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Carbohydrate metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343358/expression-of-the-cyanobacterial-enzyme-cyanase-increases-cyanate-metabolism-and-cyanate-tolerance-in-arabidopsis
#1
Rashad Kebeish, Omar Al-Zoubi
Cyanate and its derivatives are considered as environmental hazardous materials. Cyanate is released to the environment through many chemical industries and mining wastewater. Cyanase enzyme converts cyanate into CO2 and NH3 in a bicarbonate-dependent reaction. At low cyanate concentrations, the endogenous plant cyanases play a vital role in cyanate detoxification. However, such cyanate biodegradation system is probably insufficient due to the excess cyanate concentrations at contaminated sites. In this study, we have transferred the activity of the cyanobacterial cyanase into Arabidopsis thaliana plants in order to enhance plant resistance against cyanate toxicity...
March 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343194/lipid-metabolism-and-feeding-habits-of-indigenous-peoples-of-the-sakha-republic-yakutia-in-today-s-socio-economic-development
#2
Vadim G Krivoshapkin, Anna I Sivtseva, Elena N Sivtseva, Svetlana S Maximova, Leonid F Timofeev, Aytalina S Golderova
INTRODUCTION: By results of a single-step epidemiological research indicators of a lipid range at 355 Evenks of the Olenyoksky District of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) are estimated. The aim of this research was assessment of lipid exchange and character of a delivery of Evenks of the item of Zhilinda. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 355 evenks aged over 20 years (170 men, women-185). Total cholesterol (OCHS), cholesterol (low-density lipoproteins (LDL-CHOLESTEROL), highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol ((XC-LVNP), triglycerides (TG), the calculated coefficient of haemoglobin (Ka)...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342964/establishing-a-novel-biosynthetic-pathway-for-the-production-of-3-4-dihydroxybutyric-acid-from-xylose-in-escherichia-coli
#3
Jia Wang, Xiaolin Shen, Rachit Jain, Jian Wang, Qipeng Yuan, Yajun Yan
3-Hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (3HBL) is an attractive building block owing to its broad applications in pharmaceutical industry. Currently, 3HBL is commercially produced by chemical routes using petro-derived carbohydrates, which involves hazardous materials and harsh processing conditions. Only one biosynthetic pathway has been reported for synthesis of 3HBL and its hydrolyzed form 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid (3,4-DHBA) using glucose and glycolic acid as the substrates and coenzyme A as the activator, which involves multiple steps (>10 steps) and suffers from low productivity and yield...
March 23, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342313/the-glyoxylate-pathway-contributes-to-enhanced-extracellular-electron-transfer-in-yeast-based-biofuel-cell
#4
Yolina Hubenova, Eleonora Hubenova, Evelina Slavcheva, Mario Mitov
This study provides a new insight into our understanding of yeast response to starvation conditions (sole acetate as carbon source) and applied polarization and offers important information about the role of the glyoxylate cycle in the carbohydrate synthesis and extracellular charge transfer processes in biofuel cells. The biosynthetic capabilities of yeast C. melibiosica 2491 and the up/down-regulation of the glyoxylate cycle are evaluated by modifying the cellular metabolism by feedback inhibition or carbohydrate presence and establishing the malate dehydrogenase activity and carbohydrate content together with the electric charge passed through bioelectrochemical system...
