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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782347/current-questions-in-bone-sarcomas
#1
Sandra J Strauss, Jeremy S Whelan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, the most common primary bone tumours in young people, are curable in most patients. However, these tumours remain a significant challenge due to the complexity and intensity of treatment and its long-term morbidity and the significant proportion of patients in whom treatment is unsuccessful. This review addresses questions about current management and emerging therapeutic targets for patients with osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma and chondrosarcoma, the commonest bone sarcoma but more common in older patients...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779919/radiation-dose-constraints-for-organs-at-risk-in-neuro-oncology-the-european-particle-therapy-network-consensus
#2
REVIEW
Maarten Lambrecht, Daniëlle B P Eekers, Claire Alapetite, Neil G Burnet, Valentin Calugaru, Ida E M Coremans, Piero Fossati, Morten Høyer, Johannes A Langendijk, Alejandra Méndez Romero, Frank Paulsen, Ana Perpar, Laurette Renard, Dirk de Ruysscher, Beate Timmermann, Pavel Vitek, Damien C Weber, Hiske L van der Weide, Gillian A Whitfield, Ruud Wiggenraad, Erik Roelofs, Petra Witt Nyström, Esther G C Troost
PURPOSE: For unbiased comparison of different radiation modalities and techniques, consensus on delineation of radiation sensitive organs at risk (OARs) and on their dose constraints is warranted. Following the publication of a digital, online atlas for OAR delineation in neuro-oncology by the same group, we assessed the brain OAR-dose constraints in a follow-up study. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search to identify the current papers on OAR dose constraints for normofractionated photon and particle therapy in PubMed, Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science...
May 17, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776024/simple-and-universal-model-for-electron-impact-ionization-of-complex-biomolecules
#3
Hong Qi Tan, Zhaohong Mi, Andrew A Bettiol
We present a simple and universal approach to calculate the total ionization cross section (TICS) for electron impact ionization in DNA bases and other biomaterials in the condensed phase. Evaluating the electron impact TICS plays a vital role in ion-beam radiobiology simulation at the cellular level, as secondary electrons are the main cause of DNA damage in particle cancer therapy. Our method is based on extending the dielectric formalism. The calculated results agree well with experimental data and show a good comparison with other theoretical calculations...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742879/radiation-therapy-against-pediatric-malignant-central-nervous-system-tumors-embryonal-tumors-and-proton-beam-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Do Hoon Lim
Radiation therapy is highly effective for the management of pediatric malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors including embryonal tumors. With the increment of long-term survivors from malignant CNS tumors, the radiation-related toxicities have become a major concern and we need to improve the treatment strategies to reduce the late complications without compromising the treatment outcomes. One of such strategies is to reduce the radiation dose to craniospinal axis or radiation volume and to avoid or defer radiation therapy until after the age of three...
May 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738914/g4dari-geant4-gate-based-monte-carlo-simulation-interface-for-dosimetry-calculation-in-radiotherapy
#5
Faiçal A A Slimani, Mahdjoub Hamdi, M'hamed Bentourkia
Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is widely recognized as an important technique to study the physics of particle interactions in nuclear medicine and radiation therapy. There are different codes dedicated to dosimetry applications and widely used today in research or in clinical application, such as MCNP, EGSnrc and Geant4. However, such codes made the physics easier but the programming remains a tedious task even for physicists familiar with computer programming. In this paper we report the development of a new interface GEANT4 Dose And Radiation Interactions (G4DARI) based on GEANT4 for absorbed dose calculation and for particle tracking in humans, small animals and complex phantoms...
May 1, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726401/adaptation-of-stochastic-microdosimetric-kinetic-model-for-charged-particle-therapy-treatment-planning
#6
T Inaniwa, N Kanematsu
The microdosimetric kinetic (MK) model underestimates the cell-survival fractions for high linear energy transfer (LET) and high dose irradiations. To address the issue, some researchers previously extended the MK model to the stochastic microdosimetric kinetic (SMK) model. In the SMK model, the radiation induced cell-survival fractions were estimated from the specific energies z d and z n absorbed by a microscopic subnuclear structure domain and a cell nucleus, respectively. By taking the stochastic nature of z n as well as that of z d into account, the SMK model could reproduce the measured cell-survival fractions for radiations with wide LET and dose ranges...
