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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546800/hyperprolactinaemia-a-problem-in-patients-from-the-reproductive-period-to-the-menopause
#1
Sylwia Pałubska, Aneta Adamiak-Godlewska, Izabela Winkler, Katarzyna Romanek-Piva, Tomasz Rechberger, Marek Gogacz
Hyperprolactinaemia especially affects women in reproductive age (90/100,000) but also often is diagnosed in menopause age and leads to disturbances in functioning of LH-RH neurons and, as a consequence, to a decrease of FSH and LH, which causes inhibition of oestradiol production. Prolactin is a peptide hormone, phylogenetically one of the oldest, stimulating cells of various organs, which is produced and secreted mainly by lactotrophic acidophilic cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary. It influences the increase in the mass of the mammary glands, and stimulation and maintenance of lactation after delivery...
March 2017: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523537/prolactinoma-management-predictors-of-remission-and-recurrence-after-dopamine-agonists-withdrawal
#2
Margarida Teixeira, Pedro Souteiro, Davide Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: Prolactinomas are the most common functional pituitary tumour. Dopamine agonists (DA) are its principal treatment. The criteria that should guide therapy withdrawal and the factors that influence disease remission or relapse are not yet fully established. Our purpose is to evaluate the proportion of patients who attempted DA withdrawal, and to identify the factors that influence clinicians to try it. In addition, we aim to study the factors that are involved in prolactinoma remission/relapse after therapy withdrawal...
May 18, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522647/prkar1a-mutation-causing-pituitary-dependent-cushing-disease-in-a-patient-with-carney-complex
#3
Florian W Kiefer, Yvonne Winhofer, Donato Iacovazzo, Marta Korbonits, Stefan Wolfsberger, Engelbert Knosp, Franz Trautinger, Romana Höftberger, Michael Krebs, Anton Luger, Alois Gessl
CONTEXT: Carney complex (CNC) is an autosomal dominant condition caused, in most cases, by an inactivating mutation of the PRKAR1A gene, which encodes for the type 1 alpha regulatory subunit of protein kinase A. CNC is characterized by the occurrence of endocrine overactivity, myxomas and typical skin manifestations. Cushing syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is the most frequent endocrine disease observed in CNC. CASE DESCRIPTION: Here we describe the first case of a patient with CNC and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing disease due to a pituitary corticotroph adenoma...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520590/role-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-pituitary-tumours-from-bench-to-bedside
#4
Anat Ben-Shlomo, Odelia Cooper
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment of aggressive pituitary tumours often yields suboptimal control of the tumour and confers significant morbidity. Lactotroph and corticotroph-derived tumours express ErbB receptors and ligands, and mutations in ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8), which alters epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) degradation, have been implicated in Cushing disease pathogenesis. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy has emerged as a potential new therapeutic approach for patients with aggressive prolactinomas and Cushing disease...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516382/early-postoperative-growth-in-non-functioning-pituitary-adenomas-a-tool-to-tailor-safe-follow-up
#5
Kristin Astrid Øystese, Manuela Zucknick, Olivera Casar-Borota, Geir Ringstad, Jens Bollerslev
PURPOSE: Non-functioning pituitary adenomas are common, and the treatment and follow-up of these patients represent a multidisciplinary challenge. First line treatment is transphenoidal surgery, with debulking or total removal of tumour. A substantial portion of the tumours relapse after surgery, and there is no consensus of how to follow these patients postoperatively. Our aim was to characterize the postoperative growth of non-functioning pituitary adenomas and correlate it to clinical and paraclinical data...
