL)...
November 20, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166161/will-invertebrates-require-increasingly-carbon-rich-food-in-a-warming-world
#3
Thomas R Anderson, Dag O Hessen, Maarten Boersma, Jotaro Urabe, Daniel J Mayor
Elevated temperature causes metabolism and respiration to increase in poikilothermic organisms. We hypothesized that invertebrate consumers will therefore require increasingly carbon-rich diets in a warming environment because the increased energetic demands are primarily met using compounds rich in carbon, that is, carbohydrates and lipids. Here, we test this hypothesis using a new stoichiometric model that has carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as currencies. Model predictions did not support the hypothesis, indicating instead that the nutritional requirements of invertebrates, at least in terms of food quality expressed as C∶N ratio, may change little, if at all, at elevated temperature...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163621/transcript-profiling-of-hevea-brasiliensis-during-latex-flow
#4
Jinquan Chao, Shuguang Yang, Yueyi Chen, Wei-Min Tian
Latex exploitation enhances latex regeneration in rubber trees. The latex exploitation-caused latex flow lasts from 10 min to a few hours, which is convenient for exploring the transcript profiling of latex metabolism-related genes at the different stages of latex flow. In the present study, the expression pattern of 62 latex metabolism-related genes involved in water transportation, carbohydrate metabolism, natural rubber biosynthesis, hormone signaling, ROS generation and scavenging, and latex coagulum across three stages of latex flow between rubber tree clones CATAS7-33-97 and CATAS8-79 were comparatively analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163573/mitochondrial-uncoupling-protein-1-overexpression-increases-yield-in-nicotiana-tabacum-under-drought-stress-by-improving-source-and-sink-metabolism
#5
Pedro Barreto, Juliana E C T Yassitepe, Zoe A Wilson, Paulo Arruda
Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) sustain mitochondrial respiration independent of intracellular ATP concentration. Uncoupled respiration is particularly beneficial under stress conditions, during which both photosynthesis and respiration may be impaired. Sustaining carbon fixation during the reproductive phase is essential for plants to develop viable pollen grains and for seed setting. Here, we examined whether UCP1 overexpression (UCP1-oe) would help tobacco plants cope with drought stress during reproductive development...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163419/reconstruction-of-diverse-verrucomicrobial-genomes-from-metagenome-datasets-of-freshwater-reservoirs
#6
Pedro J Cabello-Yeves, Rohit Ghai, Maliheh Mehrshad, Antonio Picazo, Antonio Camacho, Francisco Rodriguez-Valera
The phylum Verrucomicrobia contains freshwater representatives which remain poorly studied at the genomic, taxonomic, and ecological levels. In this work we present eighteen new reconstructed verrucomicrobial genomes from two freshwater reservoirs located close to each other (Tous and Amadorio, Spain). These metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) display a remarkable taxonomic diversity inside the phylum and comprise wide ranges of estimated genome sizes (from 1.8 to 6 Mb). Among all Verrucomicrobia studied we found some of the smallest genomes of the Spartobacteria and Opitutae classes described so far...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163194/on-the-metabolism-of-exogenous-ketones-in-humans
#7
Brianna J Stubbs, Pete J Cox, Rhys D Evans, Peter Santer, Jack J Miller, Olivia K Faull, Snapper Magor-Elliott, Satoshi Hiyama, Matthew Stirling, Kieran Clarke
Background and aims: Currently there is considerable interest in ketone metabolism owing to recently reported benefits of ketosis for human health. Traditionally, ketosis has been achieved by following a high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diet, but adherence to such diets can be difficult. An alternative way to increase blood D-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-βHB) concentrations is ketone drinks, but the metabolic effects of exogenous ketones are relatively unknown. Here, healthy human volunteers took part in three randomized metabolic studies of drinks containing a ketone ester (KE); (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate, or ketone salts (KS); sodium plus potassium βHB...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162924/dysbiosis-of-the-microbiome-in-gastric-carcinogenesis
#8
Natalia Castaño-Rodríguez, Khean-Lee Goh, Kwong Ming Fock, Hazel M Mitchell, Nadeem O Kaakoush
The gastric microbiome has been proposed as an etiological factor in gastric carcinogenesis. We compared the gastric microbiota in subjects presenting with gastric cancer (GC, n = 12) and controls (functional dyspepsia (FD), n = 20) from a high GC risk population in Singapore and Malaysia. cDNA from 16S rRNA transcripts were amplified (515F-806R) and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq 2 × 250 bp chemistry. Increased richness and phylogenetic diversity but not Shannon's diversity was found in GC as compared to controls...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162049/rna-seq-and-tn-seq-reveal-fitness-determinants-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-during-growth-in-human-serum
#9
Xinglin Zhang, Vincent de Maat, Ana M Guzmán Prieto, Tomasz K Prajsnar, Jumamurat R Bayjanov, Mark de Been, Malbert R C Rogers, Marc J M Bonten, Stéphane Mesnage, Rob J L Willems, Willem van Schaik
BACKGROUND: The Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecium is a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract and a frequent cause of bloodstream infections in hospitalized patients. The mechanisms by which E. faecium can survive and grow in blood during an infection have not yet been characterized. Here, we identify genes that contribute to growth of E. faecium in human serum through transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) and a high-throughput transposon mutant library sequencing approach (Tn-seq)...
