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Zika infections and complications

Richmond Darko, Jessica L Mashburn
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and its associated complications have become a significant public health concern. Zika virus is a Flavivirus, and is transmitted to humans by Aedes species mosquitoes. In May 2015, the World Health Organization reported the first locally acquired transmission of ZIKV in Brazil, the first case in the Western Hemisphere. There have also been reports of increased incidence of microcephaly and other neurologic complications associated with ZIKV infection, as well as a 20-fold increase in the incidence of Guillain-Barre Syndrome during ZIKV outbreaks...
October 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Carlos Fernando Odir Rodrigues Melo, Diogo Noin de Oliveira, Estela de Oliveira Lima, Tatiane Melina Guerreiro, Cibele Zanardi Esteves, Raissa Marques Beck, Marina Aiello Padilla, Guilherme Paier Milanez, Clarice Weis Arns, José Luiz Proença-Modena, Jayme Augusto Souza-Neto, Rodrigo Ramos Catharino
Recent outbreaks of Zika virus in Oceania and Latin America, accompanied by unexpected clinical complications, made this infection a global public health concern. This virus has tropism to neural tissue, leading to microcephaly in newborns in a significant proportion of infected mothers. The clinical relevance of this infection, the difficulty to perform accurate diagnosis and the small amount of data in literature indicate the necessity of studies on Zika infection in order to characterize new biomarkers of this infection and to establish new targets for viral control in vertebrates and invertebrate vectors...
2016: PloS One
Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Elham Keshavarz, Andrea Poretti, Adriano N Hazin
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family. It is usually transmitted by mosquito bite. There have been no reports of severe symptoms caused by ZIKV infection up until the last few years. In October 2013 an outbreak was reported in French Polynesia with severe neurological complications in some affected cases. In November 2015, the Ministry of Health of Brazil attributed the increased number of neonatal microcephaly cases in northeastern Brazil to congenital ZIKV infection. The rapid spread of the virus convinced the World Health Organization to announce ZIKV infection as a "Public Health Emergency of International Concern" in February 2016...
October 6, 2016: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Alyson B Goodman, Eric J Dziuban, Krista Powell, Rebecca H Bitsko, Gayle Langley, Nicole Lindsey, Jessica L Franks, Kate Russell, Sharoda Dasgupta, Wanda D Barfield, Erika Odom, Emily Kahn, Stacey Martin, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples
Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that typically causes an asymptomatic infection or mild illness, although infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other serious brain abnormalities. Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neurologic complications can occur in adults after Zika virus infection. However, there are few published reports describing postnatally acquired Zika virus disease among children. During January 2015-July 2016, a total of 158 cases of confirmed or probable postnatally acquired Zika virus disease among children aged <18 years were reported to CDC from U...
October 7, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
David F Attaway, Nigel M Waters, Estella M Geraghty, Kathryn H Jacobsen
As evidence linking Zika virus with serious health complications strengthens, public health officials and clinicians worldwide need to know which locations are likely to be at risk for autochthonous Zika infections. We created risk maps for epidemic and endemic Aedes-borne Zika virus infections globally using a predictive analysis method that draws on temperature, precipitation, elevation, land cover, and population density variables to identify locations suitable for mosquito activity seasonally or year-round...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Maaran Michael Rajah, Ryan D Pardy, Stephanie A Condotta, Martin J Richer, Selena Michael Sagan
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arthropod-borne pathogen that has recently gained notoriety due to its rapid and ongoing geographic expansion and its novel association with neurological complications. Reports of ZIKV associated Guillain-Barré syndrome as well as fetal microcephaly place emphasis on the need to develop preventative measures and therapeutics to combat ZIKV infection. Thus, it is imperative that models to study ZIKV replication, pathogenesis, and the immune response are developed in conjunction with integrated vector control strategies to mount an efficient response to the pandemic...
October 5, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Tatjana Avšic Županc, Miroslav Petrovec
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that represents a public health emergency at the ongoing epidemic. This obscure virus was limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia, until the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015, when it rapidly spread throughout the Americas. Most Zika virus infections are subclinical or characterized by mild febrile illness. However, neurological complications, including Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, and congenital anomalies, including microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers, raised a grave concern...