May 17, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506993/mapk-pathway-activation-in-the-embryonic-pituitary-results-in-stem-cell-compartment-expansion-differentiation-defects-and-provides-insights-into-the-pathogenesis-of-papillary-craniopharyngioma
#6
S Haston, S Pozzi, G Carreno, S Manshaei, L Panousopoulos, J M Gonzalez-Meljem, J R Apps, A Virasami, S Thavaraj, A Gutteridge, T Forshew, R Marais, S Brandner, T S Jacques, C L Andoniadou, J P Martinez-Barbera
Despite the importance of the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway in normal physiology and disease of numerous organs, its role during pituitary development and tumourigenesis remains largely unknown. Here we show that the over-activation of the MAPK pathway, through conditional expression of the gain-of-function alleles BrafV600E and KrasG12D in the developing mouse pituitary, results in severe hyperplasia and abnormal morphogenesis of the gland by the end of gestation. Cell-lineage commitment and terminal differentiation are disrupted, leading to a significant reduction in numbers of most of the hormone-producing cells before birth, with the exception of corticotrophs...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481062/preclinical-transgenic-and-patient-derived-xenograft-models-recapitulate-the-radiological-features-of-human-adamantinomatous-craniopharyngioma
#7
Jessica K R Boult, John R Apps, Annett Hölsken, J Ciaran Hutchinson, Carreno Gabriela, Laura S Danielson, Laura M Smith, Tobias Bäuerle, Rolf Buslei, Michael Buchfelder, Alex K Virasami, Alexander Koers, Owen J Arthurs, Thomas S Jacques, Louis Chesler, Juan Pedro Martinez-Barbera, Simon P Robinson
AIM: To assess the clinical relevance of transgenic and patient-derived xenograft models of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) using serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high resolution post-mortem micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), with correlation with histology and human ACP imaging. METHODS: The growth patterns and radiological features of tumours arising in Hesx1(Cre/+) ;Ctnnb1(l) °(x(ex3)/+) transgenic mice, and of patient-derived ACP xenografts implanted in the cerebral cortex, were monitored longitudinally in vivo with anatomical and functional MRI, and by ex vivo μ-CT at study end...
May 8, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469929/an-intrasellar-pituitary-adenoma-gangliocytoma-presenting-as-acromegaly
#8
Melissa H Lee, Penelope McKelvie, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Yi Yuen Wang, Carmela Caputo
Most cases of acromegaly are due to growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas arising from somatotroph cells. Mixed pituitary adenoma and gangliocytoma tumours are rare and typically associated with hormonal hypersecretion, most commonly GH excess. Differentiating these mixed tumours from conventional pituitary adenomas can be difficult pre-operatively, and careful histological analysis after surgical resection is key to differentiating the two entities. There is little literature addressing the possible mechanisms for the development of mixed pituitary adenoma-gangliocytomas; however, several hypotheses have been proposed...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469923/macroprolactinoma-appearing-after-resolution-of-hydrocephalus
#9
Oscar D Bruno, Ricardo Fernández Pisani, Gabriel Isaac, Armando Basso
SUMMARY: The role of mechanical forces influencing the growth of a pituitary adenoma is poorly understood. In this paper we report the case of a young man with hyperprolactinaemia and an empty sella secondary to hydrocephalia, who developed a macroprolactinoma following the relief of high intraventricular pressure. LEARNING POINTS: The volume of a pituitary tumour may be influenced not only by molecular but also by local mechanical factors.Intratumoural pressure, resistance of the sellar diaphragm and intracranial liquid pressure may play a role in the final size of a pituitary adenoma...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469401/hepatocyte-growth-factor-c-met-axis-in-thyroid-cancer-from-diagnostic-biomarker-to-therapeutic-target
#10
REVIEW
Maria Trovato, Alfredo Campennì, Salvatore Giovinazzo, Massimiliano Siracusa, Rosaria Maddalena Ruggeri
The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-met axis plays a crucial role in cancer development by promoting cellular proliferation, motility, and morphogenesis, as well as angiogenesis. Different cellular distributions of both the ligand and the receptor in benign vs malignant lesions indicate this biological system as a candidate for a diagnostic biomarker of malignancy occurring in endocrine glands, such as the thyroid and pituitary. Furthermore, the HGF/c-met expression may help to identify a subset of patients eligible for potential targeted therapies with HGF/c-met inhibitors or antagonists in thyroid tumour, as well as in other malignancies...
