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Pituitary tumour

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239034/succinate-dehydrogenase-sdh-deficient-neoplasia
#1
REVIEW
Anthony J Gill
The succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex is a key respiratory enzyme composed of four subunits: SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. Remarkably, immunohistochemistry for SDHB becomes negative whenever there is bi-alleic inactivation of any component of SDH, which is very rare in the absence of syndromic disease. Therefore, loss of SDHB immunohistochemistry serves as a marker of syndromic disease, usually germline mutation of one of the SDH subunits. Tumours which show loss of SDHB expression are termed succinate dehydrogenase-deficient...
January 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239033/what-s-new-in-pituitary-pathology
#2
REVIEW
Sylvia L Asa, Ozgur Mete
The increasing recognition of pituitary disorders and their impact on quality of life and longevity has made understanding of this small gland a subject of paramount importance. Pituitary pathology has seen many significant studies that indicate progress in identification and classification of pituitary lesions, as well as improved management strategies for patients. In this review, we outline six major areas of advances: (i) changes in terminology from 'adenoma' to 'pituitary neuroendocrine tumour'; (ii) reclassification of hormone-negative tumours based on transcription factor expression that defines lineage; (iii) updates in new pathogenetic mechanisms, including those that underlie rare lesions such as X-LAG and pituitary blastoma; (iv) clarification of hypophysitis due to immunotherapy, xanthomatous hypophysitis due to rupture of a Rathke's cleft cyst and IgG4 disease as the cause of inflammatory pseudotumour; (v) the consolidation of pituicytoma variants, including spindle cell oncocytoma and granular cell tumour based on thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) reactivity; and (vi) the pathogenetic mechanisms that distinguish papillary from adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma...
January 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234591/reproductive-hormone-analyses-and-effects-of-adjuvant-zoledronic-acid-in-early-breast-cancer-an-azure-big-01-04-sub-study
#3
Caroline Wilson, Samantha Hinsley, Helen Marshall, David Cameron, Richard Bell, David Dodwell, Robert E Coleman
Purpose: Adjuvant bisphosphonates have been shown to improve disease outcomes in early breast cancer in women who are postmenopausal at the start of treatment. We explored the influence of pretreatment serum levels of reproductive hormones in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis from a subset of patients included in the AZURE trial to investigate their impact on disease recurrence and whether reproductive hormone measurements are of value in selecting patients for treatment with adjuvant zoledronic acid...
November 2017: Journal of Bone Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193251/which-patients-with-gynaecomastia-require-more-detailed-investigation
#4
S N Ali, C N Jayasena, A H Sam
Gynaecomastia may be due to medication, chronic liver or kidney disease, hypogonadism (primary or secondary to pituitary disease) or hyperthyroidism. Having excluded these aetiologies, it is imperative to be vigilant for underlying malignancy causing gynaecomastia. These include human chorionic gonadotrophin-secreting testicular and extratesticular tumours, and oestrogen-secreting testicular tumours and feminising adrenal tumours. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 29, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180744/stem-cell-senescence-drives-age-attenuated-induction-of-pituitary-tumours-in-mouse-models-of-paediatric-craniopharyngioma
#5
Jose Mario Gonzalez-Meljem, Scott Haston, Gabriela Carreno, John R Apps, Sara Pozzi, Christina Stache, Grace Kaushal, Alex Virasami, Leonidas Panousopoulos, Seyedeh Neda Mousavy-Gharavy, Ana Guerrero, Mamunur Rashid, Nital Jani, Colin R Goding, Thomas S Jacques, David J Adams, Jesus Gil, Cynthia L Andoniadou, Juan Pedro Martinez-Barbera
Senescent cells may promote tumour progression through the activation of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), whether these cells are capable of initiating tumourigenesis in vivo is not known. Expression of oncogenic β-catenin in Sox2+ young adult pituitary stem cells leads to formation of clusters of stem cells and induction of tumours resembling human adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP), derived from Sox2- cells in a paracrine manner. Here, we uncover the mechanisms underlying this paracrine tumourigenesis...
November 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174229/repair-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-leakage-using-a-transfrontal-radial-adipofascial-flap-an-individual-approach-supported-by-3d-printing-for-surgical-planning
#6
Stefan Grau, Stephanie Kellermann, Michael Faust, Moritz Perrech, Dirk Beutner, Alexander Drzezga, Joachim Zöller
BACKGROUND: Leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) due to large prolactinomas represents a complex issue. Due to limited anatomical space, often multiple leakage sites and scarce locally available tissue for repair, surgical possibilities are limited. We report an initial case of using a radial fasciocutaneous flap applied sub-frontally to cover a large skull base defect, supported by preoperative 3D-printing for surgical planning. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 29 year old female developed severe nuchal pain which was caused by destruction of large parts of her skull base by a prolactinoma...
November 23, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171583/comparison-between-endoscopic-and-microscopic-approaches-for-surgery-of-pituitary-tumours
#7
Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim
Surgical techniques for resection of pituitary tumours have come a long way since it was first introduced in late 18th century. Nowadays, most pituitary surgeries are performed through trans-nasal trans-sphenoidal approach either using a microscope, or an endoscope. Herein the authors review the literature and compare these two instruments with regards to their outcomes when used for resection of pituitary tumours. .