March 14, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339732/exploring-the-in-vivo-digestion-of-plant-proteins-in-broiler-chickens
#5
E Recoules, H Sabboh-Jourdan, A Narcy, M Lessire, G Harichaux, V Labas, M J Duclos, S Réhault-Godbert
The use of various protein sources (industry by-products, proteaginous) in poultry diets requires a greater understanding of protein digestion mechanisms. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular actors required for protein digestion in broilers fed 4 different diets containing soybean meal, rapeseed meal, pea, or corn distiller's dried grain with solubles as the only protein source. The digesta of the digestive tract segments were collected and soluble proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. SDS-PAGE analyses revealed 5 ubiquitous bands in digesta of all digestive tract segments regardless of the diet, whereas 3 bands were diet-specific...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339481/proteomic-analysis-of-injured-storage-roots-in-cassava-manihot-esculenta-crantz-under-postharvest-physiological-deterioration
#6
Yuling Qin, Astride Stéphanie Mouafi Djabou, Feifei An, Kaimian Li, Zhaogui Li, Long Yang, Xiaojing Wang, Songbi Chen
Postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) is a global challenge in the improvement of cassava value chain. However, how to reduce cassava spoilage and reveal the mechanism of injured cassava storage roots in response to PPD were poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the activities of antioxidant enzymes of cassava injured storage roots in PPD-susceptible (SC9) and PPD-tolerant (QZ1) genotypes at the time-points from 0h to 120h, and further analyzed their proteomic changes using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) in combination with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338758/mistletoe-infestation-mediates-alteration-of-the-phytohormone-profile-and-anti-oxidative-metabolism-in-bark-and-wood-of-its-host-pinus-sylvestris
#7
Bin Hu, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Yumiko Takebayashi, Franziska S Peters, Jörg Schumacher, Monika Eiblmeier, Leila Arab, Jürgen Kreuzwieser, Andrea Polle, Heinz Rennenberg
European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) has largely infested Central European forests and causes high mortality probability particularly in dry years. However, little information is available about the consequences of mistletoe infestation for metabolic processes in bark and wood of its host, despite their important roles in infestation defense. We analyzed the tissue hydration, carbohydrate composition, phytohormone profile, reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidant levels in bark and wood of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L...
February 9, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338608/impact-of-high-carbohydrate-diet-on-metabolic-parameters-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Chan-Hee Jung, Kyung Mook Choi
In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), whether dietary carbohydrates have beneficial or detrimental effects on cardiometabolic risk factors has drawn attention. Although a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet and a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet have gained popularity for several decades, there is scarce review focusing on the effects of HC diet on glucose, lipids and body weight in patients with T2DM. In this review, we examined recently-published literature on the effects of HC diets on metabolic parameters in T2DM...
March 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337503/gut-microbiome-related-metabolic-changes-in-plasma-of-antibiotic-treated-rats
#9
C Behr, H Kamp, E Fabian, G Krennrich, W Mellert, E Peter, V Strauss, T Walk, I M C M Rietjens, B van Ravenzwaay
The intestinal microbiota contributes to the metabolism of its host. Adequate identification of the microbiota's impact on the host plasma metabolites is lacking. As antibiotics have a profound effect on the microbial composition and hence on the mammalian-microbiota co-metabolism, we studied the effects of antibiotics on the "functionality of the microbiome"-defined as the production of metabolites absorbed by the host. This metabolomics study presents insights into the mammalian-microbiome co-metabolism of endogenous metabolites...
March 23, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337413/draft-genome-sequence-of-thermoanaerobacterium-sp-strain-psu-2-isolated-from-thermophilic-hydrogen-producing-reactor
#10
Sompong O-Thong, Peerawat Khongkliang, Chonticha Mamimin, Apinya Singkhala, Poonsuk Prasertsan, Nils-Kåre Birkeland
Thermoanaerobacterium sp. strain PSU-2 was isolated from thermophilic hydrogen producing reactor and subjected to draft genome sequencing on 454 pyrosequencing and annotated on RAST. The draft genome sequence of strain PSU-2 contains 2,552,497 bases with an estimated G + C content of 35.2%, 2555 CDS, 8 rRNAs and 57 tRNAs. The strain had a number of genes responsible for carbohydrates metabolic, amino acids and derivatives, and protein metabolism of 17.7%, 14.39% and 9.81%, respectively. Strain PSU-2 also had gene responsible for hydrogen biosynthesis as well as the genes related to Ni-Fe hydrogenase...
