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PARTICLE BEAM THERAPY

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444840/topas-simulation-of-the-mevion-s250-compact-proton-therapy-unit
#1
Michael Prusator, Salahuddin Ahmad, Yong Chen
As proton therapy becomes increasingly popular, so does the need for Monte Carlo simulation studies involving accurate beam line modeling of proton treatment units. In this study, the 24 beam configurations of the Mevion S250 proton therapy system installed recently at our institution were modeled using the TOolkit for PArticle Simulation (TOPAS) code. Pristine Bragg peak, spread out Bragg peak (SOBP), and lateral beam profile dose distributions were simulated and matched to the measurements taken during commissioning of the unit...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427153/comparison-between-proton-boron-fusion-therapy-pbft-and-boron-neutron-capture-therapy-bnct-a-monte-carlo-study
#2
Joo-Young Jung, Do-Kun Yoon, Brendan Barraclough, Heui Chang Lee, Tae Suk Suh, Bo Lu
The aim of this study is to compare between proton boron fusion therapy (PBFT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and to analyze dose escalation using a Monte Carlo simulation. We simulated a proton beam passing through the water with a boron uptake region (BUR) in MCNPX. To estimate the interaction between neutrons/protons and borons by the alpha particle, the simulation yielded with a variation of the center of the BUR location and proton energies. The variation and influence about the alpha particle were observed from the percent depth dose (PDD) and cross-plane dose profile of both the neutron and proton beams...
February 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419319/influence-of-concentration-nanoparticle-size-beam-energy-and-material-on-dose-enhancement-in-radiation-therapy
#3
Chulhwan Hwang, Ja Mee Kim, JungHoon Kim
The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of the type, concentration, and nanoparticle diameter of dose enhancement materials on the dose enhancement of low- and high-energy megavoltage (MV) X-rays acquired from a medical linear accelerator using Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo simulation was performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNPX) code, using the energy spectrum of the linear accelerator and a mathematical Snyder head phantom. A 5-cm-diameter virtual tumour was defined in the centre of the phantom...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417903/an-assessment-of-the-potential-use-of-bnnts-for-boron-neutron-capture-therapy
#4
Tiago H Ferreira, Marcelo C Miranda, Zildete Rocha, Alexandre S Leal, Dawidson A Gomes, Edesia M B Sousa
Currently, nanostructured compounds have been standing out for their optical, mechanical, and chemical features and for the possibilities of manipulation and regulation of complex biological processes. One of these compounds is boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), which are a nanostructured material analog to carbon nanotubes, but formed of nitrogen and boron atoms. BNNTs present high thermal stability along with high chemical inertia. Among biological applications, its biocompatibility, cellular uptake, and functionalization potential can be highlighted, in addition to its eased utilization due to its nanometric size and tumor cell internalization...
April 12, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370020/development-of-the-open-source-dose-calculation-and-optimization-toolkit-matrad
#5
Hans-Peter Wieser, Eduardo Cisternas, Niklas Wahl, Silke Ulrich, Alexander Stadler, Henning Mescher, Lucas-Raphael Müller, Thomas Klinge, Hubert Gabrys, Lucas Burigo, Mark Bangert, Andrea Mairani, Swantje Ecker, Benjamin Ackermann, Malte Ellerbrock, Katia Parodi, Oliver Jäkel
PURPOSE: We report on the development of the open-source cross-platform radiation treatment planning toolkit matRad and its comparison against validated treatment planning systems. The toolkit enables three-dimensional intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment planning for photons, scanned protons and scanned carbon ions. METHODS: matRad is entirely written in Matlab and is freely available online. It re-implements well-established algorithms employing a modular and sequential software design to model the entire treatment planning workflow...
April 1, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350543/mondo-a-neutron-tracker-for-particle-therapy-secondary-emission-characterisation
#6
M Marafini, L Gasparini, R Mirabelli, D Pinci, V Patera, A Sciubba, E Spiriti, D Stoppa, G Traini, A Sarti
Tumour control is performed in particle therapy using particles and ions, whose high irradiation precision enhances the effectiveness of the treatment, while sparing the healthy tissue surrounding the target volume. Dose range monitoring devices using photons and charged particles produced by the beam interacting with the patient's body have already been proposed, but no attempt has been made yet to exploit the detection of the abundant neutron component. Since neutrons can release a significant dose far away from the tumour region, precise measurements of their flux, production energy and angle distributions are eagerly sought in order to improve the treatment planning system (TPS) software...
April 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341297/geant4-models-for-the-secondary-radiation-flux-in-the-collimation-system-of-a-300mev-proton-microbeam
#7
Yanxin Dou, David N Jamieson, Jianli Liu, Anlong Li, Liyi Li
In Harbin, we are developing a 300MeV proton microbeam for many applications in space science including upset studies in microelectronic devices, radiation hardness of materials for satellites and radiation effects in human tissues. There are also applications of this facility proposed for proton therapy. The microbeam system will employ a purpose-built proton synchrotron to provide the beam. However there are many challenges to be addressed in the design, construction and operation of this facility. Here we address two important design aspects for which we apply GEANT4 modeling...