May 4, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703502/improving-the-modelling-of-irradiation-induced-brain-activation-for-in-vivo-pet-verification-of-proton-therapy
#7
Julia Bauer, Wenjing Chen, Sebastian Nischwitz, Jakob Liebl, Stefan Rieken, Thomas Welzel, Juergen Debus, Katia Parodi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSES: A reliable Monte Carlo prediction of proton-induced brain tissue activation used for comparison to particle therapy positron-emission-tomography (PT-PET) measurements is crucial for in vivo treatment verification. Major limitations of current approaches to overcome include the CT-based patient model and the description of activity washout due to tissue perfusion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two approaches were studied to improve the activity prediction for brain irradiation: (i) a refined patient model using tissue classification based on MR information and (ii) a PT-PET data-driven refinement of washout model parameters...
April 24, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587795/clinical-outcome-after-particle-therapy-for-meningiomas-of-the-skull-base-toxicity-and-local-control-in-patients-treated-with-active-rasterscanning
#8
Rami A El Shafie, Maja Czech, Kerstin A Kessel, Daniel Habermehl, Dorothea Weber, Stefan Rieken, Nina Bougatf, Oliver Jäkel, Jürgen Debus, Stephanie E Combs
BACKGROUND: Meningiomas of the skull base account for 25-30% of all meningiomas. Due to the complex structure of the cranial base and its close proximity to critical structures, surgery is often associated with substantial morbidity. Treatment options include observation, aggressive surgical intervention, stereotactic or conventional radiotherapy. In this analysis we evaluate the outcome of 110 patients with meningiomas of the skull base treated with particle therapy. It was performed within the framework of the "clinical research group heavy ion therapy" and supported by the German Research Council (DFG, KFO 214)...
March 27, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572856/the-relative-biological-effectiveness-for-carbon-nitrogen-and-oxygen-ion-beams-using-passive-and-scanning-techniques-evaluated-with-fully-3d-silicon-microdosimeters
#9
Linh T Tran, David Bolst, Susanna Guatelli, Alex Pogossov, Marco Petasecca, Michael L F Lerch, Lachlan Chartier, Dale A Prokopovich, Mark I Reinhard, Marco Povoli, Angela Kok, Vladimir L Perevertaylo, Naruhiro Matsufuji, Tatsuaki Kanai, Michael Jackson, Anatoly B Rosenfeld
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to measure the microdosimetric distributions of a carbon pencil-beam scanning (PBS) and passive scattering system as well as to evaluate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of different ions, namely12 C,14 N and16 O, using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microdosimeter with well-defined 3D sensitive volumes (SV). Geant4 simulations were performed with the same experimental setup and results were compared to the experimental results for benchmarking...
March 23, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566403/a-theoretical-approach-to-selection-of-a-biologically-active-substance-in-ultra-low-doses-for-effective-action-on-a-biological-system
#10
Liudmila Borisovna Boldyreva
BACKGROUND AND AIM:  An approach is offered to selecting a biologically active substance (BAS) in ultra-low dose for effective action on a biological system (BS). The technique is based on the assumption that BAS in ultra-low doses exerts action on BS by means of spin supercurrent emerging between the spin structure created by BAS, on the one hand, and the spin structure created by BS, on the other hand. According to modern quantum-mechanical concepts, these spin structures may be virtual particles pairs having precessing spin (that is, be essentially spin vortices in the physical vacuum) and created by the quantum entities that BAS and BS consist of...