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337215/root-adaptive-responses-to-aluminum-treatment-revealed-by-rna-seq-in-two-citrus-species-with-different-aluminum-tolerance
#11
Peng Guo, Yi-Ping Qi, Lin-Tong Yang, Ning-Wei Lai, Xin Ye, Yi Yang, Li-Song Chen
Seedlings of aluminum (Al)-tolerant Citrus sinensis and Al-intolerant Citrus grandis were fertigated daily with nutrient solution containing 0 and 1.0 mM AlCl3●6H2O for 18 weeks. The Al-induced decreases of biomass and root total soluble proteins only occurred in C. grandis, demonstrating that C. sinensis had higher Al-tolerance than C. grandis. Under Al-treatment, C. sinensis roots secreted more citrate and malate than C. grandis ones; less Al was accumulated in C. sinenis than in C. grandis leaves. The Al-induced reduction of phosphorus was lesser in C...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337034/exposure-to-an-acute-hypoxic-stimulus-during-early-life-affects-the-expression-of-glucose-metabolism-related-genes-at-first-feeding-in-trout
#12
Jingwei Liu, Elisabeth Plagnes-Juan, Inge Geurden, Stéphane Panserat, Lucie Marandel
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is considered a "glucose-intolerant" species. With the aim of programming trout to improve their metabolic use of dietary carbohydrates, we hypothesised that a hypoxic stimulus applied during embryogenesis could later affect glucose metabolism at the first-feeding stage. An acute hypoxic stimulus (2.5 or 5.0 mg·L(-1) O2) was applied for 24 h to non-hatched embryos or early hatched alevins followed by a challenge test with a high carbohydrate diet at first-feeding. The effectiveness of the early hypoxic stimulus was confirmed by the induction of oxygen-sensitive markers such as egln3...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336545/changes-in-intestinal-microbiota-composition-and-metabolism-coincide-with-increased-intestinal-permeability-in-young-adults-under-prolonged-physiologic-stress
#13
J Philip Karl, Lee M Margolis, Elisabeth H Madslien, Nancy E Murphy, John W Castellani, Yngvar Gundersen, Allison V Hoke, Michael W Levangie, Raina Kumar, Nabarun Chakraborty, Aarti Gautam, Rasha Hammamieh, Svein Martini, Scott J Montain, Stefan M Pasiakos
The magnitude, temporal dynamics, and physiologic effects of intestinal microbiome responses to physiologic stress are poorly characterized. This study used a systems biology approach and multiple-stressor military training environment to determine the effects of physiologic stress on intestinal microbiota composition and metabolic activity, and intestinal permeability (IP). 73 Soldiers were provided three rations/d with or without protein- or carbohydrate-based supplements during a four day cross-country ski march (STRESS)...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336094/distinct-succession-patterns-of-abundant-and-rare-bacteria-in-temporal-microcosms-with-pollutants
#14
Shuo Jiao, Yantao Luo, Mingmei Lu, Xiao Xiao, Yanbing Lin, Weimin Chen, Gehong Wei
Elucidating the driving forces behind the temporal dynamics of abundant and rare microbes is essential for understanding the assembly and succession of microbial communities. Here, we explored the successional trajectories and mechanisms of abundant and rare bacteria via soil-enrichment subcultures in response to various pollutants (phenanthrene, n-octadecane, and CdCl2) using time-series Illumina sequencing datasets. The results reveal different successional patterns of abundant and rare sub-communities in eighty pollutant-degrading consortia and two original soil samples...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335577/gc-ms-metabolomic-analysis-to-reveal-the-metabolites-and-biological-pathways-involved-in-the-developmental-stages-and-tissue-response-of-panax-ginseng
#15
Jia Liu, Yang Liu, Yu Wang, Ann Abozeid, Yuan-Gang Zu, Xiao-Ning Zhang, Zhong-Hua Tang
Ginsenosides, the major compounds present in ginseng, are known to have numerous physiological and pharmacological effects. The physiological processes, enzymes and genes involved in ginsenoside synthesis in P. ginseng have been well characterized. However, relatively little information is known about the dynamic metabolic changes that occur during ginsenoside accumulation in ginseng. To explore this topic, we isolated metabolites from different tissues at different growth stages, and identified and characterized them by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
