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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727566/model-free-adaptive-control-for-unknown-nonlinear-zero-sum-differential-game
#1
Xiangnan Zhong, Haibo He, Ding Wang, Zhen Ni
In this paper, we present a new model-free globalized dual heuristic dynamic programming (GDHP) approach for the discrete-time nonlinear zero-sum game problems. First, the online learning algorithm is proposed based on the GDHP method to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs equation associated with H∞ optimal regulation control problem. By setting backward one step of the definition of performance index, the requirement of system dynamics, or an identifier is relaxed in the proposed method. Then, three neural networks are established to approximate the optimal saddle point feedback control law, the disturbance law, and the performance index, respectively...
July 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726676/a-biokinetic-and-dosimetric-model-for-ionic-indium-in-humans
#2
Martin Andersson, Sören Mattsson, Lennart Johansson, Sigrid Leide-Svegborn
This paper reviews biokinetic data for ionic indium, and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic indium in adult humans. The development of parameter values focuses on human data and indium in the form of ionic indium(III), as indium chloride and indium arsenide. The model presented for systemic indium is defined by five different pools: plasma, bone marrow, liver, kidneys and other soft tissues. The model is based on two subsystems: one corresponding to indium bound to transferrin and one where indium is transported back to the plasma, binds to red blood cell transferrin and is then excreted through the kidneys to the urinary bladder...
July 20, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726438/superior-pattern-detectors-efficiently-learn-activate-apply-and-update-social-stereotypes
#3
David J Lick, Adam L Alter, Jonathan B Freeman
Superior cognitive abilities are generally associated with positive outcomes such as academic achievement and social mobility. Here, we explore the darker side of cognitive ability, highlighting robust links between pattern detection and stereotyping. Across 6 studies, we find that superior pattern detectors efficiently learn and use stereotypes about social groups. This pattern holds across explicit (Studies 1 and 2), implicit (Studies 2 and 4), and behavioral measures of stereotyping (Study 3). We also find that superior pattern detectors readily update their stereotypes when confronted with new information (Study 5), making them particularly susceptible to counterstereotype training (Study 6)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726238/a-patch-to-the-nyu-emergency-department-visit-algorithm
#4
Kenton J Johnston, Lindsay Allen, Taylor A Melanson, Stephen R Pitts
OBJECTIVE: To document erosion in the New York University Emergency Department (ED) visit algorithm's capability to classify ED visits and to provide a "patch" to the algorithm. DATA SOURCES: The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. STUDY DESIGN: We used bivariate models to assess whether the percentage of visits unclassifiable by the algorithm increased due to annual changes to ICD-9 diagnosis codes. We updated the algorithm with ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes added since 2001...
August 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726234/-current-status-of-congenital-myasthenic-syndromes
#5
REVIEW
M Bestue-Cardiel, D Natera-de Benito
Since Engel reported the first case of congenital myasthenia in 1977 and the first pathogenic gene was found in 1995, knowledge about congenital myasthenic syndromes has continued to grow. Over the years, the pathogenic basis, its clinical features, the phenotype-genotype correlations that have been established and its therapeutic management have all been described. In this group of diseases the safety margin of neuromuscular transmission is altered by different mechanisms: in the synthesis or storage of acetylcholine quanta in the synaptic vesicles, in the calcium-mediated release of acetylcholine in the nerve terminal or in the efficiency of the quantum released to generate a post-synaptic depolarisation...
August 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726152/cardiovascular-outcome-trial-update-in-diabetes-new-evidence-remaining-questions
#6
REVIEW
Rebecca Herbst, Wilburn Bolton, Afreen Shariff, Jennifer B Green
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Seven trials of new agents to treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have been performed to assess cardiovascular (CV) safety. A significant amount of information regarding the effects of drugs in three classes is available, with new data from multiple other trials expected shortly. This article provides a summary of recently completed trials. RECENT FINDINGS: The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors studied thus far do not alter the risk of major adverse CV events (MACE)...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726142/single-incision-surgery-trocar-site-hernia-an-updated-systematic-review-meta-analysis-with-trial-sequential-analysis-by-the-minimally-invasive-surgery-synthesis-of-interventions-outcomes-network-mission
#7
Stavros A Antoniou, Josep M García-Alamino, Shahab Hajibandeh, Shahin Hajibandeh, Michael Weitzendorfer, Filip E Muysoms, Frank A Granderath, George E Chalkiadakis, Klaus Emmanuel, George A Antoniou, Meropi Gioumidou, Styliani Iliopoulou-Kosmadaki, Maria Mathioudaki, Kyriakos Souliotis
BACKGROUND: Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a new technique that aims to minimize abdominal wall trauma and improve cosmesis. Concerns have been raised about the risk of trocar-site hernia following SILS. This study aims to assess the risk of trocar-site hernia following SILS compared to conventional laparoscopic surgery, and investigate whether current evidence is conclusive. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and OpenGrey...
