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Muhammet Serhat Özaslan, Yeliz Demir, Hatice Esra Aslan, Şükrü Beydemir, Ömer İrfan Küfrevioğlu
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are the superfamily of multifunctional detoxification isoenzymes and play an important role in cellular signaling. In the present study, potential inhibition effects of chalcones were tested against human GST. For this purpose, GST was purified from human erythrocytes with 5.381 EU⋅mg-1 specific activity and 51.95% yield using a GSH-agarose affinity chromatographic method. The effects of chalcones on in vitro GST activity were tested at various concentrations. Ki constants of chalcones were found in the range of 7...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Sara Jafari, Sana Khajehpour, Emran Mohammad Razzaghi, Kazem Heidari, Mehdi Soleimani, Padideh Ghaeli
Objective: Craving for substance abuse is a usual and complicated problem in patients, with opioid addiction who are in opioid detoxifying process. Craving has been added as one of the diagnostic criteria of substance use disorders in DSM-5. The present trial aimed at comparing the effects of celecoxib versus ibuprofen in reducing pain and decreasing the desire to use opiates in patients undergoing opiate detoxification (n = 32). Method: A total of 32 patients (both inpatients and outpatients), who were undergoing opiate detoxification procedure and met the inclusion criteria entered this 4- week study...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
Klára Kosová, Pavel Vítámvás, Milan O Urban, Ilja T Prášil, Jenny Renaut
HIGHLIGHTS: Major environmental and genetic factors determining stress-related protein abundance are discussed.Major aspects of protein biological function including protein isoforms and PTMs, cellular localization and protein interactions are discussed.Functional diversity of protein isoforms and PTMs is discussed. Abiotic stresses reveal profound impacts on plant proteomes including alterations in protein relative abundance, cellular localization, post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications (PTMs), protein interactions with other protein partners, and, finally, protein biological functions...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Nayara Patricia Vieira de Lira, Bianca Alves Pauletti, Ana Carolina Marques, Carlos Alberto Perez, Raquel Caserta, Alessandra Alves de Souza, Aníbal Eugênio Vercesi, Adriana Franco Paes Leme, Celso Eduardo Benedetti
To cope with toxic levels of H2 S, the plant pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens employ the bigR operon to oxidize H2 S into sulfite. The bigR operon is regulated by the transcriptional repressor BigR and it encodes a bifunctional sulfur transferase (ST) and sulfur dioxygenase (SDO) enzyme, Blh, required for H2 S oxidation and bacterial growth under hypoxia. However, how Blh operates to enhance bacterial survival under hypoxia and how BigR is deactivated to derepress operon transcription is unknown...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Claudia M Rivera-Hoyos, Edwin D Morales-Álvarez, Juanita Abelló-Esparza, Daniel F Buitrago-Pérez, Nicolás Martínez-Aldana, Juan C Salcedo-Reyes, Raúl A Poutou-Piñales, Aura M Pedroza-Rodríguez
Cellulose-pulping requires chemicals such as Cl2 , ClO2 , H2 O2 , and O2 . The black liquor (BL) generated exhibits a high chemical oxygen demand (COD), five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 ), and chlorophenol content, along with an augmented colour and increased pH. BL is often discharged into water bodies, where it has a negative impact on the environment. Towards that end, laccases are of great interest for bioremediation, since they can degrade aromatic and non-aromatic compounds while reducing O2 to water instead of H2 O2 ...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
A Santos, F J Giráldez, E Trevisi, L Lucini, J Frutos, S Andrés
The increasing world population is driving demand for improved efficiency of feed resources of livestock. However, the molecular mechanisms behind various feed efficiency traits and their regulation by nutrition remain poorly understood. Here we aimed to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes in the liver tissues of fattening Merino lambs and differences in metabolites accumulated in plasma to identify modified metabolic pathways as a consequence of milk restriction during the suckling period. Twenty-four male Merino lambs (4...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Bingjun Qian, Lirong Yin, Xiaomin Yao, Yaoguang Zhong, Juan Gui, Feifeng Lu, Fuming Zhang, Jianhua Zhang
The saponins, as components of tea seed meal (TSM), are undesirable hemolytic components, and should be degraded for reducing their hemolytic activity in order to be used in animal feed. In this study, β-glucuronidase was verified to be a potent hydrolase of tea seed saponins to reduce their hemolytic activity, and a β-glucuronidase-producing Lactobacillus crustorum (L. crustorum) strain was screened from raw bovine milk. Next, solid-state fermentation with the isolated L. crustorum and a Bacillus subtilis natto strain, which can produce cellulase and hence improve the fermentation performance of tea seed meal, was processed for detoxification of tea seed meal...