December 1, 2016: Zdravstveno Varstvo
Christa E Osuna, So-Yon Lim, Claire Deleage, Bryan D Griffin, Derek Stein, Lukas T Schroeder, Robert Omage, Katharine Best, Ma Luo, Peter T Hraber, Hanne Andersen-Elyard, Erwing Fabian Cardozo Ojeda, Scott Huang, Dana L Vanlandingham, Stephen Higgs, Alan S Perelson, Jacob D Estes, David Safronetz, Mark G Lewis, James B Whitney
Infection with Zika virus has been associated with serious neurological complications and fetal abnormalities. However, the dynamics of viral infection, replication and shedding are poorly understood. Here we show that both rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are highly susceptible to infection by lineages of Zika virus that are closely related to, or are currently circulating in, the Americas. After subcutaneous viral inoculation, viral RNA was detected in blood plasma as early as 1 d after infection. Viral RNA was also detected in saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and semen, but transiently in vaginal secretions...
October 3, 2016: Nature Medicine
Scott Goebel, Beth Snyder, Timothy Sellati, Mohammad Saeed, Roger Ptak, Michael Murray, Robert Bostwick, Jonathan Rayner, Fusataka Koide, Raj Kalkeri
Despite the rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and associated neurological complications in the America's, prophylactic or therapeutic countermeasures are not currently available. This is mostly due to the fact that until recently there was no presumed need for medical intervention since there was no association between ZIKV infection and significant human morbidity. Consequently, there are currently no tools due mostly to the lack of sensitive cell based assays amenable for identification of ZIKV inhibitors...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Michael R Wilson, Lara L Zimmermann, Emily D Crawford, Hannah A Sample, Priya Soni, Amira Baker, Lillian M Khan, Joseph L DeRisi
Solid organ transplant patients are vulnerable to suffering neurologic complications from a wide array of viral infections and can be sentinels in the population who are first to get serious complications from emerging infections like the recent waves of arboviruses, including West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus, Zika virus, and Dengue virus. The diverse and rapidly changing landscape of possible causes of viral encephalitis poses great challenges for traditional candidate-based infectious disease diagnostics that already fail to identify a causative pathogen in approximately 50% of encephalitis cases...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
Mateus Santana do Rosário, Pedro Antonio Pereira de Jesus, Nikos Vasilakis, Daniel Santana Farias, Marco Antônio Caires Novaes, Sueli Guerreiro Rodrigues, Lívia Caricio Martins, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos, Albert Icksang Ko, Luiz Carlos Junior Alcântara, Isadora Cristina Siqueira
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus, which has caused a widespread outbreak in the Americas. Shortly after its introduction in 2015, a cluster of cases with Guillain-Barré syndrome was detected in Brazil. Herein, we describe two cases from the city of Salvador, who developed ascending paresis after an acute exanthematous illness. The patients were admitted to the intensive care unit with tetraparesis and cranial nerve palsy, which resolved after intravenous administration of human immunoglobulin. Serological evaluation detected IgM-specific ZIKV antibodies...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Laura S Muñoz, Paula Barreras, Carlos A Pardo
Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused a major infection outbreak in the Americas since 2015. In parallel with the ZIKV epidemic, an increase in cases of neurological disorders which include Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), encephalitis, and myelitis have been linked to the infection. We reviewed the evidence suggesting a relationship between ZIKV and neurological disorders in adults. A search of the literature supporting such link included databases such as PubMed and the World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance system...