March 22, 2018: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544511/online-advertising-and-marketing-claims-by-providers-of-proton-beam-therapy-are-they-guideline-based
#11
Mark T Corkum, Wei Liu, David A Palma, Glenn S Bauman, Robert E Dinniwell, Andrew Warner, Mark V Mishra, Alexander V Louie
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients frequently search the Internet for treatment options, and hospital websites are seen as reliable sources of knowledge. Guidelines support the use of proton radiotherapy in specific disease sites or on clinical trials. This study aims to evaluate direct-to-consumer advertising content and claims made by proton therapy centre (PTC) websites worldwide. METHODS: Operational PTC websites in English were identified through the Particle Therapy Co-Operative Group website...
March 15, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537642/characterization-of-a-multilayer-ionization-chamber-prototype-for-fast-verification-of-relative-depth-ionization-curves-and-spread-out-bragg-peaks-in-light-ion-beam-therapy
#12
Alfredo Mirandola, Giuseppe Magro, Marco Lavagno, Andrea Mairani, Silvia Molinelli, Stefania Russo, Edoardo Mastella, Alessandro Vai, Davide Maestri, Vanessa La Rosa, Mario Ciocca
PURPOSE: To dosimetrically characterize a multilayer ionization chamber (MLIC) prototype for quality assurance (QA) of pristine integral ionization curves (ICs) and spread-out-Bragg-peaks (SOBPs) for scanning light ion beams. METHODS: QUBE (De.Tec.Tor., Torino, Italy) is a modular detector designed for QA in particle therapy (PT). Its main module is a MLIC detector, able to evaluate particle beam relative depth ionization distributions at different beam energies and modulations...
May 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537391/-survival-a-simulation-toolkit-introducing-a-modular-approach-for-radiobiological-evaluations-in-ion-beam-therapy
#13
L Manganaro, G Russo, F Bourhaleb, F Fausti, S Giordanengo, V Monaco, R Sacchi, A Vignati, R Cirio, A Attili
One major rationale for the application of heavy ion beams in tumour therapy is their increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The complex dependencies of the RBE on dose, biological endpoint, position in the field etc require the use of biophysical models in treatment planning and clinical analysis. This study aims to introduce a new software, named 'Survival', to facilitate the radiobiological computations needed in ion therapy. The simulation toolkit was written in C++ and it was developed with a modular architecture in order to easily incorporate different radiobiological models...
April 5, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529229/present-developments-in-reaching-an-international-consensus-for-a-model-based-approach-to-particle-beam-therapy
#14
Anussara Prayongrat, Kikuo Umegaki, Arjen van der Schaaf, Albert C Koong, Steven H Lin, Thomas Whitaker, Todd McNutt, Naruhiro Matsufuji, Edward Graves, Masahiko Mizuta, Kazuhiko Ogawa, Hiroyuki Date, Kensuke Moriwaki, Yoichi M Ito, Keiji Kobashi, Yasuhiro Dekura, Shinichi Shimizu, Hiroki Shirato
Particle beam therapy (PBT), including proton and carbon ion therapy, is an emerging innovative treatment for cancer patients. Due to the high cost of and limited access to treatment, meticulous selection of patients who would benefit most from PBT, when compared with standard X-ray therapy (XRT), is necessary. Due to the cost and labor involved in randomized controlled trials, the model-based approach (MBA) is used as an alternative means of establishing scientific evidence in medicine, and it can be improved continuously...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521001/manipulating-multifaceted-microbubble-shell-composition-to-target-both-trail-sensitive-and-resistant-cells
#15
Lauren J Jablonowski, Dolores Conover, Nutte T Teraphongphom, Margaret A Wheatley
This study represents the first attempt to combine surface TRAIL expression and doxorubicin co-encapsulation in a single drug delivery agent in the form of ultrasound-responsive microbubbles that shatter into fragments, or nanoshards, in an ultrasound beam. We compare customized microbubbles of different polymeric shell compositions, and investigate the effect of both shell composition and incorporation of doxorubicin on action against TRAIL-sensitive MDA-MB-231 and TRAIL-resistant MCF7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511282/online-proton-therapy-monitoring-clinical-test-of-a-silicon-photodetector-based-in-beam-pet
