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PARTICLE BEAM THERAPY

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320576/targeting-dna-repair-with-pnkp-inhibition-sensitizes-radioresistant-prostate-cancer-cells-to-high-let-radiation
#1
Pallavi Srivastava, Asitikantha Sarma, Chandra Mohini Chaturvedi
High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation or heavy ion such as carbon ion radiation is used as a method for advanced radiotherapy in the treatment of cancer. It has many advantages over the conventional photon based radiotherapy using Co-60 gamma or high energy X-rays from a Linear Accelerator. However, charged particle therapy is very costly. One way to reduce the cost as well as irradiation effects on normal cells is to reduce the dose of radiation by enhancing the radiation sensitivity through the use of a radiomodulator...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285679/human-neural-stem-cell-extracellular-vesicles-improve-tissue-and-functional-recovery-in-the-murine-thromboembolic-stroke-model
#2
Robin L Webb, Erin E Kaiser, Shelley L Scoville, Tyler A Thompson, Sumbul Fatima, Chirayukumar Pandya, Karishma Sriram, Raymond L Swetenburg, Kumar Vaibhav, Ali S Arbab, Babak Baban, Krishnan M Dhandapani, David C Hess, M N Hoda, Steven L Stice
Over 700 drugs have failed in stroke clinical trials, an unprecedented rate thought to be attributed in part to limited and isolated testing often solely in "young" rodent models and focusing on a single secondary injury mechanism. Here, extracellular vesicles (EVs), nanometer-sized cell signaling particles, were tested in a mouse thromboembolic (TE) stroke model. Neural stem cell (NSC) and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) EVs derived from the same pluripotent stem cell (PSC) line were evaluated for changes in infarct volume as well as sensorimotor function...
December 28, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235123/proof-of-principle-of-helium-beam-radiography-using-silicon-pixel-detectors-for-energy-deposition-measurement-identification-and-tracking-of-single-ions
#3
Tim Gehrke, Raya Gallas, Oliver Jäkel, Maria Martišíková
PURPOSE: Hadron therapy has the capability to provide a high dose conformation to tumor regions. However, it requires an accurate target positioning. Thus, the precise monitoring of the patient's anatomical positioning during treatment is desirable. For this purpose, hadron-beam radiography with protons (pRad) and ions (iRad) could be an attractive tool complementing the conventional imaging technologies. On the pathway to an envisaged clinical application, several challenges have to be addressed...
December 12, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225692/recent-advances-in-radiation-oncology
#4
REVIEW
Cristina Garibaldi, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Giulia Marvaso, Samantha Dicuonzo, Damaris Patricia Rojas, Federica Cattani, Anna Starzyńska, Delia Ciardo, Alessia Surgo, Maria Cristina Leonardi, Rosalinda Ricotti
Radiotherapy (RT) is very much a technology-driven treatment modality in the management of cancer. RT techniques have changed significantly over the past few decades, thanks to improvements in engineering and computing. We aim to highlight the recent developments in radiation oncology, focusing on the technological and biological advances. We will present state-of-the-art treatment techniques, employing photon beams, such as intensity-modulated RT, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, stereotactic body RT and adaptive RT, which make possible a highly tailored dose distribution with maximum normal tissue sparing...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213338/particle-therapy-and-nanomedicine-state-of-art-and-research-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
Sandrine Lacombe, Erika Porcel, Emanuele Scifoni
Cancer radiation therapy with charged particle beams, called particle therapy, is a new therapeutic treatment presenting major advantages when compared to conventional radiotherapy. Because ions have specific ballistic properties and a higher biological effectiveness, they are superior to x-rays. Numerous medical centres are starting in the world using mostly protons but also carbon ions as medical beams. Several investigations are attempting to reduce the cost/benefit ratio and enlarge the range of therapeutic indications...
2017: Cancer Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195567/review-of-technologies-and-procedures-of-clinical-dosimetry-for-scanned-ion-beam-radiotherapy
#6
REVIEW
S Giordanengo, L Manganaro, A Vignati
In the last few years, the use of ions in radiation therapy is gaining interest and it is being considered medically necessary for a growing subset of tumours. Concurrently, the technologies involved in a particle therapy treatment are rapidly evolving, as well as the accuracy in the dose delivery in spite of the increased complexity. Since nowadays, the pencil beam scanning technique is showing very interesting features in terms of dose conformation and overall treatment outcome, the present review is intended to summarize the main procedures, detectors and tools adopted for the clinical dose verification...
November 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195556/immobilization-for-carbon-ion-beam-ablation-of-cardiac-structures-in-a-porcine-model
#7
Matthias Prall, Anna Eichhorn, Daniel Richter, H Immo Lehmann, Anna Constantinescu, Robert Kaderka, Patrick Lugenbiel, Dierk Thomas, Christoph Bert, Douglas L Packer, Marco Durante, Christian Graeff
INTRODUCTION: Whereas hadron therapy of static targets is clinically established, treatment of moving organs remains a challenge. One strategy is to minimize motion of surrounding tissue mechanically and to mitigate residual motion with an appropriate irradiation technique. In this technical note, we present and characterize such an immobilization technique for a novel noncancerous application: the irradiation of small targets in hearts with scanned carbon ion beams in a porcine model for elimination of arrhythmias...