September 2016: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Leslie Goo, Kimberly A Dowd, Alexander R Y Smith, Rebecca S Pelc, Christina R DeMaso, Theodore C Pierson
UNLABELLED: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that has emerged as a global health threat due in part to its association with congenital abnormalities. Other globally relevant flaviviruses include dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV). High-resolution structures of ZIKV reveal many similarities to DENV and suggest some differences, including an extended glycan loop (D. Sirohi, Z. Chen, L. Sun, T. Klose, T. C. Pierson, et al., 352:467-470, 2016,
2016: MBio
Cristiane N Soares, Patrícia Brasil, Raquel Medialdea Carrera, Patricia Sequeira, Ana Bispo de Filippis, Vitor A Borges, Fernando Theophilo, Mark A Ellul, Tom Solomon
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) was first identified in the Americas in 2015, when an outbreak of an exanthematous illness occurred in Brazil. Subsequentely, there was an increase of microcephaly cases, suggesting an association between ZIKV and this neurological complication. Currently, ZIKV has been recognised as causing a wide range of neurological complications including Guillain Barré syndrome, and myelitis. OBJECTIVES: In this report, we describe the first fatal case of encephalitis in a 47 years old non pregnant woman, infected during the Brazilian zika epidemic of 2016...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Kellie Ann Jurado, Michael K Simoni, Zhonghua Tang, Ryuta Uraki, Jesse Hwang, Sarah Householder, Mingjie Wu, Brett D Lindenbach, Vikki M Abrahams, Seth Guller, Erol Fikrig
The strong association of Zika virus infection with congenital defects has led to questions of how a flavivirus is capable of crossing the placental barrier to reach the fetal brain. Here, we demonstrate permissive Zika virus infection of primary human placental macrophages, commonly referred to as Hofbauer cells, and placental villous fibroblasts. We also demonstrate Zika virus infection of Hofbauer cells within the context of the tissue ex vivo using term placental villous explants. In addition to amplifying infectious virus within a usually inaccessible area, the putative migratory activities of Hofbauer cells may aid in dissemination of Zika virus to the fetal brain...
August 18, 2016: JCI Insight
Kendall G Byler, Ifedayo Victor Ogungbe, William N Setzer
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus that has infected hundreds of thousands of people and is a rapidly expanding epidemic across Central and South America. ZIKV infection has caused serious, albeit rare, complications including Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital microcephaly. There are currently no vaccines or antiviral agents to treat or prevent ZIKV infection, but there are several ZIKV non-structural proteins that may serve as promising antiviral drug targets. In this work, we have carried out an in-silico search for potential anti-Zika viral agents from natural sources...
September 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Alexandra Jimenez, Beth H Shaz, Evan M Bloch
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne Flavivirus and emerging infectious disease, is the focus of an international public health emergency after its rapid spread through the Americas and the Caribbean. Although most ZIKV infections are subclinical or characterized by mild febrile illness, ZIKV has been implicated in severe complications, most notably microcephaly in babies born to incident infected mothers during pregnancy. As yet, the extent to which ZIKV is transfusion transmissible remains undefined. Nonetheless, a high prevalence of asymptomatic infection during outbreaks, the demonstration of ZIKV in blood donors, and 4 possible cases of transfusion-transmitted ZIKV in Brazil have raised concern for risk to the blood supply...
August 9, 2016: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Priscila Pinheiro Ribeiro Lyra, Gúbio Soares Campos, Igor Dórea Bandeira, Silvia Ines Sardi, Lilian Ferreira de Moura Costa, Flávia Rocha Santos, Carlos Alexandre Santos Ribeiro, Alena Maria Barreto Jardim, Ana Cecília Travassos Santiago, Patrícia Maria Ribeiro de Oliveira, Lícia Maria Oliveira Moreira
There is little information about the congenital chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission. We describe two cases of well-documented congenital CHIKV infection in Salvador-Brazil, where CHIKV has been identified since 2014. The outbreak in the city led to the clinical CHIKV diagnoses of both pregnant women 2 days before delivery. Urine and blood samples from the mothers and newborns were collected and tested for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for Zika, dengue, and CHIKV. Both neonates and mothers had positive urine and serum PCR results for CHIKV...
July 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
N N Tran Minh, Q Huda, H Asghar, D Samhouri, A Abubakar, C Barwa, I Shaikh, E Buliva, P Mala, M Malik
Following the WHO declaration on 1 February 2016 of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) with regard to clusters of microcephaly and neurological disorders potentially associated with Zika virus, the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean conducted three rounds of emergency meetings to address enhancing preparedness actions in the Region. The meetings provided up-to-date information on the current situation and agreed on a set of actions for the countries to undertake to enhance their preparedness and response capacities to Zika virus infection and its complications...
May 2016: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Patrice Bourée
Zika virus is a flavivirus isolated in non human primates in 1647, then in humans 1954 (Uganda). It emerged on Micronesia (island af Yap) in 2007, then in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, in South America (mostly in Brazil and Colombia) in 2015 and in French West Indies in 2016. It is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Zika virus infection is symptomatic in only 20% of cases and clinical presentation is associated with mild illness. But several neurological complications are reported (as Guillain-Barré syndrome: 48 cases in French Polynesia) and congenital malformations (microcephaly)...
June 2016: La Revue du Praticien
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