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Zika infections and complications

Vanessa Couras Regadas, Márcio de Castro E Silva, Lucas Giansante Abud, Luiz Mario Pereira Lopes Labadessa, Rafael Gouvêa Gomes de Oliveira, Cecília Hissae Miyake, Rodolfo Mendes Queiroz
Currently Latin America is undergoing a major epidemic of Zika virus, which is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Concern for Zika virus infection has been increasing as it is suspected of causing brain defects in newborns such as microcephaly and, more recently, potential neurological and autoimmune complications including Guillian-Barré syndrome and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We describe a case of virus infection in a 25-year-old woman during the first trimester of her pregnancy, confirmed by laboratory tests only for the detection of viral particles in maternal urine, with imaging studies demonstrating the progression of cranial and encephalic changes in the fetus and later in the newborn, such as head circumference reduction, cerebral calcifications and ventriculomegaly...
January 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Cheryl Yi-Pin Lee, Lisa F P Ng
Despite being discovered approximately 70 years ago, Zika virus (ZIKV) has received little attention, until the occurrence of alarming epidemics in the Pacific Islands and Latin America between 2013 and 2016. These series of outbreaks resulted in crippling neurological complications in adults, and congenital deformities in new-borns. The dire outcomes marked ZIKV as a re-emerging pathogen of public health concern. Over a period of two years, extensive studies have been conducted to understand different aspects of ZIKV from pathogen biology to infection, including the immune response during virus-host interplay in established animal models, as well as potential therapeutics against ZIKV infection...
March 9, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Eleonora M Lad, Sally S Ong, Alan D Proia
Purpose: To describe the ophthalmic symptoms and histopathological findings in a human case of Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE). Observations: The patient was a septuagenarian male whose presentation and clinical course were thought to be most consistent with viral meningoencephalitis. ELISA suggested recent infection with EEE virus. Microscopic analysis of the brain demonstrated perivascular lymphohistiocytic cuffing which was consistent with viral type encephalitis...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Lucia Maria Costa Monteiro, Glaura Nisya de Oliveira Cruz, Juliana Marin Fontes, Tania Regina Dias Saad Salles, Marcia Cristina Bastos Boechat, Ana Carolina Monteiro, Maria Elizabeth Lopes Moreira
INTRODUCTION: Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS) has been associated with microcephaly and other central nervous system abnormalities including areas that have been implicated in the control of the lower urinary tract. As such, this descriptive case series has aimed to investigate whether CZS is linked with neurogenic bladder. Identifying such an association is paramount in the effort to recognize CZS complications that have putative treatment options that could mitigate the impact of CZS in infected children...
2018: PloS One
Huafang Lai, Amber M Paul, Haiyan Sun, Junyun He, Ming Yang, Fengwei Bai, Qiang Chen
West Nile virus (WNV) has caused multiple global outbreaks with increased frequency of neuroinvasive disease in recent years. Despite many years of research, there are no licensed therapeutics or vaccines available for human use. One of the major impediments of vaccine development against WNV is the potential enhancement of infection by related flaviviruses in vaccinated subjects through the mechanism of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE). For instance, the recent finding of enhancement of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection by pre-exposure to WNV further complicates the development of WNV vaccines...
February 26, 2018: Vaccine
Mandeep S Singh, Maria Carolina Marquezan, Revaz Omiadze, Ashvini K Reddy, Rubens Belfort, William N May
Purpose: Zika virus infection is associated with vision-threatening ocular complications including uveitis and outer retinopathy. The aim of this report is to describe a case of an adult patient with serologically confirmed Zika infection who presented with retinal vascular abnormalities that coincided with systemic post-viral neurological manifestations of the disease. Observations: A 34-year-old white female presented with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy following serologically confirmed Zika virus infection that was acquired in Puerto Rico four months prior to presentation...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Gabriel Gonzalez-Escobar, Anne Marie Valadere, Rosmond Adams, Karen Polson-Edwards, Avery Q J Hinds, Akenath Misir, C James Hospedales
An emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus, Zika virus (ZIKV) is a significant public health concern because of the syndromes associated with the infection. In addition, ZIKV is considered a major problem due to large-scale spread of the disease and the possible clinical complications for the central nervous system, especially Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. Since the introduction of ZIKV in the Caribbean, molecular detection of the viral RNA has been utilized as a more specific and sensitive approach to demonstrating acute infection...