November 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170844/early-recognition-of-aggressive-pituitary-adenomas-a-single-centre-experience
#8
Filippo Ceccato, Daniela Regazzo, Mattia Barbot, Luca Denaro, Enzo Emanuelli, Daniele Borsetto, Giuseppe Rolma, Luigi Alessio, Marina Paola Gardiman, Giuseppe Lombardi, Nora Albiger, Domenico D'Avella, Carla Scaroni
BACKGROUND: Pituitary adenomas are usually considered benign tumours, although some of them can exhibit an aggressive behaviour. Patients with clinically aggressive pituitary adenomas are frequently diagnosed with larger masses, and may present an earlier recurrence (or persistence) after surgery. Our aim was to characterise the clinical, histopathological and radiological features of patients with aggressive pituitary adenoma, in order to correlate their clinical behaviour with the response to treatment plan...
November 23, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167187/ischaemic-pituitary-tumour-apoplexy-and-concurrent-meningitis-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#9
Haris Hakeem, Shayan Sirat Maheen Anwar, Sarwar Jamil Siddiqui
Pituitary tumour apoplexy is a rare but potentially life threatening clinical syndrome that mostly results from haemorrhage in the pre-existent tumour. Pure ischaemic subtype of apoplexy is even rarer. The presentation can be hard to differentiate clinically from bacterial meningitis. Moreover, the presence of one does not necessarily exclude the other and early diagnosis of both conditions is imperative for timely management. We report a case of ischaemic pituitary tumour apoplexy that may have precipitated in the setting of bacterial meningitis...
November 21, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158570/expression-of-sry-related-hmg-box-transcription-factors-sox-2-and-9-in-craniopharyngioma-subtypes-and-surrounding-brain-tissue
#10
Vivian Thimsen, Nora John, Michael Buchfelder, Jörg Flitsch, Rudolf Fahlbusch, Harald Stefanits, Engelbert Knosp, Marco Losa, Rolf Buslei, Annett Hölsken
Stem cells have been discovered as key players in the genesis of different neoplasms including craniopharyngioma (CP), a rare tumour entity in the sellar region. Sox2 and Sox9 are well-known stem cell markers involved in pituitary development. In this study we analysed the expression of both transcription factors using immunohistochemistry in a large cohort of 64 adamantinomatous (aCP) and 9 papillary CP (pCP) and quantitative PCR in 26 aCP and 7 pCP. Whereas immunohistochemically Sox2+ cells were verifiable in only five aCP (7...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132721/endocrine-pathology-past-present-and-future
#11
REVIEW
Sylvia L Asa, Ozgur Mete
Endocrine pathology is the subspecialty of diagnostic pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterisation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the endocrine system. This relatively young subspecialty was initially focused mainly on thyroid and parathyroid pathology, with some participants also involved in studies of the pituitary, the endocrine pancreas, and the adrenal glands. However, the endocrine system involves much more than these traditional endocrine organs and the discipline has grown to encompass lesions of the dispersed neuroendocrine cells, including neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, thymus, breast and prostate, as well as paraganglia throughout the body, not just in the adrenals...
November 10, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110720/first-intraindividual-comparison-of-contrast-enhanced-mri-fet-and-dotatoc-pet-in-patients-with-intracranial-meningiomas
#12
Jan Oliver Dittmar, Clemens Kratochwil, Anne Dittmar, Thomas Welzel, Daniel Habermehl, Stefan Rieken, Frederik L Giesel, Uwe Haberkorn, Jürgen Debus, Stephanie E Combs
BACKGROUND: For irradiation treatment planning of meningiomas the use of PET-scans is well established. The most frequently used tracers are either based on amino acids or the somatostatin receptor ligand DOTATOC. Since up to now no inter-institutionally accepted standard PET-tracer has been defined, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of these different types of PET-tracers on the GTV-definition. METHODS: Twenty-one patients suffering from intracranial meningiomas underwent CT, MRI, FET- and DOTATOC-PET...
November 6, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102970/cabergoline-induced-fibrosis-of-prolactinomas-a-neurosurgical-perspective
#13
Niraj Mohan, Yi Yan Chia, Giap Hean Goh, Eric Ting, Kejia Teo, Tseng Tsai Yeo
Presently, the standard of care for prolactinomas, a type of pituitary adenoma, is dopaminergic agents such as bromocriptine and cabergoline. However, dopaminergic agents may induce fibrosis of cardiac valves leading to valvular insufficiency, necessitating surgical treatment of prolactinoma. Fibrosis of prolactinoma can be induced by prolonged medical treatment with bromocriptine, and this usually occurs after years of treatment. In comparison to bromocriptine, there have been no reports of cabergoline-induced fibrosis of prolactinoma...