November 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161929/changes-in-anthropometry-and-selected-metabolic-parameters-in-young-men-during-their-first-year-of-study-at-a-university-of-physical-education
#10
Anna Kȩska, Grażyna Lutosławska, Krzysztof Mazurek, Anna Czajkowska, Joanna Tkaczyk, Dagmara Iwańska
This study aims to determine main health-related anthropometric and metabolic parameters in young physically active male students in their first year of study. Sixty one male students from a Polish university of physical education were studied twice-at the beginning of their first and second academic years. Body weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition were measured. Plasma levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), leptin, cortisol, and insulin, as well as insulin resistance (IR) using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) were determined...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158872/neuroprotective-and-cognitive-enhancing-effects-of-microencapsulation-of-mulberry-fruit-extract-in-animal-model-of-menopausal-women-with-metabolic-syndrome
#11
Supannika Kawvised, Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Wipawee Thukham-Mee
Currently, the neuroprotectant and memory-enhancing agent for menopausal women with metabolic syndrome is required. Based on the advantages of polyphenolics on numerous changes observed in menopause with metabolic syndrome and the encapsulation method, we hypothesized that microencapsulated mulberry fruit extract (MME) could protect brain damage and improve memory impairment in an animal model of menopause with metabolic syndrome. To test this hypothesis, MME at doses of 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg was given to female Wistar rats which were induced experimental menopause with metabolic syndrome by bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) and fed with high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diet for 8 weeks...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158640/a-sucrose-non-fermenting-1-related-protein-kinase-1-gene-from-potato-stsnrk1-regulates-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-transgenic-tobacco
#12
Feibing Wang, Yuxiu Ye, Xinhong Chen, Jizhong Wang, Zhiyuan Chen, Qing Zhou
Sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) has been shown to play an essential role in regulating saccharide metabolism and starch biosynthesis of plant. The regulatory role of StSnRK1 from potato in regulating carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation has not been investigated. In this work, a cDNA encoding the SnRK1 protein, named StSnRK1, was isolated from potato. The open reading frame contained 1545 nucleotides encoding 514 amino acids. Subcellular localization analysis in onion epidermal cells indicated that StSnRK1 protein was localized to the nucleus...
October 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158334/global-transcriptome-sequencing-reveals-molecular-profiles-of-summer-diapause-induction-stage-of-onion-maggot-delia-antiqua-diptera-anthomyiidae
#13
Shuang Ren, You-Jin Hao, Bin Chen, You-Ping Yin
The onion maggot, Delia antiqua, is a worldwide subterranean pest and can enter diapause during summer and winter seasons. The molecular regulation of the ontogenesis transition remains largely unknown. Here we used high-throughput RNA-Seq to identify candidate genes and processes linked to summer diapause induction by comparing the transcriptome differences between the most sensitive larval developmental stage of summer-diapause (SD) and non-diapause (ND). Nine pair-wise comparisons were performed and significantly differentially regulated transcripts were identified...
November 20, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155109/heat-stress-in-the-heart-and-muscle-of-the-antarctic-fishes-notothenia-rossii-and-notothenia-coriiceps-carbohydrate-metabolism-and-antioxidant-defence
#14
Maria Rosa Dmengeon Pedreiro de Souza, Tatiana Herrerias, Tania Zaleski, Mariana Forgati, Priscila Krebsbach Kandalski, Cintia Machado, Dilza Trevisan Silva, Cláudio Adriano Piechnik, Maurício Osvaldo Moura, Lucélia Donatti
Carbohydrate metabolism and the antioxidant defence system of heart and muscle of the Antarctic notothenioids Notothenia rossii and Notothenia coriiceps were evaluated in response to heat stress (8 °C) over 144 h. N. rossii heart exhibited decreased glycolysis and aerobic metabolism after up to 12 h of exposure to 8 °C, and anaerobiosis was inhibited within 24 h. However, these pathways were stimulated after 72 h at 8 °C. The consumption of glucose-6-phosphate, derived from hexokinase (HK), by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) decreased in N...