February 19, 2018: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Fabio Zanini, Szu-Yuan Pu, Elena Bekerman, Shirit Einav, Stephen R Quake
Dengue and Zika viral infections affect millions of people annually and can be complicated by hemorrhage or neurological manifestations, respectively. However, a thorough understanding of the host response to these viruses is lacking, partly because conventional approaches ignore heterogeneity in virus abundance across cells. We present viscRNA-Seq (virus-inclusive single cell RNA-Seq), an approach to probe the host transcriptome together with intracellular viral RNA at the single cell level. We applied viscRNA-Seq to monitor dengue and Zika virus infection in cultured cells and discovered extreme heterogeneity in virus abundance...
February 16, 2018: ELife
Veerendra Koppolu, T Shantha Raju
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted mainly by mosquitos of Aedes species. The virus has emerged in recent years and spread throughout North and South Americas. The recent outbreak of ZIKV started in Brazil (2015) has resulted in infections surpassing a million mark. Contrary to the previous beliefs that Zika causes mildly symptomatic infections fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, the recent outbreak associated ZIKV to serious neurological complications such as microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and eye infections...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Sylvie Janssens, Michael Schotsaert, Rahul Karnik, Vinod Balasubramaniam, Marion Dejosez, Alexander Meissner, Adolfo García-Sastre, Thomas P Zwaka
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during early pregnancy can cause microcephaly and associated defects at birth, but whether it can induce neurologic sequelae that appear later in life remains unclear. Using a model of the developing brain based on embryonic stem cell-derived brain organoids, we studied the impact of ZIKV infection on the DNA methylation pattern across the entire genome in selected neural cell types. The virus unexpectedly alters the DNA methylome of neural progenitors, astrocytes, and differentiated neurons at genes that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of brain disorders, most prominently mental retardation and schizophrenia...
January 2018: MSystems
Enny S Paixão, Maria Gloria Teixeira, Laura C Rodrigues
The recent emergence and re-emergence of viral infections transmitted by vectors-Zika, chikungunya, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, yellow fever and others-is a cause for international concern. Using as examples Zika, chikungunya and dengue, we summarise current knowledge on characteristics of the viruses and their transmission, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, burden, history, possible causes of the spread and the expectation for future epidemics. Arboviruses are transmitted by mosquitoes, are of difficult diagnosis, can have surprising clinical complications and cause severe burden...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Jelmer R Prins, Sharon Eskandar, Bart J L Eggen, Sicco A Scherjon
Disturbances in fetal neurodevelopment have extensively been related to neurodevelopmental disorders in early and later life. Fetal neurodevelopment is dependent on adequate functioning of the fetal immune system. During pregnancy, the maternal immune system is challenged to both tolerate the semi-allogenic fetus and to protect the mother and fetus from microbes. The fetal immune system is influenced by maternal immune disturbances; therefore, perturbations in maternal immunity likely do not only alter pregnancy outcome but also alter fetal neurodevelopment...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Gregory A Poland, Richard B Kennedy, Inna G Ovsyannikova, Ricardo Palacios, Paulo Lee Ho, Jorge Kalil
Zika virus is an emerging pathogen of substantial public health concern to human beings. Although most infections are asymptomatic or present with benign, self-limited symptoms, a small percentage of patients have complications, such as congenital anomalies in the developing fetus of pregnant women infected with the virus and neurological complications (eg, Guillain-Barré syndrome). To date, there is no vaccine, antiviral drug, or other modality available to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. In this Review, we examine vaccine development efforts for Zika virus to date and research gaps in the development of candidate vaccines against Zika virus...