July 19, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725965/medulloblastoma-experimental-models-and-reality
#8
REVIEW
Julia E Neumann, Fredrik J Swartling, Ulrich Schüller
Medulloblastoma is the most frequent malignant brain tumor in childhood, but it may also affect infants, adolescents, and young adults. Recent advances in the understanding of the disease have shed light on molecular and clinical heterogeneity, which is now reflected in the updated WHO classification of brain tumors. At the same time, it is well accepted that preclinical research and clinical trials have to be subgroup-specific. Hence, valid models have to be generated specifically for every medulloblastoma subgroup to properly mimic molecular fingerprints, clinical features, and responsiveness to targeted therapies...
July 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725926/the-intensive-care-medicine-research-agenda-on-critically-ill-oncology-and-hematology-patients
#9
REVIEW
Elie Azoulay, Peter Schellongowski, Michael Darmon, Philippe R Bauer, Dominique Benoit, Pieter Depuydt, Jigeeshu V Divatia, Virginie Lemiale, Maarten van Vliet, Anne-Pascale Meert, Djamel Mokart, Stephen M Pastores, Anders Perner, Frédéric Pène, Peter Pickkers, Kathryn A Puxty, Francois Vincent, Jorge Salluh, Ayman O Soubani, Massimo Antonelli, Thomas Staudinger, Michael von Bergwelt-Baildon, Marcio Soares
Over the coming years, accelerating progress against cancer will be associated with an increased number of patients who require life-sustaining therapies for infectious or toxic chemotherapy-related events. Major changes include increased number of cancer patients admitted to the ICU with full-code status or for time-limited trials, increased survival and quality of life in ICU survivors, changing prognostic factors, early ICU admission for optimal monitoring, and use of noninvasive diagnostic and therapeutic strategies...
July 19, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725645/imaging-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-a-multimodality-update
#10
REVIEW
Thomas Semple, Mohammed R Akhtar, Catherine M Owens
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common form of infantile chronic lung disease and results in significant health-care expenditure. The roles of chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) are well documented but numerous recent advances in imaging technology have paved the way for newer imaging techniques including structural pulmonary assessment via lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional assessment via ventilation, and perfusion MRI and quantitative imaging techniques using both CT and MRI...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725370/emlen-funnel-experiments-revisited-methods-update-for-studying-compass-orientation-in-songbirds
#11
Giuseppe Bianco, Mihaela Ilieva, Clas Veibäck, Kristoffer Öfjäll, Alicja Gadomska, Gustaf Hendeby, Michael Felsberg, Fredrik Gustafsson, Susanne Åkesson
Migratory songbirds carry an inherited capacity to migrate several thousand kilometers each year crossing continental landmasses and barriers between distant breeding sites and wintering areas. How individual songbirds manage with extreme precision to find their way is still largely unknown. The functional characteristics of biological compasses used by songbird migrants has mainly been investigated by recording the birds directed migratory activity in circular cages, so-called Emlen funnels. This method is 50 years old and has not received major updates over the past decades...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723924/a-context-for-the-last-neandertals-of-interior-iberia-los-casares-cave-revisited
#12
Manuel Alcaraz-Castaño, Javier Alcolea-González, Martin Kehl, Rosa-María Albert, Javier Baena-Preysler, Rodrigo de Balbín-Behrmann, Felipe Cuartero, Gloria Cuenca-Bescós, Fernando Jiménez-Barredo, José-Antonio López-Sáez, Raquel Piqué, David Rodríguez-Antón, José Yravedra, Gerd-Christian Weniger
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Although the Iberian Peninsula is a key area for understanding the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition and the demise of the Neandertals, valuable evidence for these debates remains scarce and problematic in its interior regions. Sparse data supporting a late Neandertal persistence in the Iberian interior have been recently refuted and hence new evidence is needed to build new models on the timing and causes of Neandertal disappearance in inland Iberia and the whole peninsula...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723838/transcatheter-pulmonary-valve-implantation-valve-technology-and-procedural-outcome
#13
Arash Salavitabar, Patrick Flynn, Ralf J Holzer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Procedural technique and short-term outcomes of transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation (TPVI) have been widely described. The purpose of this article is to provide an update on current valve technology, and to focus on recent data surrounding TPVI in the dilated right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT), hybrid interventions, significant outcomes, and procedural costs. RECENT FINDINGS: Transcatheter valve technology has expanded with current trials evaluating self-expandable valves that can be implanted in dilated RVOTs...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721823/genetic-risk-factors-for-glaucoma-and-exfoliation-syndrome-identified-by-genome-wide-association-studies
#14
Yoichi Sakurada, Fumihiko Mabuchi
Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve axons. According to its anatomical features, glaucoma is mainly subdivided into primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and glaucoma (XFG) are characterized by the accumulation of extracellular materials in ocular tissues, particularly the lens surface and pupillary border. In addition to the two major forms of glaucoma, XFG is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma...