December 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333688/treatment-planning-of-intensity-modulated-composite-particle-therapy-with-dose-and-linear-energy-transfer-optimization
#8
Taku Inaniwa, Nobuyuki Kanematsu, Koji Noda, Tadashi Kamada
The biological effect of charged-particle beams depends on both dose and radiation quality. The radiation quality of charged-particle beams has been most commonly represented by the linear energy transfer (LET) in radiation biology studies. We investigated a new therapeutic technique using two or more ion species in one treatment session, which we call an Intensity Modulated composite PArtiCle Therapy (IMPACT), for optimizing the physical dose and dose-averaged LET distributions in a patient as its proof of principle...
March 23, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323641/metal-artifacts-in-computed-tomography-for-radiation-therapy-planning-dosimetric-effects-and-impact-of-metal-artifact-reduction
#9
Drosoula Giantsoudi, Bruno De Man, Joost Verburg, Alexei Trofimov, Yannan Jin, Ge Wang, Lars Gjesteby, Harald Paganetti
A significant and increasing number of patients receiving radiation therapy present with metal objects close to, or even within, the treatment area, resulting in artifacts in computed tomography (CT) imaging, which is the most commonly used imaging method for treatment planning in radiation therapy. In the presence of metal implants, such as dental fillings in treatment of head-and-neck tumors, spinal stabilization implants in spinal or paraspinal treatment or hip replacements in prostate cancer treatments, the extreme photon absorption by the metal object leads to prominent image artifacts...
April 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300376/moving-gpu-opencl-based-monte-carlo-dose-calculation-toward-clinical-use-automatic-beam-commissioning-and-source-sampling-for-treatment-plan-dose-calculation
#10
Zhen Tian, Yongbao Li, Nima Hassan-Rezaeian, Steve B Jiang, Xun Jia
We have previously developed a GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) dose engine on the OpenCL platform, named goMC, with a built-in analytical linear accelerator (linac) beam model. In this paper, we report our recent improvement on goMC to move it toward clinical use. First, we have adapted a previously developed automatic beam commissioning approach to our beam model. The commissioning was conducted through an optimization process, minimizing the discrepancies between calculated dose and measurement. We successfully commissioned six beam models built for Varian TrueBeam linac photon beams, including four beams of different energies (6 MV, 10 MV, 15 MV, and 18 MV) and two flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams of 6 MV and 10 MV...
March 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288384/bulk-production-and-evaluation-of-high-specific-activity-186g-re-for-cancer-therapy-using-enriched-186-wo3-targets-in-a-proton-beam
#11
Tara Mastren, Valery Radchenko, Hong T Bach, Ethan R Balkin, Eva R Birnbaum, Mark Brugh, Jonathan W Engle, Matthew D Gott, James Guthrie, Heather M Hennkens, Kevin D John, Alan R Ketring, Marina Kuchuk, Joel R Maassen, Cleo M Naranjo, F Meiring Nortier, Tim E Phelps, Silvia S Jurisson, D Scott Wilbur, Michael E Fassbender
INTRODUCTION: Rhenium-186g (t1/2 = 3.72 d) is a β(-) emitting isotope suitable for theranostic applications. Current production methods rely on reactor production by way of the reaction (185)Re(n,γ)(186g)Re, which results in low specific activities limiting its use for cancer therapy. Production via charged particle activation of enriched (186)W results in a (186g)Re product with a higher specific activity, allowing it to be used more broadly for targeted radiotherapy applications. This targets the unmet clinical need for more efficient radiotherapeutics...
March 3, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268849/a-stochastic-framework-for-spot-scanning-particle-therapy
#12
Marc Robini, Yuemin Zhu, Wanyu Liu, Isabelle Magnin
In spot-scanning particle therapy, inverse treatment planning is usually limited to finding the optimal beam fluences given the beam trajectories and energies. We address the much more challenging problem of jointly optimizing the beam fluences, trajectories and energies. For this purpose, we design a simulated annealing algorithm with an exploration mechanism that balances the conflicting demands of a small mixing time at high temperatures and a reasonable acceptance rate at low temperatures. Numerical experiments substantiate the relevance of our approach and open new horizons to spot-scanning particle therapy...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263948/application-of-fluorescent-nuclear-track-detectors-for-cellular-dosimetry
#13
S Rahmanian, M Niklas, A Abdollahi, O Jäkel, S Greilich
Ion beams radiotherapy with charged particles show greater relative biological effectiveness (RBE) compared to conventional photon therapy. This enhanced RBE is due to a localized energy deposition pattern, which is subject to large fluctuations on cellular scales. Fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) based on Al2O3:C,Mg crystals coated with cells (Cell-Fit-HD) can provide information on individual cellular energy deposition. In this study we provide a theoretical framework to obtain the distribution of microscopic energy deposition and ionization density in cells exposed to ion beams and identifies contributions of five different sources of variations to the overall energy fluctuation at different depths of a biologically optimized spread-out Bragg peak...