November 16, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154733/metabolomic-analysis-of-alterations-in-lipid-oxidation-carbohydrate-and-amino-acid-metabolism-in-dairy-goats-caused-by-exposure-to-aflotoxin-b1
#15
Jianbo Cheng, Shuai Huang, Caiyun Fan, Nan Zheng, Yangdong Zhang, Songli Li, Jiaqi Wang
The purposes of this study were to investigate the systemic and characteristic metabolites in the serum of dairy goats induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and to further understand the endogenous metabolic alterations induced by it. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic approach was used to analyse the metabolic alterations in dairy goats that were induced by low doses of AFB1 (50 µg/kg DM). We found that AFB1 exposure caused significant elevations of glucose, citrate, acetate, acetoacetate, betaine, and glycine yet caused reductions of lactate, ketone bodies (acetate, β-hydroxybutyrate), amino acids (citrulline, leucine/isoleucine, valine, creatine) and cell membrane structures (choline, lipoprotein, N-acetyl glycoproteins) in the serum...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153522/short-communication-growth-of-dairy-isolates-of-geobacillus-thermoglucosidans-in-skim-milk-depends-on-lactose-degradation-products-supplied-by-anoxybacillus-flavithermus-as-secondary-species
#16
Y Zhao, M Kumar, M P M Caspers, M N Nierop Groot, J M B M van der Vossen, T Abee
Thermophilic bacilli such as Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus are important contaminants in dairy powder products. Remarkably, one of the common contaminants, Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, showed poor growth in skim milk, whereas significant growth of G. thermoglucosidans was observed in the presence of an Anoxybacillus flavithermus dairy isolate. In the present study, we investigated the underlying reason for this growth dependence of G. thermoglucosidans. Whole-genome sequences of 4 A. flavithermus strains and 4 G...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153024/-diet-treatment-of-classical-galactosemia
#17
Erika Kiss, Lídia Balogh, Péter Reismann
Classical galactosemia is an inherited disorder of the carbohydrate metabolism, most often caused by the deficient activity of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase. Classical galactosemia presents in the neonatal period with life threatening illness after galactose is introduced in the diet. Symptoms and signs include poor feeding, vomiting, and diarrhea, weight loss, jaundice, hypotension, cataracts, hepatosplenomegaly, hepatocellular insufficiency, and encephalopathy. Since 1975 the testing for galactosemia is part of the neonatal screening program in Hungary...
November 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152582/the-genomic-landscape-of-the-fungus-specific-swi-snf-complex-subunit-snf6-in-candida-albicans
#18
Faiza Tebbji, Yaolin Chen, Adnane Sellam, Malcolm Whiteway
SWI/SNF is an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex that is required for the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. While most of the fungal SWI/SNF components are evolutionarily conserved with those of the metazoan SWI/SNF, subunits such as Snf6 are specific to certain fungi and thus represent potential antifungal targets. We have characterized the role of the Snf6 protein in Candida albicans. Our data showed that although there was low conservation of its protein sequence with other fungal orthologs, Snf6 was copurified with bona fide SWI/SNF complex subunits...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151823/proteomic-changes-between-populus-allotriploids-and-diploids-revealed-using-an-itraq-based-quantitative-approach
#19
Yi Wang, Yun Li, Yujing Suo, Yu Min, Xiangyang Kang
Background: Polyploid breeding is a powerful approach for Populus genetic improve-ment because polyploid trees have valuable characteristics, including better timber quality and a higher degree of stress resistance compared with their full-sib diploids. However, the genetic mech-anism underlying this phenomenon remains unknown. Objective: To better understand the proteomic changes between Populus allotriploids and diploids, we examined the proteomic profiles of allotriploid and diploid Populus by iTRAQ labeling coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry (MS)...
September 2017: Current Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150723/a-grapevine-inducible-gene-vv-%C3%AE-gal-sip-confers-salt-and-desiccation-tolerance-in-escherichia-coli-and-tobacco-at-germinative-stage
#20
Samia Daldoul, Anis Ben Amar, Mahmoud Gargouri, Hajer Limam, Ahmed Mliki, Thierry Wetzel
Grapevine is an important fruit crop cultivated worldwide. Previously, we have reported the characterization of a salt stress-inducible gene Vv-α-gal/SIP isolated from the tolerant grapevine cultivar Razegui. In this study, we performed functional studies in both Escherichia coli and tobacco systems to gain more insights in the role of the Vv-α-gal/SIP gene. Our data revealed that the recombinant E. coli cells harboring the pET24b(+) expression vector with the Vv-α-gal/SIP showed higher tolerance to desiccation and salinity compared to E...
November 17, 2017: Biochemical Genetics
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