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Model decision analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545887/how-to-identify-high-radiation-burden-from-computed-tomography-an-example-in-obese-children
#1
Daniel L Lodwick, Jennifer N Cooper, Brent Adler, Choonsik Lee, Kelly Kelleher, Peter C Minneci, Katherine J Deans
BACKGROUND: Radiation burden from the use of computed tomography (CT) imaging may not be evenly distributed. We tested whether overweight and obese children receive higher radiation burden from CT imaging. METHODS: An automated software tool (DoseWizard) assessed patient-level radiation dose from CT and merged results with clinical data from the electronic health record. CT scans of the head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis (A/P) performed at our institution from January 2013 to August 2015 on patients aged <16 y were processed using this software...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545823/novel-molecular-subgroups-for-clinical-classification-and-outcome-prediction-in-childhood-medulloblastoma-a-cohort-study
#2
Edward C Schwalbe, Janet C Lindsey, Sirintra Nakjang, Stephen Crosier, Amanda J Smith, Debbie Hicks, Gholamreza Rafiee, Rebecca M Hill, Alice Iliasova, Thomas Stone, Barry Pizer, Antony Michalski, Abhijit Joshi, Stephen B Wharton, Thomas S Jacques, Simon Bailey, Daniel Williamson, Steven C Clifford
BACKGROUND: International consensus recognises four medulloblastoma molecular subgroups: WNT (MBWNT), SHH (MBSHH), group 3 (MBGrp3), and group 4 (MBGrp4), each defined by their characteristic genome-wide transcriptomic and DNA methylomic profiles. These subgroups have distinct clinicopathological and molecular features, and underpin current disease subclassification and initial subgroup-directed therapies that are underway in clinical trials. However, substantial biological heterogeneity and differences in survival are apparent within each subgroup, which remain to be resolved...
May 22, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545779/a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-patient-education-for-acute-low-back-pain-prevent-trial-statistical-analysis-plan
#3
REVIEW
Adrian C Traeger, Ian W Skinner, Markus Hübscher, Hopin Lee, G Lorimer Moseley, Michael K Nicholas, Nicholas Henschke, Kathryn M Refshauge, Fiona M Blyth, Chris J Main, Julia M Hush, Garry Pearce, Serigne Lo, James H McAuley
BACKGROUND: Statistical analysis plans increase the transparency of decisions made in the analysis of clinical trial results. The purpose of this paper is to detail the planned analyses for the PREVENT trial, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of patient education for acute low back pain. RESULTS: We report the pre-specified principles, methods, and procedures to be adhered to in the main analysis of the PREVENT trial data. The primary outcome analysis will be based on Mixed Models for Repeated Measures (MMRM), which can test treatment effects at specific time points, and the assumptions of this analysis are outlined...
April 14, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545121/measurement-of-macular-structure-function-relationships-using-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-sd-oct-and-pattern-electroretinograms-perg
#4
Keunheung Park, Jinmi Kim, Jiwoong Lee
BACKGROUND: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is a common cause of loss of vision during glaucoma. Pattern electroretinogram (PERG) is an objective measure of the central retinal function that correlates with macular GCL thickness. The aim of this study is to determine possible relationships between the N95 amplitude of pattern electroretinogram (PERGamp) and macular ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer thickness (GCIPLT). METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a retrospective and comparative study including 74 glaucoma patients (44 early stage and 30 advanced stage cases) and 66 normal control subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544476/usefulness-of-a-decision-tree-model-for-the-analysis-of-adverse-drug-reactions-evaluation-of-a-risk-prediction-model-of-vancomycin-associated-nephrotoxicity-constructed-using-a-data-mining-procedure
#5
Shungo Imai, Takehiro Yamada, Kumiko Kasashi, Masaki Kobayashi, Ken Iseki
OBJECTIVES: Several publications concerning decision tree (DT) analysis in medical fields have recently demonstrated its usefulness for defining prognostic factors in various diseases. However, there are minimal reports on the predictors of adverse drug reactions. We attempted to use DT analysis to discover combinations of multiple risk factors that would increase the risk of nephrotoxicity associated with vancomycin (VCM). To demonstrate the usefulness of DT analysis, we compared its predictive performance with that of multiple logistic regression analysis...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544060/predictive-factors-upon-discontinuation-of-renal-replacement-therapy-for-long-term-chronic-dialysis-and-death-in-acute-kidney-injury-patients
#6
Tingting Yang, Si Sun, Liping Lin, Mei Han, Qiang Liu, Xiaoxi Zeng, Yuliang Zhao, Yupei Li, Baihai Su, Songmin Huang, Lichuan Yang
The specific timing for discontinuing renal replacement therapy (RRT) in acute kidney injury (AKI) patients is debatable. The predictive abilities of variables at the time of discontinuation of RRT for the long-term prognoses of patients have not been explored. This study aimed to explore the prognostic factors upon discontinuation of RRT for long-term chronic dialysis and death of patients with acute RRT-requiring AKI, thus improving decision making regarding the discontinuation of RRT and the follow-up of patients thereafter...