November 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195506/treatment-of-meningioma-and-glioma-with-protons-and-carbon-ions
#8
REVIEW
Sebastian Adeberg, Semi B Harrabi, Vivek Verma, Denise Bernhardt, Nicole Grau, Jürgen Debus, Stefan Rieken
The rapid rise of particle therapy across the world necessitates evidence to justify its ever-increasing utilization. This narrative review summarizes the current status of these technologies on treatment of both meningiomas and gliomas, the most common benign and malignant primary brain tumors, respectively. Proton beam therapy (PBT) for meningiomas displays high rates of long-term local control, low rates of symptomatic deterioration, along with the potential for safe dose-escalation in select (but not necessarily routine) cases...
December 1, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183377/impact-of-robust-treatment-planning-on-single-and-multi-field-optimized-plans-for-proton-beam-therapy-of-unilateral-head-and-neck-target-volumes
#9
Macarena Cubillos-Mesías, Michael Baumann, Esther G C Troost, Fabian Lohaus, Steffen Löck, Christian Richter, Kristin Stützer
BACKGROUND: Proton beam therapy is promising for the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC), but it is sensitive to uncertainties in patient positioning and particle range. Studies have shown that the planning target volume (PTV) concept may not be sufficient to ensure robustness of the target coverage. A few planning studies have considered irradiation of unilateral HNC targets with protons, but they have only taken into account the dose on the nominal plan, without considering anatomy changes occurring during the treatment course...
November 28, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103987/special-radiobiological-features-of-second-cancer-risk-after-particle-radiotherapy
#10
Klaus-Rüdiger Trott
In absolute terms: second cancer risks from radiotherapy of first cancers in adults are small compared to the benefits from radiotherapy but this is not so for radiotherapy of childhood cancers. Moreover, the radiation dose dependence of cancer induction differs between organs and tissues. The organ-specific dose dependence of second cancer risks may indicate the existence of different radiobiological mechanisms. As an inevitable consequence of the age dependence of organ sensitivity to second cancer induction, the organ/tissue weighting factors which have been proposed by ICRP for calculating effective dose (the dose unit Sv) and for risk estimation in the general population should not be used in medical radiation exposures...
October 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099228/collisionless-shock-acceleration-of-high-flux-quasimonoenergetic-proton-beams-driven-by-circularly-polarized-laser-pulses
#11
H Zhang, B F Shen, W P Wang, S H Zhai, S S Li, X M Lu, J F Li, R J Xu, X L Wang, X Y Liang, Y X Leng, R X Li, Z Z Xu
We present experimental studies on ion acceleration using an 800-nm circularly polarized laser pulse with a peak intensity of 6.9×10^{19}  W/cm^{2} interacting with an overdense plasma that is produced by a laser prepulse ionizing an initially ultrathin plastic foil. The proton spectra exhibit spectral peaks at energies up to 9 MeV with energy spreads of 30% and fluxes as high as 3×10^{12}  protons/MeV/sr. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations reveal that collisionless shocks are efficiently launched by circularly polarized lasers in exploded plasmas, resulting in the acceleration of quasimonoenergetic proton beams...
October 20, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095996/optimum-size-of-a-calibration-phantom-for-x-ray-ct-to-convert-the-hounsfield-units-to-stopping-power-ratios-in-charged-particle-therapy-treatment-planning
#12
T Inaniwa, H Tashima, N Kanematsu
In charged-particle therapy treatment planning, the volumetric distribution of stopping power ratios (SPRs) of body tissues relative to water is used for patient dose calculation. The distribution is conventionally obtained from computed tomography (CT) images of a patient using predetermined conversion functions from the CT numbers to the SPRs. One of the biggest uncertainty sources of patient SPR estimation is insufficient correction of beam hardening arising from the mismatch between the size of the patient cross section and the calibration phantom for producing the conversion functions...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092716/the-150-most-important-questions-in-cancer-research-and-clinical-oncology-series-questions-67-75-edited-by-chinese-journal-of-cancer
#13
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
Since the beginning of 2017, Chinese Journal of Cancer has published a series of important questions in cancer research and clinical oncology, which sparkle diverse thoughts, interesting communications, and potential collaborations among researchers all over the world. In this article, 9 more questions are presented as followed. Question 67. How could we overcome the resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma against chemotherapeutics? Question 68. Is pursuit of non-covalent small-molecule binders of RAS proteins viable as a strategy of cancer drug discovery? Question 69...