January 25, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Takaaki Koma, Veljko Veljkovic, Danielle E Anderson, Lin-Fa Wang, Shannan L Rossi, Chao Shan, Pei-Yong Shi, David W Beasley, Natalya Bukreyeva, Jeanon N Smith, Steven Hallam, Cheng Huang, Veronika von Messling, Slobodan Paessler
Zika virus (ZIKV) causes mostly asymptomatic infection or mild febrile illness. However, with an increasing number of patients, various clinical features such as microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome and thrombocytopenia have also been reported. To determine which host factors are related to pathogenesis, the E protein of ZIKV was analyzed with the Informational Spectrum Method, which identifies common information encoded by primary structures of the virus and the respective host protein. The data showed that the ZIKV E protein and the complement component C1q cross-spectra are characterized by a single dominant peak at the frequency F = 0...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Emma L Mohr, Lindsey N Block, Christina M Newman, Laurel M Stewart, Michelle Koenig, Matthew Semler, Meghan E Breitbach, Leandro B C Teixeira, Xiankun Zeng, Andrea M Weiler, Gabrielle L Barry, Troy H Thoong, Gregory J Wiepz, Dawn M Dudley, Heather A Simmons, Andres Mejia, Terry K Morgan, M Shahriar Salamat, Sarah Kohn, Kathleen M Antony, Matthew T Aliota, Mariel S Mohns, Jennifer M Hayes, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Michele L Schotzko, Eric Peterson, Saverio Capuano, Jorge E Osorio, Shelby L O'Connor, Thomas C Friedrich, David H O'Connor, Thaddeus G Golos
Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection impacts fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. We infected a pregnant rhesus macaque with a Puerto Rican ZIKV isolate in the first trimester. The pregnancy was complicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), intraamniotic bacterial infection and fetal demise 49 days post infection (gestational day 95). Significant pathology at the maternal-fetal interface included acute chorioamnionitis, placental infarcts, and leukocytoclastic vasculitis of the myometrial radial arteries...
2018: PloS One
Isabel N Kantor
Dengue (DENV), zika (ZIKV) and chikungunya (CHIKV), three arbovirosis transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, have spread in recent decades in humid tropical and subtropical zones. Dengue is epidemic in subtropical areas of Argentina. DENV infection confers lasting immunity against the infecting serotype but increases the risk of serious disease upon reinfection by any of the other three. The recombinant tetravalent vaccine Dengvaxia® prevents severe dengue and hospitalization in seropositive subjects. In 2017, Dengvaxia was approved in Argentina, for ages 9 to 45, but is not included in the national vaccination calendar...
2018: Medicina
Hussin A Rothan, Mehdi R M Bidokhti, Siddappa N Byrareddy
Dissemination of vector-borne viruses, such as Zika virus (ZIKV), in tropical and sub-tropical regions has a complicated impact on the immunopathogenesis of other endemic viruses such as dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The consequences of the possible co-infections with these viruses have specifically shown significant impact on the treatment and vaccination strategies. ZIKV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus from African and Asian lineages that causes neurological complications in infected humans...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Rachel Lowe, Christovam Barcellos, Patrícia Brasil, Oswaldo G Cruz, Nildimar Alves Honório, Hannah Kuper, Marilia Sá Carvalho
The first confirmed case of Zika virus infection in the Americas was reported in Northeast Brazil in May 2015, although phylogenetic studies indicate virus introduction as early as 2013. Zika rapidly spread across Brazil and to more than 50 other countries and territories on the American continent. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is thought to be the principal vector responsible for the widespread transmission of the virus. However, sexual transmission has also been reported. The explosively emerging epidemic has had diverse impacts on population health, coinciding with cases of Guillain-Barré Syndrome and an unexpected epidemic of newborns with microcephaly and other neurological impairments...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Laura J Yockey, Kellie A Jurado, Nitin Arora, Alon Millet, Tasfia Rakib, Kristin M Milano, Andrew K Hastings, Erol Fikrig, Yong Kong, Tamas L Horvath, Scott Weatherbee, Harvey J Kliman, Carolyn B Coyne, Akiko Iwasaki
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse fetal outcomes, including microcephaly, growth restriction, and fetal demise. Type I interferons (IFNs) are essential for host resistance against ZIKV, and IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR)-deficient mice are highly susceptible to ZIKV infection. Severe fetal growth restriction with placental damage and fetal resorption is observed after ZIKV infection of type I IFN receptor knockout ( Ifnar1 -/- ) dams mated with wild-type sires, resulting in fetuses with functional type I IFN signaling...
January 5, 2018: Science Immunology
Nasronudin Suharto, Muhammad Amin, Diah Puspita Rini, Achmad Chusnu Romdhoni, Purwaningsih Zulfayandi Pawanis, Muhammad Syamsul Hidayat
Background: Zika virus remained silent for few decades after its first recognition in 1947. Recently, Zika drew global attention due to the outbreak in Pacific island and Latin Americas. The concern was escalating given the shared vector of Zika and dengue with possible deleterious complications. Surabaya as one of the largest cities in Indonesia with high mobility of people is endemic to dengue. This study was aimed to detect Zika infection during dengue outbreaks in Surabaya. Materials and Methods: This was a surveillance study involving patients visiting 4 public hospitals and 8 primary health care centres (PHCs)...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
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