May 23, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543961/automated-low-contrast-pattern-recognition-algorithm-for-magnetic-resonance-image-quality-assessment
#7
Morgan Ehman, Zhonghao Bao, Scott A Stiving, Mallik Kasam, Dianna Lanners, Teresa Peterson, Renee Jonsgaard, Rickey Carter, Kiaran P McGee
PURPOSE: Low contrast (LC) detectability is a common test criterion for diagnostic radiologic quality control (QC) programs. Automation of this test is desirable in order to reduce human variability and to speed up analysis. However, automation is challenging due to the complexity of the human visual perception system and the ability to create algorithms that mimic this response. This paper describes the development and testing of an automated LC detection algorithm for use in the analysis of magnetic resonance (MR) images of the American College of Radiology (ACR) QC phantom...
May 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542627/predictive-features-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-atypical-haemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#8
Matthieu Jamme, Quentin Raimbourg, Dominique Chauveau, Amélie Seguin, Claire Presne, Pierre Perez, Pierre Gobert, Alain Wynckel, François Provôt, Yahsou Delmas, Christiane Mousson, Aude Servais, Laurence Vrigneaud, Agnès Veyradier, Eric Rondeau, Paul Coppo
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a frequent and serious complication of atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). We aimed to develop a simple accurate model to predict the risk of renal dysfunction in aHUS based on clinical and biological features available at hospital admission. Renal function at 1-year follow-up, based on an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60mL/min/1.73m2 as assessed by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation, was used as an indicator of significant CKD. Prospectively collected data from a cohort of 156 aHUS patients who did not receive eculizumab were used to identify predictors of CKD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542409/voting-contagion-modeling-and-analysis-of-a-century-of-u-s-presidential-elections
#9
Dan Braha, Marcus A M de Aguiar
Social influence plays an important role in human behavior and decisions. Sources of influence can be divided as external, which are independent of social context, or as originating from peers, such as family and friends. An important question is how to disentangle the social contagion by peers from external influences. While a variety of experimental and observational studies provided insight into this problem, identifying the extent of contagion based on large-scale observational data with an unknown network structure remains largely unexplored...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542399/cost-effectiveness-of-a-school-based-health-promotion-program-in-canada-a-life-course-modeling-approach
#10
John Paul Ekwaru, Arto Ohinmaa, Bach Xuan Tran, Solmaz Setayeshgar, Jeffrey A Johnson, Paul J Veugelers
BACKGROUND: The Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating in Schools (APPLE Schools) has been recognized as a "best practice" in preventing childhood obesity. To inform decision making on the economic implications of APPLE Schools and to justify investment, we evaluated the project's cost-effectiveness following a life-course approach. METHODS: We developed a state transition model for the lifetime progression of body weight status comparing elementary school students attending APPLE Schools and control schools...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542194/using-g6pd-tests-to-enable-the-safe-treatment-of-plasmodium-vivax-infections-with-primaquine-on-the-thailand-myanmar-border-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#11
Angela Devine, Minnie Parmiter, Cindy S Chu, Germana Bancone, François Nosten, Ric N Price, Yoel Lubell, Shunmay Yeung
BACKGROUND: Primaquine is the only licensed antimalarial for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax infections. Many countries, however, do not administer primaquine due to fear of hemolysis in those with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In other settings, primaquine is given without G6PD testing, putting patients at risk of hemolysis. New rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) offer the opportunity to screen for G6PD deficiency prior to treatment with primaquine. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of using G6PD RDTs on the Thailand-Myanmar border and provide the model as an online tool for use in other settings...
May 24, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541159/linking-environmental-sustainability-health-and-safety-data-in-health-care
#12
Susan B Kaplan, Linda Forst
Limited but growing evidence demonstrates that environmental sustainability in the health-care sector can improve worker and patient health and safety. Yet these connections are not appreciated or understood by decision makers in health-care organizations or oversight agencies. Several studies demonstrate improvements in quality of care, staff satisfaction, and work productivity related to environmental improvements in the health-care sector. A pilot study conducted by the authors found that already-collected data could be used to evaluate impacts of environmental sustainability initiatives on worker and patient health and safety, yet few hospitals do so...
January 1, 2017: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541099/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-endoscopic-eradication-therapy-for-treatment-of-high-grade-dysplasia-in-barrett-s-esophagus
#13
Alex Filby, Matthew Taylor, Gideon Lipman, Laurence Lovat, Rehan Haidry
AIM: The aim was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of endoscopic eradication therapy (EET) with combined endoscopic mucosal resection and radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) arising in patients with Barrett's esophagus compared with endoscopic surveillance alone in the UK. MATERIALS & METHODS: The cost-effectiveness model consisted of a decision tree and modified Markov model. A lifetime time horizon was adopted with the perspective of the UK healthcare system...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540647/the-integration-of-social-influence-and-reward-computational-approaches-and-neural-evidence
#14
Damon Tomlin, Andrea Nedic, Deborah A Prentice, Philip Holmes, Jonathan D Cohen
Decades of research have established that decision-making is dramatically impacted by both the rewards an individual receives and the behavior of others. How do these distinct influences exert their influence on an individual's actions, and can the resulting behavior be effectively captured in a computational model? To address this question, we employed a novel spatial foraging game in which groups of three participants sought to find the most rewarding location in an unfamiliar two-dimensional space. As the game transitioned from one block to the next, the availability of information regarding other group members was varied systematically, revealing the relative impacts of feedback from the environment and information from other group members on individual decision-making...