2017: Biomarker Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458905/silent-crooke-s-cell-corticotroph-adenoma-of-the-pituitary-gland-presenting-as-delayed-puberty
#11
Dinesh Giri, Federico Roncaroli, Ajay Sinha, Mohammed Didi, Senthil Senniappan
SUMMARY: Corticotroph adenomas are extremely rare in children and adolescents. We present a 15-year-old boy who was investigated for delayed puberty (A1P2G1, bilateral testicular volumes of 3 mL each). There was no clinical or laboratory evidence suggestive of chronic illness, and the initial clinical impression was constitutional delay in puberty. Subsequently, MRI scan of the brain revealed the presence of a mixed cystic and solid pituitary lesion slightly displacing the optic chiasma...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457738/acromegalic-cardiomyopathy-with-malignant-arrhythmogenic-pattern-successfully-treated-with-mechanical-circulatory-support-and-heart-transplantation
#12
Sara Doimo, Daniela Miani, Nicoletta Finato, Mauro Driussi, Gianfranco Sinagra, Ugolino Livi, Alessandro Proclemer
Cardiovascular involvement is common in acromegaly and can lead to development of acromegalic cardiomyopathy, characterized by concentric biventricular hypertrophy with a progressive impairment of diastolic and systolic function. The onset of heart failure and arrhythmias are related to poor prognosis. We report on a case of a 48-year-old man with acromegalic cardiomyopathy caused by pituitary adenoma. Despite the successful trans-sphenoidal resection of the tumour, the patient was rehospitalized for ventricular arrhythmic storms that led to cardiogenic shock, which required mechanical hemodynamic support with intra-aortic balloon pump, venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and urgent heart transplantation...
February 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447589/neuroretinal-evaluation-using-optical-coherence-tomography-in-patients-affected-by-pituitary-tumors
#13
Yasar Altun, Ayse Sevgi Karadag, Seyho Cem Yucetas, Sadullah Saglam, A Z A Tak, Ilhan Cag, Yusuf Ehi
AIM: To investigate the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), the ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and choroid thickness (CT) in patients with pituitary tumours, microadenoma and macroadenoma, using spectral optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: Thirty six patients who had micro and macroadenoma, and 34 healthy participants (control group) were included in the study. Spectral OCT was used to measure the RNFL, GCL, IPL, and CT values for all patients...
2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430293/three-cases-of-ectopic-sphenoid-sinus-pituitary-adenoma
#14
Ernest Jan Bobeff, Karol Wiśniewski, Wielisław Papierz, Ludomir Stefańczyk, Dariusz Jan Jaskólski
<i><b>Introduction</b>: Ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma is a rare tumour originating from embryologic remnants of Rathke's pouch. Although it is considered a clinically benign neoplasm, necrosis is encountered in 25% of cases and it can invade adjacent bone structures. <b>Aims</b>: To establish clinical, radiological and histopathological features of ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma. <b>Material and methods: </b> Analysis of three cases: two females and one man, aged 61-70...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425105/the-incidence-of-anterior-pituitary-hormone-deficiencies-in-patients-with-microprolactinoma-and-idiopathic-hyperprolactinaemia
#15
L A Behan, P Moyles, M Cuesta, B Rogers, R K Crowley, J Ryan, P Brennan, D Smith, W Tormey, M Sherlock, C J Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Patients with microprolactinoma and idiopathic hyperprolactinaemia are not generally considered to be at risk of hypopituitarism and are therefore not routinely screened for this abnormality. In our clinical practice we have observed a number of patients with non-macroadenomatous hyperprolactinaemia to have anterior pituitary hormone deficits. AIMS: We aimed to establish the frequency and clinical significance of anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, comparing patients with radiologically proven microprolactinomas and patients with idiopathic hyperprolactinaemia...