July 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721466/the-moge-s-classification-for-cardiomyopathies-current-status-and-future-outlook
#15
REVIEW
Julian G Westphal, Angelos G Rigopoulos, Constantinos Bakogiannis, Sarah E Ludwig, Sophie Mavrogeni, Boris Bigalke, Torsten Doenst, Matthias Pauschinger, Carsten Tschöpe, P Christian Schulze, Michel Noutsias
Cardiomyopathies are complex diseases of multifactorial pathogenesis and have a high morbidity and mortality. Over the past decades, several revisions of classifications and definitions of cardiomyopathies have been proposed, primarily focusing on the phenotypic characterization of cardiomyopathies. The MOGE(S) classification system published in 2013 encompasses the classification of rapidly growing knowledge on genetic mutations, acquired causes (i.e., intramyocardial inflammation, viral infections), and further conditions involved in the induction of cardiomyopathies (e...
July 19, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719896/update-on-the-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-preeclampsia-with-the-aid-of-the-sflt-1-plgf-ratio-in-singleton-pregnancies
#16
Ignacio Herraiz, Elisa Llurba, Stefan Verlohren, Alberto Galindo
Preeclampsia (PE) is involved in a group of obstetrical conditions closely related by the presence of placental dysfunction (PD), which also includes intrauterine growth restriction and placental abruption. The timely and accurate recognition and management of PE are often challenging because diagnostic criteria are still based on nonspecific signs and symptoms and because common severity criteria correlate poorly with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. The discovery of the role of angiogenesis-related factors - soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) - in the underlying pathophysiology of PD has marked an important step for improving its early diagnosis and prognosis assessment before gestational week 34...
July 19, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719563/what-s-new-in-musculoskeletal-infection-update-across-orthopaedic-subspecialties
#17
Antonia F Chen, Arvind D Nana, Sandra B Nelson, Alex McLaren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719473/delayed-patch-test-reading-after-5-days-an-update-from-the-mayo-clinic-contact-dermatitis-group
#18
Hafsa M Chaudhry, Lisa A Drage, Rokea A El-Azhary, Matthew R Hall, Jill M Killian, Amy V Prakash, James A Yiannias, Mark D P Davis
BACKGROUND: Patch-test readings after day 5 have previously been used to identify delayed reactions to metals and topical antibiotics. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to identify allergens for which late readings (beyond day 5) would be most valuable and to compare our results with our previous study on delayed patch-test readings. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 298 patients who underwent metal and corticosteroid series patch testing from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2013...
July 2017: Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719390/total-pancreatectomy-with-islet-autotransplantation-recent-updates-and-outcomes
#19
Yoshitaro Shindo, Mazhar A Kanak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) is a reliable therapy to retain endocrine function, to alleviate pain and improve quality of life in adult and pediatric patients suffering from refractory chronic pancreatitis and recurrent acute pancreatitis. Recently, an expansion of indications to include benign and malignant pancreatic disease has been suggested. Improved methods for evaluating the functional quality of islets and predicting transplant outcome have been discussed...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718805/emerging-fusarium-and-alternaria-mycotoxins-occurrence-toxicity-and-toxicokinetics
#20
REVIEW
Sophie Fraeyman, Siska Croubels, Mathias Devreese, Gunther Antonissen
Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, although in vivo toxicity and toxicokinetic data are limited. Whereas the Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, moniliformin and enniatins particularly contaminate grain and grain-based products, Alternaria mycotoxins are also detected in fruits, vegetables and wines. Although contamination levels are usually low (µg/kg range), higher contamination levels of enniatins and tenuazonic acid may occasionally occur...
July 18, 2017: Toxins
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