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Medical sociology

Sarah Jane Holcombe
Unsafe abortion is one of the three leading causes of maternal mortality in low-income countries; however, few countries have reformed their laws to permit safer, legal abortion, and professional medical associations have not tended to spearhead this type of reform. Support from a professional association typically carries more weight than does that from an individual medical professional. However, theory predicts and the empirical record largely reveals that medical associations shy from engagement in conflictual policymaking such as on abortion, except when professional autonomy or income is at stake...
March 12, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
John Noel M Viaña, Frederic Gilbert
Memory dysfunction and cognitive impairments due to Alzheimer's disease can affect the selfhood and identity of afflicted individuals, causing distress to both people with Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers. Recently, a number of case studies and clinical trials have been conducted to determine the potential of deep brain stimulation as a therapeutic modality for people with Alzheimer's disease. Some of these studies have shown that deep brain stimulation could induce flashbacks and stabilize or even improve memory...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Karen Parsons, Alice Gaudine, Michelle Swab
BACKGROUND: Most developed countries throughout the world are experiencing an aging nursing workforce as their population ages. Older nurses often experience different challenges then their younger nurse counterparts. With the increase in older nurses relative to younger nurses potentially available to work in hospitals, it is important to understand the experience of older nurses on high paced hospital nursing units. This understanding will lend knowledge to ways of lessening the loss of these highly skilled experienced workers and improve patient outcomes...
March 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Mi-Chia Ma, Jian-Kang Chao, Jia-Yi Hung, Su-Ching Sung, I-Hsin Candy Chao
BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction occurs commonly in patients with psychiatric illness and may be related to the primary mental disorder, comorbidity with sexual disorders or medical illness, or medications used for mental disorders treatment, but the magnitude of this problem is unknown. AIM: To estimate the prevalence of current sexual activity, sexual dysfunction, and sexual attitude and influence of factors on patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: This study used a cross-sectional design with a total of 317 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia...
March 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Su Holmes
Eating disorders (EDs) have often been discussed as a risk to reproductive health. But existing research is quantitative in nature, paying no attention to issues of patient experience. In discussing data from 24 semi-structured interviews, this article draws on sociological approaches to medical 'risk' and feminist approaches to EDs to explore how women with experience of an ED responded to fertility warnings within treatment contexts. In doing so, it is suggested that responses to fertility warnings offer unique insight into the potentially damaging limitations of biomedical approaches to eating problems and their focus on EDs as individual 'pathologies' (rather than culturally embedded expressions of gendered embodiment)...
February 21, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Kate Weiner, Catherine Will
The growing consumer market in health monitoring devices means that technologies that were once the preserve of the clinic are moving into spaces such as homes and workplaces. We consider how one such device, blood pressure monitors, comes to be integrated into everyday life. We pursue the concept of 'care infrastructure', drawing on recent scholarship in STS and medical sociology, to illuminate the work and range of people, things and spaces involved in self-monitoring. Drawing on a UK study involving observations and interviews with 31 people who have used a consumer blood pressure monitor, we apply the concept beyond chronic illness, to practices involving consumer devices - and develop a critical account of its value...
February 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Gemma Mangione
Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews at a major metropolitan art museum and botanic garden, this article considers the practical accomplishment of American museums' 'health turn' by tracing how museum staff develop therapeutic programmes for visitors with disabilities. In doing so, it considers one of medical sociology's fundamental theoretical questions - how ideologies of health order social life - in an unconventional empirical setting. Acknowledging contemporary arguments for both the relative merits and unintended consequences of this policy trend, I focus instead on the particular institutional arrangements, professional norms, and material cultures of art and nature that shape museums' therapeutic work, so as to reveal its effects...
February 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Karen Lutfey Spencer
The term patient noncompliance emerged in the 1970s as a tool for analyzing why people do not follow medical directives. Despite its early popularity, the term has languished in sociology while flourishing in biomedical arenas. It seems flaccid in a contemporary healthcare context as it overestimates physician authority and is tone-deaf to biomedicalization. I draw from sociological and anthropological traditions, as well as qualitative interviews with terminally ill patients ( N = 26) and their caregivers ( N = 16), to consider facets of a biomedicalized health experience and implications for an updated vision of compliance...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Jen Tarr, Flora Cornish, Elena Gonzalez-Polledo
Pain is difficult to communicate and translate into language, yet most social research on pain experience uses questionnaires and semi-structured interviews that rely on words. In addition to the mind/body dualism prevalent in pain medicine in these studies pain communication is characterised by further value-laden binaries such as real/unreal, visible/invisible, and psychological/physical. Starting from the position that research methods play a role in constituting their object, this article examines the potential of participatory arts workshops for developing different versions of pain communication...
February 13, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Rogério Lima Barbosa, Sílvia Portugal
Based on the question of an inspiring work - "Is the Market good for one's Health?", this paper poses a similar question, centered on "associativism" (belonging to a labor group or association) and the field of rare diseases. Starting from the research carried out in the scope of the Master's Degree in Sociology of the School of Economics of the University of Coimbra, this text puts into perspective the formulations created for the field of genetic conditions that, mainly, depart from a Eurocentric vision. The field of rare diseases is analyzed, identifying the roles, relationships and motivations of the different actors, namely, civil associations, pharmaceutical industry, academy, government, and families...