March 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333071/combined-effects-of-curcumin-and-lycopene-or-bixin-in-yoghurt-on-inhibition-of-ldl-oxidation-and-increases-in-hdl-and-paraoxonase-levels-in-streptozotocin-diabetic-rats
#16
Renata Pires Assis, Carlos Alberto Arcaro, Vânia Ortega Gutierres, Juliana Oriel Oliveira, Paulo Inácio Costa, Amanda Martins Baviera, Iguatemy Lourenço Brunetti
Combination therapy using natural antioxidants to manage diabetes mellitus and its complications is an emerging trend. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes promoted by treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats with yoghurt enriched with the bioactives curcumin, lycopene, or bixin (the latter two being carotenoids). Antioxidants were administered individually, or as mixtures, and biomarkers of metabolic and oxidative disturbances, particularly those associated with cardiovascular risk, were assessed...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332117/fructose-metabolism-from-a-functional-perspective-implications-for-athletes
#17
REVIEW
Luc Tappy, Robin Rosset
Substantial amounts of fructose are present in our diet. Unlike glucose, this hexose cannot be metabolized by most cells and has first to be converted into glucose, lactate or fatty acids by enterocytes, hepatocytes and kidney proximal tubule cells, which all express specific fructose-metabolizing enzymes. This particular metabolism may then be detrimental in resting, sedentary subjects; however, this may also present some advantages for athletes. First, since fructose and glucose are absorbed through distinct, saturable gut transporters, co-ingestion of glucose and fructose may increase total carbohydrate absorption and oxidation...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330953/your-mitochondria-are-what-you-eat-a-high-fat-or-a-high-sucrose-diet-eliminates-metabolic-flexibility-in-isolated-mitochondria-from-rat-skeletal-muscle
#18
Wenche Jørgensen, Kasper A Rud, Ole H Mortensen, Lis Frandsen, Niels Grunnet, Bjørn Quistorff
Extreme diets consisting of either high fat (HF) or high sucrose (HS) may lead to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, often associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. However, it is not known if these diets alter normal interactions of pyruvate and fatty acid oxidation at the level of the mitochondria. Here, we report that rat muscle mitochondria does show the normal Randle-type fat-carbohydrate interaction seen in vivo. The mechanism behind this metabolic flexibility at the level of the isolated mitochondria is a regulation of the flux-ratio: pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)/β-oxidation to suit the actual substrate availability, with the PDH flux as the major point of regulation...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330564/proteomic-analysis-of-stipe-explants-reveals-differentially-expressed-proteins-involved-in-early-direct-somatic-embryogenesis-of-the-tree-fern-cyathea-delgadii-sternb
#19
Lucyna Domżalska, Sylwia Kędracka-Krok, Urszula Jankowska, Małgorzata Grzyb, Mirosław Sobczak, Jan J Rybczyński, Anna Mikuła
Using cyto-morphological analysis of somatic embryogenesis (SE) in the tree fern Cyathea delgadii as a guide, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis in stipe explants undergoing direct SE. Plant material was cultured on hormone-free medium supplemented with 2% sucrose. Phenol extracted proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry was performed for protein identification. A total number of 114 differentially regulated proteins was identified during early SE, i...
May 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330423/geraniol-a-natural-monoterpene-ameliorates-hyperglycemia-by-attenuating-the-key-enzymes-of-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#20
Sukumar Babukumar, Veerasamy Vinothkumar, Chandrasekaran Sankaranarayanan, Subramani Srinivasan
CONTEXT: Geraniol, an acyclic monoterpene alcohol is found in medicinal plants, is used traditionally for several medical purposes including diabetes. OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluates the antihyperglycemic potential of geraniol on key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes was induced in experimental rats, by a single intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of STZ [40 mg/kg body weight (b...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
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