November 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092962/multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-1-presenting-with-refractory-seizures
#14
Banshi Lal Kumawat, Chandramohan Sharma, Mohit Janakkumar Shah, Maulik Panchal
We report a case of 29-year-old woman referred to us for management of refractory epilepsy. Under observation, she was detected to have recurrent hypoglycaemia during the episodes of seizures. On investigation, she was found to have hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemia. Her triple-phase CT scan of abdomen showed neuroendocrine tumour of pancreatic head, with bilateral renal calculi. Screening of other endocrine glands revealed pituitary microadenoma and parathyroid adenoma on imaging, which was also supported by biochemical and hormonal profile...
November 1, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080355/tumour-lateralization-in-cushing-s-disease-by-inferior-petrosal-sinus-sampling-with-desmopressin
#15
Ming Feng, Ziyuan Liu, Xiaohai Liu, Xiaobo Zhang, Xinjie Bao, Yong Yao, Kan Deng, Bing Xing, Wei Lian, Huijuan Zhu, Lin Lu, Renzhi Wang
BACKGROUND: Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is currently the gold standard in the diagnosis of Cushing's disease (CD) and has also been used in tumour lateralization. Our objective was to determine the diagnostic value and lateralization accuracy of IPSS with desmopressin. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 91 patients with Cushing's syndrome who had either negative findings on pituitary dynamic enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or non-suppressed high dose dexamethasone suppression tests (HDDST)...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066490/novel-germline-p-gly42val-men1-mutation-in-a-family-with-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-1-excellent-response-of-prolactinoma-to-cabergoline
#16
Viktoria F Koehler, Kerstin Jungheim, Ute Groß, Donato Iacovazzo, Alexander Mann, Márta Korbonits
We report on a 27-year-old male patient presenting with renal colic secondary to hyperparathyroidism. Further investigations confirmed a diagnosis of type 1 multiple endocrine neoplasia and revealed a 2.0 cm pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour as well as a pituitary macroadenoma with significantly elevated prolactin levels. The patient underwent three-gland parathyroidectomy, a left pancreatectomy, and received dopamine agonist treatment. Genetic testing revealed a novel germline heterozygote missense mutation in the MEN1 gene (p...
September 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064038/hypofractionated-high-energy-proton-beam-irradiation-is-an-alternative-treatment-for-who-grade-i-meningiomas
#17
Pavlos Vlachogiannis, Olafur Gudjonsson, Anders Montelius, Erik Grusell, Ulf Isacsson, Kristina Nilsson, Erik Blomquist
BACKGROUND: Radiation treatment is commonly employed in the treatment of meningiomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of hypofractionated high-energy proton therapy as adjuvant or primary treatment for WHO grade I meningiomas. METHOD: A total of 170 patients who received irradiation with protons for grade I meningiomas between 1994 and 2007 were included in the study. The majority of the tumours were located at the skull base (n = 155)...
October 24, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046323/european-society-of-endocrinology-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-management-of-aggressive-pituitary-tumours-and-carcinomas
#18
Gerald Raverot, Pia Burman, Ann I McCormack, A P Heaney, Stephan Petersenn, Vera Popovic, Jacqueline Trouillas, Olaf Dekkers
BACKGROUND: Pituitary tumours are common and easily treated by surgery or medical treatment in most cases. However, a small subset of pituitary tumours does not respond to standard medical treatment and presents with multiple local recurrences (aggressive pituitary tumours) and in rare occasion with metastases (pituitary carcinoma). The present ESE guideline aims to provide clinical guidance on diagnosis, treatment and follow-up in aggressive pituitary tumours and carcinomas. METHODS: We decided upfront, while acknowledging literature on aggressive pituitary tumours and carcinomas is scarce, to systematically review the literature according to the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system...
October 18, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037775/neuroendocrine-late-effects-after-tailored-photon-radiotherapy-for-children-with-low-grade-gliomas-long-term-correlation-with-tumour-and-treatment-parameters
#19
Deborah Aloi, Liliana Belgioia, Salvina Barra, Flavio Giannelli, Francesca Cavagnetto, Fabio Gallo, Claudia Milanaccio, MariaLuisa Garrè, Sonia Di Profio, Natascia Di Iorgi, Renzo Corvò
PURPOSE: To evaluate neuroendocrine late effects in paediatric patients with low grade glioma (LGG) who underwent radiotherapy. METHODS AND MATERIAL: We performed a retrospective evaluation of 40 children with LGG treated from July 2002 to January 2015 with external radiotherapy. Tumour locations were cerebral hemisphere (n=2); posterior fossa (n=15); hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA, n=15); spine (n=5). Three patients presented a diffuse disease. We looked for a correlation between endocrine toxicity and tumour and treatment parameters...
October 13, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992711/-treatment-of-pituitary-adenomas
#20
Jana Ježková, Josef Marek, Manuela Vaněčková
Pituitary adenomas are the most common tumours of the sellar region. A combination of neurosurgery, radiation and pharmacological approaches are applied for the treatment of pituitary adenomas. In certain cases, patient observation is another option. Neurosurgery is the first-choice treatment for acromegaly, Cushing´s disease and TSH secreting adenomas. Leksell gamma knife irradiation is used in the treatment of tumour residues. Until the effect of the irradiation is evident, pharmacological treatment must be administered...
2017: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
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