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Medical sociology

Camilla Callegari, Lorenza Bertù, Melissa Lucano, Marta Ielmini, Elena Braggio, Simone Vender
BACKGROUND: In recent years resilience has gained clinical relevance in sociological, psychological, and medical disciplines, and a lot of scales measuring resilience have been developed and have been utilized in the western countries. The aim of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14), by describing its validity and reliability. As agreed with the authors of the original English version of the RS-14, it was translated into Italian...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Tetiana V Ieremeieva
INTRODUCTION: nowadays, there are about 45 million blind individuals and, according to the prognosis, their quantity will reach over 76 million in 2020. In such a way, nowadays ophthalmological problems become more widespread, and the market of the ophthalmological services is not studied enough to understand all the tendencies and processes. AIM: was to study the patients' awareness on eye diseases and choice peculiarities of the information sources and medical institutions among various population age groups of Lutsk, Rivne and Ternopil cities...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Yi-Sheng Chao, Antoine Boivin, Isabelle Marcoux, Geneviève Garnon, Nicholas Mays, Pascale Lehoux, Marie-Claude Prémont, Evert van Leeuwen, Raynald Pineault
BACKGROUND: End-of-life policies are hotly debated in many countries, with international evidence frequently used to support or oppose legal reforms. Existing reviews are limited by their focus on specific practices or selected jurisdictions. The objective is to review international time trends in end-of-life practices. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of empirical studies on medical end-of-life practices, including treatment withdrawal, the use of drugs for symptom management, and the intentional use of lethal drugs...
October 3, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Emmanuel Kabengele Mpinga, Aurélie Macias, Jennifer Hasselgard-Rowe, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala, Tshimungu Kandolo Félicien, Henk Verloo, Ngoyi K Zacharie Bukonda, Philippe Chastonay
BACKGROUND: Global efforts to end female genital mutilation (FGM) have intensified in recent decades because of the rising awareness that such a practice is an act of extreme violence against women and girls. Articles on FGM have been published highlighting the combined efforts of international and non-governmental organizations, governments, as well as religious and civil society groups to end the practice. However, the consequences of this research are not well known, and it seems that the socioeconomic aspects of the practice are underreported...
2016: Global Health Action
Lesley Henderson, Simon Carter
There has been considerable interest in images of medicine in popular science fiction and in representations of doctors in television fiction. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to doctors administering space medicine in science fiction. This article redresses this gap. We analyse the evolving figure of 'the doctor' in different popular science fiction television series. Building upon debates within Medical Sociology, Cultural Studies and Media Studies we argue that the figure of 'the doctor' is discursively deployed to act as the moral compass at the centre of the programme narrative...
September 30, 2016: Medical Humanities
Black Hawk Hancock, Daniel R Morrison
Drawing on and extending the Foucaultian philosophical framework that Jeffrey Bishop develops in his masterful book, The Anticipatory Corpse: Medicine, Power, and the Care of the Dying, we undertake a sociological analysis of the neurological procedure-deep brain stimulation (DBS)-which implants electrodes in the brain, powered by a pacemaker-like device, for the treatment of movement disorders. Following Bishop's work, we carry out this analysis through a two-fold strategy. First, we examine how a multidisciplinary team evaluates candidates for this implant at a major medical center...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Ilina Singh
Eighteen months ago, I left a permanent professorship in a generously interdisciplinary department of sociology and took an impermanent, lower-paying job at a university where I had to apply to something called the "Committee on Distinction" to retain the title of "Professor." Some people say, "That's what happens when Oxford calls." But it wasn't just that. It was the opportunity to engage in a groundbreaking experiment: to embed and integrate ethics within the Oxford Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience...
September 2016: Hastings Center Report
Vincenzo De Sanctis, Ashraf T Soliman, Nada A Soliman, Rania Elalaily, Salvatore Di Maio, Elsaid M A Bedair, Islam Kassem, Giuseppe Millimaggi
Unaccompanied minors refer to immigrants who are under the age of 18 and are not under the care of a parent or legal guardian. Age assessment is used in Europe mainly to establish whether or not an individual is under 18 years of age and therefore eligible for protection under the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN - CRC). EU Member States use a combination of techniques to determine the age of a minor and to certify minor status, including interviews and documentation, physical examinations (anthropometric assessment; sexual maturity assessment; dental observation); psychological and sociological assessment; radiological tests (carpal, dental or collarbone x-rays)...
2016: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Irena Makivić, Janko Kersnik, Zalika Klemenc-Ketiš
The aim of our systematic review was to analyse the published literature on the psychosocial dimension of care in family medicine and its relationship with quality of care. We wanted to find out whether there is any evidence on the psychosocial approach in (family) medicine. The recommended bio-psycho-social approach, besides the biomedical model of illness, takes into account several co-influencing psychological, sociological and existential factors. An online search of nine different databases used Boolean operators and the following selection criteria: the paper contained information on the holistic approach, quality indicators, family medicine, patient-centred care and/or the bio-psycho-social model of treatment...
March 2016: Zdravstveno Varstvo
Ole Lund, Berit Andersen, Mette K Christensen
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to explore the habitual constraints and opportunities that affect how experienced clinicians learn new skills and, in particular, how new ways of teaching can influence these. Methods:   We conducted a case study based on a specialized training program for colonoscopy services in Denmark. Data was obtained from a short-term ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviews during this program. Participants were 12 experienced colonoscopists and three expert colonoscopy trainers from Denmark and UK...