February 20, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Rafaela Amaral Dos Reis, Els Keunen, Miguel Pedro Mourato, Luísa Louro Martins, Jaco Vangronsveld, Ann Cuypers
The natural accession Columbia (Col-0) is considered as the reference genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Nonetheless, Col-0 plants are more sensitive to excess copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) than other widely used accessions such as Wassilewskija (Ws) plants. In the current study, this accession-specific metal sensitivity is further explored by comparing the responses in leaves of Col-0 and Ws plants exposed to excess Cu and Cd. Our results suggest that different life strategies favored by both accessions under physiological conditions affect their response to metal exposure...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Penelope Truman, Moira Gilmour, Geoffrey Robinson
AIM: A feasibility/acceptability trial was undertaken at Ward 5, Kenepuru Hospital, Porirua, to ascertain whether electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were a useful option to replace or reduce smoking in the detoxification ward. METHODS: Two groups of patients were studied. Tobacco use and dependency data were collected for each. The first group was surveyed on the usefulness of standard nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). The second group were offered e-cigarettes with the option of standard NRT as well...
February 23, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
Yan Yang, Bing Zhang, Xiang Zhou, Jörg Romeis, Yufa Peng, Yunhe Li
Assessing the potential effects of insect-resistant genetically engineered (GE) plants on collembolans is important because these common soil arthropods may be exposed to insecticidal proteins produced in GE plants by ingestion of plant residues, crop pollen, or root exudates. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the potential effects of two Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt )-rice lines expressing Cry1C and Cry2A in pollen and leaves and of their non- Bt conventional isolines on the fitness of the collembolan Folsomia candida and on the activities of its antioxidant-related enzymes, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, and of its detoxification-related enzymes, glutathione reductase and glutathione S -transferase...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xingxing Zhang, Haiyun Rui, Fenqin Zhang, Zhubing Hu, Yan Xia, Zhenguo Shen
Phytochelatins (PCs) catalyzed by phytochelatin synthases (PCS) are important for the detoxification of metals in plants and other living organisms. In this study, we isolated a PCS gene ( VsPCS1 ) from Vicia sativa and investigated its role in regulating cadmium (Cd) tolerance. Expression of VsPCS1 was induced in roots of V. sativa under Cd stress. Analysis of subcellular localization showed that VsPCS1 was localized in the cytoplasm of mesophyll protoplasts of V. sativa . Overexpression of VsPCS1 ( 35S::VsPCS1 , in wild-type background) in Arabidopsis thaliana could complement the defects of Cd tolerance of AtPCS1 -deficent mutant ( atpcs1 )...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rachel J Eclov, Mee J Kim, Robin P Smith, Nadav Ahituv, Deanna L Kroetz
ABCG2 encodes the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), an efflux membrane transporter important in detoxification of xenobiotics. In the present study, the basal activity of the ABCG2 promoter in liver, kidney, intestine and breast cell lines was examined using luciferase reporter assays. The promoter activity of reference and variant ABCG2 sequences were compared in HepG2, HEK293T, HCT116 and MCF-7 cell lines. The ABCG2 promoter activity was strongest in the kidney and intestine cell lines. Four variants in the basal ABCG2 promoter (rs76656413, rs66664036, rs139256004 and rs59370292) decreased the promoter activity by 25-50% in at least three of the four cell lines...
February 21, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Chun-Chih Hu, Gong-Her Wu, Tzu-En Hua, Oliver I Wagner, Ta-Jen Yen
We employ the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to effectively study the toxicology of anatase and rutile phase titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs). The experimental results show that the nematode C. elegans can take up fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled TiO2 NPs and that both anatase and rutile TiO2 NPs can be detected in the cytoplasm of cultured primary neurons imaged by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After TiO2 NPs exposure, these neurons also grow shorter axons, which may be related to the detected impeded worm locomotion behavior...
