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Model decision analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319760/improved-prediction-of-higher-heating-value-of-biomass-using-an-artificial-neural-network-model-based-on-proximate-analysis
#1
Harun Uzun, Zeynep Yıldız, Jillian L Goldfarb, Selim Ceylan
As biomass becomes more integrated into our energy feedstocks, the ability to predict its combustion enthalpies from routine data such as carbon, ash, and moisture content enables rapid decisions about utilization. The present work constructs a novel artificial neural network model with a 3-3-1 tangent sigmoid architecture to predict biomasses' higher heating values from only their proximate analyses, requiring minimal specificity as compared to models based on elemental composition. The model presented has a considerably higher correlation coefficient (0...
March 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319275/mrf-ann-a-machine-learning-approach-for-automated-er-scoring-of-breast-cancer-immunohistochemical-images
#2
T Mungle, S Tewary, D K DAS, I Arun, B Basak, S Agarwal, R Ahmed, S Chatterjee, C Chakraborty
Molecular pathology, especially immunohistochemistry, plays an important role in evaluating hormone receptor status along with diagnosis of breast cancer. Time-consumption and inter-/intraobserver variability are major hindrances for evaluating the receptor score. In view of this, the paper proposes an automated Allred Scoring methodology for estrogen receptor (ER). White balancing is used to normalize the colour image taking into consideration colour variation during staining in different labs. Markov random field model with expectation-maximization optimization is employed to segment the ER cells...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319171/a-reported-20-gene-expression-signature-to-predict-lymph-node-positive-disease-at-radical-cystectomy-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-is-clinically-not-applicable
#3
Kim E M van Kessel, Harmen J G van de Werken, Irene Lurkin, Angelique C J Ziel-van der Made, Ellen C Zwarthoff, Joost L Boormans
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) provides a small but significant survival benefit. Nevertheless, controversies on applying NAC remain because the limited benefit must be weight against chemotherapy-related toxicity and the delay of definitive local treatment. Therefore, there is a clear clinical need for tools to guide treatment decisions on NAC in MIBC. Here, we aimed to validate a previously reported 20-gene expression signature that predicted lymph node-positive disease at radical cystectomy in clinically node-negative MIBC patients, which would be a justification for upfront chemotherapy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318959/utility-of-items-of-baseline-national-institutes-of-health-stroke-scale-as-predictors-of-functional-outcomes-at-three-months-after-mild-ischemic-stroke
#4
Jay Chol Choi, Beom Joon Kim, Moon-Ku Han, Soo Joo Lee, Kyusik Kang, Jong-Moo Park, Sang-Soon Park, Tai Hwan Park, Yong-Jin Cho, Keun-Sik Hong, Kyung Bok Lee, Jun Lee, Wi-Sun Ryu, Dong-Eog Kim, Hyun-Wook Nah, Dae-Hyun Kim, Jae-Kwan Cha, Joon-Tae Kim, Kang-Ho Choi, Mi Sun Oh, Kyung-Ho Yu, Byung-Chul Lee, Myung Suk Jang, Ji Sung Lee, Juneyoung Lee, Hee-Joon Bae
BACKGROUND: Predicting outcomes of acute stroke patients initially presenting with mild neurologic deficits is crucial in decision making regarding thrombolytic therapy. We examined the utility of individual National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score items or clusters of items as predictors of functional outcomes at 3 months after mild stroke. METHODS: Using a multicenter stroke registry database, we identified patients with acute ischemic stroke who presented within 4...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318285/reading-through-the-life-span-individual-differences-in-psycholinguistic-effects
#5
Rob A I Davies, Ruth Arnell, Julia M H Birchenough, Debbie Grimmond, Sam Houlson
The effects of psycholinguistic variables are critical to the evaluation of theories about the cognitive reading system. However, reading research has tended to focus on the impact of key variables on average performance. We report the first investigation examining variation in psycholinguistic effects across the life span, from childhood into old age. We analyzed the performance of a sample of 535 readers, aged 8-83 years in lexical decision and pronunciation tasks. Our findings show that the effects on reading of two key variables, frequency and AoA, decrease in size with increasing age over the life span...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317585/meta-analysis-and-cost-effective-analysis-of-portal-superior-mesenteric-vein-resection-during-pancreatoduodenectomy-impact-on-margin-status-and-survival
#6
REVIEW
Richard Bell, Braden Te Ao, Natasha Ironside, Adam Bartlett, John A Windsor, Sanjay Pandanaboyana
INTRODUCTION: The benefit of portal-superior mesenteric vein resection (PSMVR) with pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) remains controversial. This study assesses the impact of PSMVR on resection margin status and survival. METHOD: An electronic search was performed to identify relevant articles. Pooled odds ratios were calculated for outcomes using the fixed or random-effects models for meta-analysis. A decision analytical model was developed for estimating cost effectiveness...