May 24, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538950/association-of-adjuvant-chemotherapy-with-survival-in-patients-with-stage-ii-or-iii-gastric-cancer
#15
Yuming Jiang, Tuanjie Li, Xiaoling Liang, Yanfeng Hu, Lei Huang, Zhenchen Liao, Liying Zhao, Zhen Han, Shuguang Zhu, Menglan Wang, Yangwei Xu, Xiaolong Qi, Hao Liu, Yang Yang, Jiang Yu, Wei Liu, Shirong Cai, Guoxin Li
Importance: The current staging system of gastric cancer is not adequate for defining a prognosis and predicting the patients most likely to benefit from chemotherapy. Objective: To construct a survival prediction model based on specific tumor and patient characteristics that enables individualized predictions of the net survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage II or stage III gastric cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multicenter retrospective analysis, a survival prediction model was constructed using data from a training cohort of 746 patients with stage II or stage III gastric cancer who satisfied the study's inclusion criteria and underwent surgery between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2012, at Nanfang Hospital in Guangzhou, China...
May 24, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538948/exploring-audiologists-language-and-hearing-aid-uptake-in-initial-rehabilitation-appointments
#16
Anna Sciacca, Carly Meyer, Katie Ekberg, Caitlin Barr, Louise Hickson
Purpose: The study aimed (a) to profile audiologists' language during the diagnosis and management planning phase of hearing assessment appointments and (b) to explore associations between audiologists' language and patients' decisions to obtain hearing aids. Method: Sixty-two audiologist-patient dyads participated. Patient participants were aged 55 years or older. Hearing assessment appointments were audiovisually recorded and transcribed for analysis. Audiologists' language was profiled using two measures: general language complexity and use of jargon...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538814/maize-dry-matter-production-and-macronutrient-extraction-model-as-a-new-approach-for-fertilizer-rate-estimation
#17
Karla V Martins, Durval Dourado-Neto, Klaus Reichardt, José L Favarin, Felipe F Sartori, Guilherme Felisberto, Simone C Mello
Decision support for nutrient application remains an enigma if based on soil nutrient analysis. If the crop could be used as an auxiliary indicator, the plant nutrient status during different growth stages could complement the soil test, improving the fertilizer recommendation. Nutrient absorption and partitioning in the plant are here studied and described with mathematical models. The objective of this study considers the temporal variation of the nutrient uptake rate, which should define crop needs as compared to the critical content in soil solution...
May 22, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538643/immature-patients-in-a-mature-system-regional-analysis-of-florida-s-pediatric-trauma-system
#18
Christopher W Snyder, Nicole M Chandler, Cristen N Litz, Etienne E Pracht, Paul D Danielson, David J Ciesla
BACKGROUND: The state of Florida's trauma system is organized into seven regions, two of which lack designated pediatric trauma centers. Injured children residing in these regions often require transfer out of their home region for definitive care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the current regionalization approach, focusing on variations between regions. METHODS: Using the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration database, we identified all trauma patients 15 years old or younger admitted between 2009 and 2014...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538622/towards-precision-medicine-accurate-predictive-modeling-of-infectious-complications-in-combat-casualties
#19
Christopher J Dente, Matthew Bradley, Seth Schobel, Beverly Gaucher, Timothy Buchman, Allan D Kirk, Eric Elster
BACKGROUND: The biomarker profile of trauma patients may allow for the creation of models to assist bedside decision making & prediction of complications. We sought to determine the utility of modeling in the prediction of bacteremia & pneumonia in combat casualties. METHODS: This is a prospective, observational trial of patients with complex wounds treated at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (2007-2012). Tissue, serum and wound effluent samples were collected during operative interventions until wound closure...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538287/cost-utility-analysis-of-reconstruction-compared-with-primary-amputation-for-patients-with-severe-lower-limb-trauma-in-colombia
#20
Mateo Ceballos, Carlos Oliver Valderrama, Luis Esteban Orozco, Laura Sánchez, Juan Pablo Valderrama, Luz Helena Lugo
BACKGROUND: To establish, from the health system perspective, the cost-utility relationship of limb reconstruction compared with primary amputation for patients over 32 years with grade IIIB and IIIC severe lower limb trauma in Colombia, S.A. METHODS: A Markov model was built including different short-term and long-term states that represent the main events that a patient could experience after a lower limb amputation or a reconstruction. A 42-year time horizon was considered for the base case...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
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