April 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252446/the-fluka-monte-carlo-code-coupled-with-the-nirs-approach-for-clinical-dose-calculations-in-carbon-ion-therapy
#14
Giuseppe Magro, Tordis Dahle, Silvia Molinelli, Mario Ciocca, Piero Fossati, Alfredo Ferrari, Taku Inaniwa, Naruhiro Matsufuji, Kristian Ytre-Hauge, Andrea Mairani
Particle therapy facilities often require Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to overcome intrinsic limitations of analytical treatment planning systems (TPS) related to the description of the mixed radiation field and beam interaction with tissue inhomogeneities. Some of these uncertainties may affect the computation of effective dose distributions; therefore, particle therapy dedicated MC codes should provide both absorbed and biological doses. Two biophysical models are currently applied clinically in particle therapy: the Local Effect Model (LEM) and the Microdosimetric Kinetic Model (MKM)...
March 2, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252445/comparing-the-dosimetric-impact-of-interfractional-anatomical-changes-in-photon-proton-and-carbon-ion-radiotherapy-for-pancreatic-cancer-patients
#15
Antonetta C Houweling, Koen Crama, Jorrit Visser, Kyohei Fukata, Coen R N Rasch, Tatsuya Ohno, Arjan Bel, Astrid van der Horst
Radiotherapy using charged particles is characterized by a low dose to the surrounding healthy organs, while delivering a high dose to the tumor. However, interfractional anatomical changes can greatly affect the robustness of particle therapy. Therefore, we compared the dosimetric impact of interfractional anatomical changes (i.e. body contour differences and gastrointestinal gas volume changes) in photon, proton and carbon ion therapy for pancreatic cancer patients. In this retrospective planning study, photon, proton and carbon ion treatment plans were created for 9 patients...
April 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252222/irradiation-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-with-low-and-high-doses-of-alpha-particles-induces-senescence-and-or-apoptosis
#16
Nicola Alessio, Giuseppe Esposito, Giovanni Galano, Roberto De Rosa, Pasquale Anello, Gianfranco Peluso, Maria Antonella Tabocchini, Umberto Galderisi
The use of high-linear energy transfer charged particles is gaining attention as a medical tool because of the emission of radiations with an efficient cell-killing ability. Considerable interest has developed in the use of targeted alpha-particle therapy for the treatment of micrometastases. Moreover, the use of helium beams is gaining momentum, especially for treating pediatric tumors. We analyzed the effects of alpha particles on bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which have a subpopulation of stem cells capable of generating adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240283/metamaterial-bricks-and-quantization-of-meta-surfaces
#17
Gianluca Memoli, Mihai Caleap, Michihiro Asakawa, Deepak R Sahoo, Bruce W Drinkwater, Sriram Subramanian
Controlling acoustic fields is crucial in diverse applications such as loudspeaker design, ultrasound imaging and therapy or acoustic particle manipulation. The current approaches use fixed lenses or expensive phased arrays. Here, using a process of analogue-to-digital conversion and wavelet decomposition, we develop the notion of quantal meta-surfaces. The quanta here are small, pre-manufactured three-dimensional units-which we call metamaterial bricks-each encoding a specific phase delay. These bricks can be assembled into meta-surfaces to generate any diffraction-limited acoustic field...
February 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238577/geometrical-and-dosimetrical-uncertainties-in-hypofractionated-radiotherapy-of-the-lung-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Marco Schwarz, Giovanni Mauro Cattaneo, Livia Marrazzo
The application of high precision hypofractionated regimes (a.k.a. stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT)) to the treatment of lung cancer is a 'success story' of radiotherapy. From the technical perspective, lung SBRT is a challenging technique as all aspects of the treatment workflow, from imaging to dose calculation to treatment delivery, should be carefully handled in order to ensure consistency between planned and delivered dose. In this review such technical aspects are presented and discussed, looking at what has been developed over the years...
February 23, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236644/theoretical-dosimetric-evaluation-of-carbon-and-oxygen-minibeam-radiation-therapy
#19
Wilfredo González, Cécile Peucelle, Yolanda Prezado
PURPOSE: Charged particles have several advantages over x-ray radiations, both in terms of physics and radiobiology. The combination of these advantages with those of minibeam radiation therapy (MBRT) could help enhancing the therapeutic index for some cancers with poor prognosis. Among the different ions explored for therapy, carbon ions are considered to provide the optimum physical and biological characteristics. Oxygen could be advantageous due to a reduced oxygen enhancement ratio along with a still moderate biological entrance dose...
February 25, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236558/dosimetry-applications-in-gate-monte-carlo-toolkit
#20
Panagiotis Papadimitroulas
PURPOSE: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are a well-established method for studying physical processes in medical physics. The purpose of this review is to present GATE dosimetry applications on diagnostic and therapeutic simulated protocols. There is a significant need for accurate quantification of the absorbed dose in several specific applications such as preclinical and pediatric studies. METHODS: GATE is an open-source MC toolkit for simulating imaging, radiotherapy (RT) and dosimetry applications in a user-friendly environment, which is well validated and widely accepted by the scientific community...
February 21, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
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