April 20, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420716/a-men1-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumour-mouse-model-under-temporal-control
#16
Kate E Lines, Roeland P Vas Nunes, Morten Frost, Christopher J Yates, Mark Stevenson, Rajesh Thakker
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by occurrence of parathyroid tumours, and neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the pancreatic islets and anterior pituitary. The MEN1 gene, encoding menin, is a tumour suppressor, but its precise role in initiating in vivo tumourigenesis remains to be elucidated. The availability of a temporally controlled conditional MEN1 mouse model would greatly facilitate the study of such early tumourigenic events, and overcome the limitations of other MEN1 knockout models, in which menin is lost from conception, or tumour development occurs asynchronously...
April 18, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415806/lithium-protects-hippocampal-progenitors-cognitive-performance-and-hypothalamus-pituitary-function-after-irradiation-to-the-juvenile-rat-brain
#17
Kai Zhou, Cuicui Xie, Malin Wickström, Amalia M Dolga, Yaodong Zhang, Tao Li, Yiran Xu, Carsten Culmsee, Per Kogner, Changlian Zhu, Klas Blomgren
Cranial radiotherapy in children typically causes delayed and progressive cognitive dysfunction and there is no effective preventive strategy for radiation-induced cognitive impairments. Here we show that lithium treatment reduced irradiation-induced progenitor cell death in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, and subsequently ameliorated irradiation-reduced neurogenesis and astrogenesis in the juvenile rat brain. Irradiation-induced memory impairment, motor hyperactivity and anxiety-like behaviour were normalized by lithium treatment...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400402/molecular-targeted-therapies-in-adrenal-pituitary-and-parathyroid-malignancies
#18
Anna Angelousi, Georgios K Dimitriadis, Gn Zografos, Svenja Nölting, Gregory A Kaltsas, Ashley B Grossman
Tumourigenesis is a relatively common event in endocrine tissues. Currently, specific guidelines have been developed for common malignant endocrine tumours which also incorporate advances in molecular targeted therapies (MTT), as in thyroid cancer and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine malignancies. However, there is little information regarding the role and efficacy of MTT in the relatively rare malignant endocrine tumours mainly involving the adrenal medulla, adrenal cortex, pituitary and parathyroid glands...
April 11, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373439/characterization-of-leiomyomatoid-angiomatous-neuroendocrine-tumour-lant-like-tumour-in-the-myometrium-with-histopathological-examination
#19
Takuma Hayashi, Tomoyuki Ichimura, Mari Kasai, Kenji Sano, Dorit Zharhary, Tanri Shiozawa, Nobuo Yaegashi, Ikuo Konishi
Leiomyomatoid angiomatous neuroendocrine tumour (LANT) is possibly a new disease entity that was reported as a dimorphic neurosecretory tumour with a leiomyomatous vascular component; it was found in the pituitary. We describe uterine LANT-like malignant tumour in a 45-year-old woman with uterine mesenchymal tumour, diagnosed clinically as uterine leiomyoma. She underwent laparoscopic myomectomy. The tumour consisted of hyalinized vasculature, containing factor VIII-positive endothelium and α-smooth muscle actin-positive vascular smooth muscle cells, and stromal cells, expressing neuroadhesion molecules...
April 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346917/endocrine-long-term-follow-up-of-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-and-optic-pathway-glioma%C3%A2
#20
Ilaria Sani, Assunta Albanese
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Children with optic pathway glioma (OPG) face sequelae related to tumour location and treatment modalities. We aimed to assess the prevalence of hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunctions in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and OPG who did not receive radiotherapy or surgical resection. The causative role of tumour location on endocrinopathy development is investigated. METHODS: A retrospective follow-up study of 40 children with NF1 and OPG evaluated between August 1996 and May 2015 was undertaken...
2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
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