November 1, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082601/time-resolved-diode-dosimetry-calibration-through-monte-carlo-modeling-for-in%C3%A2-vivo-passive-scattered-proton-therapy-range-verification
#14
Allison Toltz, Michaela Hoesl, Jan Schuemann, Jan Seuntjens, Hsiao-Ming Lu, Harald Paganetti
PURPOSE: Our group previously introduced an in vivo proton range verification methodology in which a silicon diode array system is used to correlate the dose rate profile per range modulation wheel cycle of the detector signal to the water-equivalent path length (WEPL) for passively scattered proton beam delivery. The implementation of this system requires a set of calibration data to establish a beam-specific response to WEPL fit for the selected 'scout' beam (a 1 cm overshoot of the predicted detector depth with a dose of 4 cGy) in water-equivalent plastic...
November 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058267/robert-r-wilson-1914-2000-the-first-scientist-to-propose-particle-therapy-use-of-particle-beam-for-cancer-treatment
#15
EDITORIAL
Masahiro Endo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2017: Radiological Physics and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050953/dual-energy-ct-based-proton-range-prediction-in-head-and-pelvic-tumor-patients
#16
Patrick Wohlfahrt, Christian Möhler, Kristin Stützer, Steffen Greilich, Christian Richter
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To reduce range uncertainty in particle therapy, an accurate computation of stopping-power ratios (SPRs) based on computed tomography (CT) is crucial. Here, we assess range differences between the state-of-the-art CT-number-to-SPR conversion using a generic Hounsfield look-up table (HLUT) and a direct patient-specific SPR prediction (RhoSigma) based on dual-energy CT (DECT) in 100 proton treatment fields. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For 25 head-tumor and 25 prostate-cancer patients, the clinically applied treatment plan, optimized using a HLUT, was recalculated with RhoSigma as CT-number-to-SPR conversion...
October 16, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045491/monte-carlo-simulation-of-secondary-neutron-dose-for-scanning-proton-therapy-using-fluka
#17
Chaeyeong Lee, Sangmin Lee, Seung-Jae Lee, Hankyeol Song, Dae-Hyun Kim, Sungkoo Cho, Kwanghyun Jo, Youngyih Han, Yong Hyun Chung, Jin Sung Kim
Proton therapy is a rapidly progressing field for cancer treatment. Globally, many proton therapy facilities are being commissioned or under construction. Secondary neutrons are an important issue during the commissioning process of a proton therapy facility. The purpose of this study is to model and validate scanning nozzles of proton therapy at Samsung Medical Center (SMC) by Monte Carlo simulation for beam commissioning. After the commissioning, a secondary neutron ambient dose from proton scanning nozzle (Gantry 1) was simulated and measured...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986856/spin-lattice-relaxation-epr-po2-images-may-direct-the-location-of-radiation-tumor-boosts-to-enhance-tumor-cure
#18
Boris Epel, Martyna Krzykawska-Serda, Victor Tormyshev, Matthew C Maggio, Eugene D Barth, Charles A Pelizzari, Howard J Halpern
Radiation treatment success and high tumor oxygenation and success have been known to be highly correlated. This suggests that radiation therapy guided by images of tumor regions with low oxygenation, oxygen-guided radiation therapy (OGRT) may be a promising enhancement of cancer radiation treatment. Before applying the technique to human subjects, OGRT needs to be tested in animals, most easily in rodents. Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging provides quantitative maps of tissue and tumor oxygen in rodents with 1 mm spatial resolution and 1 torr pO2 resolution at low oxygen levels...
October 6, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980974/analytical-probabilistic-modeling-of-rbe-weighted-dose-for-ion-therapy
#19
Hans-Peter Wieser, Philipp Hennig, Niklas Wahl, Mark Bangert
Particle therapy is especially prone to uncertainties. This issue is usually being addressed with uncertainty quantification and minimization techniques based on scenario sampling. For proton therapy, however, it was recently shown that it is also possible to use closed-form computations based on Analytical Probabilistic Modeling (APM) for this purpose. APM yields unique features compared to sampling-based approaches motivating further research in this context. This paper demonstrates the application of APM for intensity-modulated carbon ion therapy to quantify the influence of setup and range uncertainties on the RBE-weighted dose...
October 5, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975835/role-and-future-directions-of-external-beam-radiotherapy-for-primary-liver-cancer
#20
Florence K Keane, Theodore S Hong
The incidence of primary liver cancers continues to increase in the United States and worldwide. The majority of patients with primary liver cancer are not candidates for curative therapies such as surgical resection or orthotopic liver transplantation due to tumor size, vascular invasion, or underlying comorbidities. Therefore, while primary liver cancer is the sixth-most common cancer diagnosis worldwide, it represents the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Radiotherapy traditionally played a limited role in the treatment of primary liver cancer due to concerns over hepatic tolerance and the inability to deliver a tumoricidal dose of radiotherapy while still sparing normal hepatic parenchyma...
July 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
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