#16
Veronica Ferrero, Elisa Fiorina, Matteo Morrocchi, Francesco Pennazio, Guido Baroni, Giuseppe Battistoni, Nicola Belcari, Niccolo' Camarlinghi, Mario Ciocca, Alberto Del Guerra, Marco Donetti, Simona Giordanengo, Giuseppe Giraudo, Vincenzo Patera, Cristiana Peroni, Angelo Rivetti, Manuel Dionisio da Rocha Rolo, Sandro Rossi, Valeria Rosso, Giancarlo Sportelli, Sara Tampellini, Francesca Valvo, Richard Wheadon, Piergiorgio Cerello, Maria Giuseppina Bisogni
Particle therapy exploits the energy deposition pattern of hadron beams. The narrow Bragg Peak at the end of range is a major advantage but range uncertainties can cause severe damage and require online verification to maximise the effectiveness in clinics. In-beam Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a non-invasive, promising in-vivo technique, which consists in the measurement of the β+ activity induced by beam-tissue interactions during treatment, and presents the highest correlation of the measured activity distribution with the deposited dose, since it is not much influenced by biological washout...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440626/upper-bound-dose-values-for-meson-radiation-in-heavy-ion-therapy
#17
C Rabin, M Gonçalves, S B Duarte, G A González-Sprinberg
Radiation treatment of cancer has evolved to include massive particle beams, instead of traditional irradiation procedures. Thus, patient doses and worker radiological protection have become issues of constant concern in the use of these new technologies, especially for proton- and heavy-ion-therapy. In the beam energies of interest of heavy-ion-therapy, secondary particle radiation comes from proton, neutron, and neutral and charged pions produced in the nuclear collisions of the beam with human tissue atoms...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422248/-why-proton-therapy-and-how
#18
REVIEW
Juliette Thariat, Jean Louis Habrand, Paul Lesueur, Abdulhamid Chaikh, Emmanuel Kammerer, Delphine Lecomte, Alain Batalla, Jacques Balosso, Thomas Tessonnier
Proton therapy is a radiotherapy, based on the use of protons, charged subatomic particles that stop at a given depth depending on their initial energy (pristine Bragg peak), avoiding any output beam, unlike the photons used in most of the other modalities of radiotherapy. Proton therapy has been used for 60 years, but has only become ubiquitous in the last decade because of recent major advances in particle accelerator technology. This article reviews the history of clinical implementation of protons, the nature of the technological advances that now allows its expansion at a lower cost...
March 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413854/abstract-id-240-a-probabilistic-based-nuclear-reaction-model-for-monte-carlo-ion-transport-in-particle-therapy
#19
Gonzalez Torres Maria Jose, Henniger Jürgen
In order to expand the Monte Carlo transport program AMOS to particle therapy applications, the ion module is being developed in the radiation physics group (ASP) at the TU Dresden. This module simulates the three main interactions of ions in matter for the therapy energy range: elastic scattering, inelastic collisions and nuclear reactions. The simulation of the elastic scattering is based on the Binary Collision Approximation and the inelastic collisions on the Bethe-Bloch theory. The nuclear reactions, which are the focus of the module, are implemented according to a probabilistic-based model developed in the group...
January 2018: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411400/cebr-3-scintillators-for-4-he-prompt-gamma-spectroscopy-results-from-a-monte-carlo-optimization-study
#20
Riccardo Dal Bello, Paulo Magalhaes Martins, Joao Seco
PURPOSE: Range uncertainties limit the potential of charged particle therapy. In vivo and online range verification techniques could increase the confidence in the dose delivery distribution and lead to more conformal treatments. Prompt gamma imaging and prompt gamma spectroscopy (PGS) have been demonstrated for such a purpose. The successful application of these techniques requires the development of a dedicated detector system optimized to the radiation energy ranges and the intensity...
April 2018: Medical Physics
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