March 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316158/-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-octreotide-long-acting-release-and-lanreotide-slow-release-for-the-treatment-of-postoperative-patients-with-active-acromegaly-in-china
#7
J W Xuan, Z Y Zhang, Y F Wang, Z G Mao, Y J Lu, R Z Wang
Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of octreotide long acting release (LAR) vs lanreotide slow release (SR) for the treatment of postoperative acromegalic patients with elevated levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in China. Methods: A decision tree model was constructed and the treatment impact was projected for one year in Chinese setting. The clinical efficacy measure used was the percentage of patients achieving normalization (control) of either IGF-1 or GH levels...
March 14, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315113/-i-d-been-like-freaking-out-the-whole-night-exploring-emotion-regulation-based-on-junior-doctors-narratives
#8
Robert M Lundin, Kiran Bashir, Alison Bullock, Camille E Kostov, Karen L Mattick, Charlotte E Rees, Lynn V Monrouxe
The importance of emotions within medical practice is well documented. Research suggests that how clinicians deal with negative emotions can affect clinical decision-making, health service delivery, clinician well-being, attentiveness to patient care and patient satisfaction. Previous research has identified the transition from student to junior doctor (intern) as a particularly challenging time. While many studies have highlighted the presence of emotions during this transition, how junior doctors manage emotions has rarely been considered...
March 17, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314065/construction-safety-risk-modeling-and-simulation
#9
Antoine J-P Tixier, Matthew R Hallowell, Balaji Rajagopalan
By building on a genetic-inspired attribute-based conceptual framework for safety risk analysis, we propose a novel approach to define, model, and simulate univariate and bivariate construction safety risk at the situational level. Our fully data-driven techniques provide construction practitioners and academicians with an easy and automated way of getting valuable empirical insights from attribute-based data extracted from unstructured textual injury reports. By applying our methodology on a data set of 814 injury reports, we first show the frequency-magnitude distribution of construction safety risk to be very similar to that of many natural phenomena such as precipitation or earthquakes...
March 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314059/deterrence-and-risk-preferences-in-sequential-attacker-defender-games-with-continuous-efforts
#10
Vineet M Payappalli, Jun Zhuang, Victor Richmond R Jose
Most attacker-defender games consider players as risk neutral, whereas in reality attackers and defenders may be risk seeking or risk averse. This article studies the impact of players' risk preferences on their equilibrium behavior and its effect on the notion of deterrence. In particular, we study the effects of risk preferences in a single-period, sequential game where a defender has a continuous range of investment levels that could be strategically chosen to potentially deter an attack. This article presents analytic results related to the effect of attacker and defender risk preferences on the optimal defense effort level and their impact on the deterrence level...
March 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306750/optimal-pricing-and-marketing-planning-for-deteriorating-items
#11
Seyed Reza Moosavi Tabatabaei, Seyed Jafar Sadjadi, Ahmad Makui
Optimal pricing and marketing planning plays an essential role in production decisions on deteriorating items. This paper presents a mathematical model for a three-level supply chain, which includes one producer, one distributor and one retailer. The proposed study considers the production of a deteriorating item where demand is influenced by price, marketing expenditure, quality of product and after-sales service expenditures. The proposed model is formulated as a geometric programming with 5 degrees of difficulty and the problem is solved using the recent advances in optimization techniques...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306564/psychopharmacological-treatment-of-schizophrenia-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#12
Alexandra B Whitworth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is necessary, in every-day clinical life when treating pregnant women with mental diseases, to reach quick decisions derived from recent comprehensive information. The knowledge of the use of antipsychotics in pregnancy has increased considerably in the last years. This review tries to summarize important considerations and facilitate clinical decisions. RECENT FINDINGS: This review will cover not only the effects of exposure during pregnancy on outcomes, postnatal adaption syndrome and lactation, but also pharmacokinetic considerations on the use of antipsychotics during pregnancy...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302644/what-is-an-roc-curve
#13
EDITORIAL
Zhe Hui Hoo, Jane Candlish, Dawn Teare
The paper by Body et al is concerned with the evaluation of decision aids, which can be used to identify potential acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the ED. The authors previously developed the Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes model (MACS) decision aid, which uses several clinical variables and two biomarkers to 'rule in' and 'rule out' ACS. However, one of the two biomarkers (heart-type fatty acid bindingprotein, H-FABP) is not widely used so a revised decision aid has been developed (Troponin-only Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes, T-MACS), which include a single biomarker hs-cTnT...