February 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Ana Maria Canesqui
This paper discusses the legitimacy and non-legitimacy of selected experiences of long-term illness and suffering, which are, or are not, considered diseases by medical diagnoses, such as pain, chronic fatigue, and "high blood pressure" using international and national sociological and anthropological research in health. It explores their implications, reflexes and ambiguities for the identity, moral and physical suffering perceived by the subjects and in their relationship with others and with the health services...
February 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Sarah Wieten
BACKGROUND: Expertise has been a contentious concept in Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM). Especially in the early days of the movement, expertise was taken to be exactly what EBM was rebelling against-the authoritarian pronouncements about "best" interventions dutifully learned in medical schools, sometimes with dire consequences. Since then, some proponents of EBM have tried various ways of reincorporating the idea of expertise into EBM, with mixed results. However, questions remain...
February 2, 2018: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
Antonio Ríos, A López-Navas, A López-López, F J Gómez, J Iriarte, R Herruzo, G Blanco, F J Llorca, A Asunsolo, P Sánchez, P R Gutiérrez, A Fernández, M T de Jesús, L Martínez Alarcón, M Del Olivo, L Fuentes, J R Hernández, J Virseda, J Yelamos, J A Bondía, A M Hernández, M A Ayala, P Ramírez, P Parrilla
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the level of understanding of the brain death concept among medical students in universities in Spain. METHODS: This cross-sectional sociological, interdisciplinary, and multicenter study was performed on 9598 medical students in Spain. The sample was stratified by geographical area and academic year. A previously validated self-reported measure of brain death knowledge (questionnaire Proyecto Colaborativo Internacional Donante sobre la Donación y Transplante de Organos) was completed anonymously by students...
January 1, 2018: Progress in Transplantation
Ariel Ducey, Shoghi Nikoo
This article illustrates what pragmatic sociology refers to as investments in form, by examining the formats created and used by a group of surgeons to determine when elective surgery for pelvic floor disorders could be responsibly undertaken. Drawing upon ethnographic observations of surgical consultations at an academic medical centre in Canada, we show how two specific formats - that the patient is sufficiently bothered and the patient accepts the risks of surgery - allow for justifiable action in conditions of uncertainty and contingency and in light of the demands of dominant imperatives in medicine and health care, especially evidence-based medicine (EBM)...
January 3, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Heiner Raspe
The German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) confers the Salomon Neumann Medal for outstanding merit in the field of Preventive and Social Medicine. The Salomon Neumann Medal 2017 was awarded to Bernt-Peter Robra, Institute for Social Medicine and Health Economics (ISMG) of the Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg. It honours an outstanding representative of social medicine, in whose person and Institute the essential problem areas of social medicine as well as the competencies of the 3 scientific bodies that gathered in Lübeck - epidemiology, medical sociology and social medicine - and the sociopolitical engagement of Salomon Neumann come together...
December 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
V A Prylipko, Yu Yu Ozerova, O V Kotsubinskij, M M Morozova, O O Petrychenko, I V Bondarenko
OBJECTIVE: To study the contentment of population of NPP surveillance areas i.e. monitoring zones with specific components of quality of life, namely the social security, medical care, and socio economic compensation of risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sociological study of public opinion about the specific components of quality of life has been conducted in population of the NPP monitoring zone. A questionnaire with independent question blocks was developed. A non repeatable probabilistic selection was applied in population opinion poll...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
Felicitas Söhner, Heiner Fangerau, Thomas Becker
Objective This paper examines the influence of sociology as a discipline on the Psychiatrie-Enquete by analysing interviews with expert (psychiatrist, psychologist, sociologist etc.) witnesses of the Enquete process and by analysing pertinent documents. Methods 24 interviews were conducted and analysed using qualitative secondary analysis. Results Sociological texts and research results influenced the professional development of psychiatrists at the time. Cross-talk between psychiatry and sociology developed through seminal sociological analyses of psychiatric institutions and the interest taken in medical institutions in a number of sociological texts...
December 13, 2017: Psychiatrische Praxis
Joycelyn Sue Woods, Herman Joseph
This article concentrates on methadone maintenance as a normalizer for the impairments of opioid addiction, and the misunderstandings of it as a substitute for heroin that continues an opiate addiction. Methadone treatment was developed by Drs. Dole, Nyswander, and Kreek. Their cutting-edge theory transformed the way that opioid addiction is perceived and their work changed methadone from a narcotic to withdraw addicts to a medication that is a maintenance normalizer for a chronic condition. Their extensive research involved the physiological and sociological normalizing effects of methadone and medical safety of the medication (Dole & Nyswander, 1967)...
January 28, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Annemarie Jutel
Diagnosis is one of medicine's most important tools. It structures the relationship between patient and diagnostician, organises illness and provides access to resources. In this article, I reveal how the manner in which a serious diagnosis is revealed creates a kind of 'epistemic posture' reinforcing the power of medical knowledge, and contributing to medical authority. To achieve this, I explore historical material written by and for doctors about the disclosure of difficult diagnoses. Using historical data for sociological purposes follows Zerubavel, who asserts that phenomena should be studied across eras, media and cultures...
December 1, 2017: Health (London)
Luigi Santacroce, Lucrezia Bottalico, Ioannis Alexandros Charitos
Background: In the pre-Hellenistic period, the concept of medicine was not well-defined. Usually, a disease was considered as a divine punishment and its treatment was devolved to the priests who asked for healing from the divinities. The only job that could be compared to medical practice was a kind of itinerant medicine, derived from the Egyptian therapeutic tradition based only on practical experience and performed by people that knew a number of remedies, mostly vegetable, but without any theoretical bases about the possible mechanisms of action...
December 12, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
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