February 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Suzhen Huang, Tingli Xue, Zhiquan Wang, Yuanyuan Ma, Xueting He, Jiefang Hong, Shaolan Zou, Hao Song, Minhua Zhang
Furfural-tolerant strain is essential for the fermentative production of biofuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, Zymomonas mobilis CP4 was for the first time subjected to error-prone PCR-based whole genome shuffling, and the resulting mutants F211 and F27 that could tolerate 3 g/L furfural were obtained. The mutant F211 under various furfural stress conditions could rapidly grow when the furfural concentration reduced to 1 g/L. Meanwhile, the two mutants also showed higher tolerance to high concentration of glucose than the control strain CP4...
February 21, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Qian Zhao, Lujian Zhou, Jianchao Liu, Zhenzhen Cao, Xiaoxia Du, Fudeng Huang, Gang Pan, Fangmin Cheng
HT-induced ROS burst in developing anther is closely related to the lowered CAT activity as the result of the markedly suppressed OsCATB transcript, thereby causing severe fertility injury for rice plants exposed to HT at meiosis stage. The reproductive stage of rice plants is highly sensitive to heat stress. In this paper, different rice cultivars were used to investigate the relationship of HT-induced floret sterility with reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification in rice anthers under well-controlled climatic conditions...
February 21, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Margaretha A Skowron, Margarita Melnikova, Joep G H van Roermund, Andrea Romano, Peter Albers, Juergen Thomale, Wolfgang A Schulz, Günter Niegisch, Michèle J Hoffmann
Therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin-based treatment of late stage urothelial carcinoma (UC) is limited by chemoresistance. To elucidate underlying mechanisms and to develop new approaches for overcoming resistance, we generated long-term cisplatin treated (LTT) UC cell lines, characterised their cisplatin response, and determined the expression of molecules involved in cisplatin transport and detoxification, DNA repair, and apoptosis. Inhibitors of metallothioneins and Survivin were applied to investigate their ability to sensitise towards cisplatin...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Elisabetta Buommino, Adone Baroni, Chiara Papulino, Francesca Paola Nocera, Lorena Coretti, Giovanna Donnarumma, Anna De Filippis, Luisa De Martino
Cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 enzymes are regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor activated by a variety of ligands among which Malassezia metabolites. In this study, we analyzed the modulation of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and AhR in human keratinocytes infected with different strains of Malassezia pachydermatis, as well as the upregulation of some genes involved in the epidermal homeostasis. We demonstrated that all the strains induced AhR activation and its nuclear translocation in HaCaT cells infected for 24 h, compared to untreated cells...
February 15, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Parinita Agarwal, Khantika Patel, Pradeep K Agarwal
Plants possess an innate immune system comprising of a complex network of closely regulated defense responses involving differential gene expression mediated by transcription factors (TFs). The WRKYs comprise of an important plant-specific TF family, which is involved in regulation of biotic and abiotic defenses. The overexpression of JcWRKY resulted in improved resistance in transgenic tobacco against Macrophomina phaseolina. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its detoxification through antioxidative system in the transgenics facilitates defense against Macrophomina...
February 20, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
Alessio Bocedi, Annalisa Noce, Valentina Rovella, Giulia Marrone, Giada Cattani, Massimo Iappelli, Paolo De Paolis, Giuseppe Iaria, Daniele Sforza, Mariacarla Gallù, Giuseppe Tisone, Nicola Di Daniele, Giorgio Ricci
Erythrocyte glutathione transferase (e-GST) is overexpressed in case of increased blood toxicity and its level correlates with the kidney disease progression. Thus, it represents a probe of kidney efficiency against circulating toxins. We measured the activity of e-GST in patients with transplant kidney from living and cadaver donors, correlated its level to biochemical parameters of kidney function, and measured the level of oxidized albumin as a probe of oxidative stress using a new simple procedure. Interestingly, the activity of e-GST in transplant patients from cadaver donors (N = 153) is very high (11...
February 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
A M Buenfil-Rojas, T Alvarez-Legorreta, J R Cedeño-Vázquez
Even though studies of heavy metals and their relation with metallothioneins (MTs) in reptile tissues have been conducted, research on heavy metals and MTs in organs and blood fractions of crocodylians is limited. To date there are no studies on the distribution of MTs in organs and their relation with mercury (Hg), or the concentration of MTs in plasma and erythrocytes of crocodylians. In order to understand the role of MTs in crocodiles, our aim was to assess the detoxification mechanisms for exposure to metals in Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) by using two biomarkers (Hg and MTs) in blood fractions and tissues, and comparing them with concentrations between two populations of crocodiles, one previously wild and currently captive (Theme Park) and another raised in a Wildlife Management Unit (WMU)...
February 14, 2018: Chemosphere
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