March 16, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301778/risk-stratified-versus-non-risk-stratified-diagnostic-testing-for-management-of-suspected-acute-biliary-obstruction-comparative-effectiveness-costs-and-the-role-of-mr-cholangiopancreatography
#14
Stella K Kang, David Hoffman, Bart Ferket, Michelle I Kim, R Scott Braithwaite
Purpose To analyze the cost effectiveness of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) risk stratification guidelines versus magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiopancreatography-based treatment of patients with possible choledocholithiasis. Materials and Methods A decision-analytic model was constructed to compare cost and effectiveness of three diagnostic strategies for gallstone disease with possible choledocholithiasis: noncontrast MR cholangiopancreatography, contrast material-enhanced MR imaging/MR cholangiopancreatography, and ASGE risk stratification guidelines for diagnostic evaluation recommending endoscopy (high risk), MR cholangiopancreatography (intermediate risk), or no test (low risk)...
March 16, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301555/risk-factors-for-delay-of-adjuvant-chemotherapy-in-non-metastatic-breast-cancer-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-involving-186982-patients
#15
Xiaofang He, Fen Ye, Bingcheng Zhao, Hailin Tang, Jin Wang, Xiangsheng Xiao, Xiaoming Xie
PURPOSE: Delay performance of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) after surgery has been presented to affect survival of breast cancer patients adversely, but the risk factors for delay in initiation remain controversial. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis aiming at identifying the risk factors for delay of adjuvant chemotherapy (DAC) in non-metastatic breast cancer patients. METHODS: The search was performed on PubMed, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang Database from inception up to July 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301518/cyclooxygenase-2-expression-is-positively-associated-with-lymph-node-metastasis-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#16
Gui Yang, Qiaoling Deng, Wei Fan, Zheng Zhang, Peipei Xu, Shihui Tang, Ping Wang, Jun'e Wang, Mingxia Yu
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in head and neck cancers, especially in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the association between COX-2 expression and lymph node metastasis in NPC remains uncertain. This systematic review and meta-analysis meta-analysis investigated the relationship between COX-2 expression and lymph node metastasis and other signs of disease progression in NPC. METHODS: Previously published studies assessing COX-2 expression and lymph node metastasis in NPC were identified in four English databases and three Chinese ones (Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, Vip Journal Integration Platform) up to November 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300989/analysis-of-the-performance-of-contractualization-primary-health-care-indicators-in-the-period-2009-2015-in-lisbon-and-tagus-valley
#17
Baltazar Ricardo Monteiro, Fátima Candoso, Magda Reis, Sónia Bastos
Reforms started in 1996 intended that Regional Health Administrations (ARS) should play a relevant role in the process of transforming an integrated model towards a contractual health care model. The essential tool of this transformation would be the Contractualization Agency, established in each ARS. Its role in the new contractualization culture was to negotiate prospective budgets with health care institutions, which included Primary Health Care (PHC). This paper is a longitudinal analysis of the development of a set of nine PHC contractualization indicators in three Health Center Clusters (ACeS) of the Regional Health Administration of Lisbon and Tagus Valley (ARSLVT)...
March 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300478/step-by-step-harvesting-the-dynamics-of-delay-discounting-decisions
#18
Stefan Scherbaum, Simon Frisch, Maja Dshemuchadse
People show a tendency to devalue rewards when they are delayed in time. This so-called delay discounting often happens to an extent that seems irrational from an economical perspective. Research studying outcomes of delay discounting decisions has successfully derived descriptive models for such choice preferences. However, this outcome-based approach faces limitations in integrating the influence of contextual factors on the decision. Recently, this outcome-centred perspective on delay discounting has been complemented by a focus on the process dynamics leading to delay discounting decisions...
March 16, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299718/have-the-causes-of-revision-for-total-and-unicompartmental-knee-arthroplasties-changed-during-the-past-two-decades
#19
Gro S Dyrhovden, Stein Håkon L Lygre, Mona Badawy, Øystein Gøthesen, Ove Furnes
BACKGROUND: Revisions after knee arthroplasty are expected to increase, and the epidemiology of failure mechanisms is changing as new implants, technology, and surgical techniques evolve. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Was there improvement in survival for TKA and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) when comparing two consecutive 11-year periods with similar followups in a national registry? (2) Were there changes in the causes of revision during the two times? (3) Could the changes in revision causes be attributed to patient or implant characteristics? METHODS: A total of 60,623 TKAs (2426 revisions) and 7648 UKAs (725 revisions) were selected from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register and analyzed based on year of primary surgery: 1994 to 2004 (Period 1) and 2005 to 2015 (Period 2)...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298539/nonresponse-and-underreporting-errors-increase-over-the-data-collection-week-based-on-paradata-from-the-national-household-food-acquisition-and-purchase-survey
#20
Mengyao Hu, Garrett W Gremel, John A Kirlin, Brady T West
Background: Food acquisition diary surveys are important for studying food expenditures, factors affecting food acquisition decisions, and relations between these decisions with selected measures of health (e.g., body mass index, self-reported health). However, to our knowledge, no studies have evaluated the errors associated with these diary surveys, which can bias survey estimates and research findings. The use of paradata, which has been largely ignored in previous literature on diary surveys, could be useful for studying errors in these surveys...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
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