2016: International Journal of Medical Education
Katherine C Smith, Kisha I Coa, Ann C Klassen
OBJECTIVES: Improvements in cancer detection and treatment create a need for care that prioritizes acute treatment and ongoing needs. There have been calls to include health promotion in cancer care, but little empirical consideration of the work involved in such an expansion of services. In this article, we adopt a constructionist position to explore clinicians' perspectives on capacity for health promotion, specifically dietary counseling. METHODS: Our data result from 33 semi-structured qualitative interviews with members of cancer care teams...
2016: SAGE Open Medicine
Lara Rzesnitzek, Sascha Lang
The article considers the history of electroshock therapy as a history of medical technology, professional cooperation and business competition. A variation of a history from below is intended; though not from the patients' perspective (Porter, Theory Soc 14:175-198, 1985), but with a focus on electrodes, circuitry and patents. Such a 'material history' of electroshock therapy reveals that the technical make-up of electroshock devices and what they were used for was relative to the changing interests of physicians, industrial companies and mental health politics; it makes an intriguing case for the Social Construction of Technology theory (Bijker et al...
September 9, 2016: NTM
Marinko Lazzarich
The fact that many famous denizens of Rijeka belong to different nationalities confirms this city's historic multicultural image. The life story of Erik Vio (1910-1966), renowned surgeon of international reputation, reflects the fate of many displaced residents of Rijeka who left to live in exile. After graduating in Rome, Vio worked as a medical doctor in Hong Kong for almost three decades. The question is weather a surgeon from Rijeka chose to live in Hong Kong because it reminded him of his hometown? The author finds the root of this thesis in Vio's novel The Pathways of Freedom (˝Irwege der Freiheit˝, Köln 1978), a particular medical-philosophic diagnosis of the contemporary civilization's spiritual state...
August 2016: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
Cezary Opalach, Jerzy Romaszko, Marcin Jaracz, Robert Kuchta, Alina Borkowska, Adam Buciński
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The ways in which homeless individuals cope with stress may differ from those relied upon by the members of the general population and these differences may either be the result or the cause of their living conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the preferred coping style among the homeless and its relationship with alcohol dependence. METHODS: The study included 78 homeless individuals and involved the collection of demographic, sociological, psychological and medical data from each participant...
2016: PloS One
Eeva Sointu
This article develops sociological understanding of the reproduction of inequality in medicine. The material is drawn from a longitudinal study of student experiences of clinical learning that entailed 72 qualitative in-depth interviews with 27 medical students from five medical schools in the USA. To highlight the subtle, yet powerful, ways in which inequality gets entrenched, this article analyses ideas of the 'good' and the 'bad' patient. Bad patients question not only biomedical knowledge but also medical students' commitment to helping people...
August 31, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
Carrie Purcell, Sharon Cameron, Julia Lawton, Anna Glasier, Jeni Harden
'Body work' has emerged at the nexus of sociologies of work and bodies as a means of conceptualising work focusing on the bodies of others. This article utilises this analytical tool in the context of contemporary abortion work. Abortion provision in Britain has seen significant change in the last 25 years, paralleling developments in medical methods, and the option for women under nine weeks' gestation to complete the abortion at home. These shifts raise questions around how abortion work is experienced by those who do it...
August 28, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
Kannikar Wechkunanukul, Hugh Grantham, Raechel Damarell, Robyn A Clark
BACKGROUND: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, and chest pain is one of the most common symptoms of ACSs. A rapid response to chest pain by patients and appropriate management by health professionals are vital to improve survival rates.People from different ethnic groups are likely to have different perceptions of chest pain, its severity and the need for urgent treatment. These differences in perception may contribute to differences in response to chests pain and precipitate unique coping strategies...
July 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Philip R A Baker, Daniel P Francis, Noran N Hairi, Sajaratulnisah Othman, Wan Yuen Choo
BACKGROUND: Maltreatment of older people (elder abuse) includes psychological, physical, sexual abuse, neglect and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 10% of older adults experience some form of abuse, and only a fraction of cases are actually reported or referred to social services agencies. Elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous interventions have been implemented to address the issue of elder maltreatment. It is, however, unclear which interventions best serve to prevent or reduce elder abuse...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Инна В Беликова, Леся А Руденко
INTRODUCTION: A priority task of the development strategy of the Ukrainian health care system is the saving and improving of public health. With the development of new economic relations, health care restructuring, the introduction of new financing mechanisms to policy-makers have an important task of the organization of operational management on the basis of timely quality information. According to many authors, the ability to improve the quality of the received information is possible due to the intercalation of information technologies...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Татьяна С Грузева, Василий А Дуфинец, Виктория Б Замкевич
INTRODUCTION: Harmful alcohol consumption constitutes a significant cause of the global burden of disease, causing more than 200 different diseases, 5.9% of all deaths worldwide, causing substantial medical and social costs, major economic loss, slowing progress towards the strategic goals of human development. THE AIM: to substantiate approaches to the formation of a national strategy to combat the harmful use of alcohol in Ukraine based on the analysis of the prevalence of alcohol consumption and related health and social problems and international experience and recommendations of WHO...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
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