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Vania Regina Assis, Stefanny Christie Monteiro Titon, Nicolle Gilda Teixeira Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Cristina de Oliveira Massoco, Fernando Ribeiro Gomes
Previous studies in a variety of vertebrates show stressed animals to exhibit acute increases in glucocorticoid levels, with consequences for immune modulation. Chronically elevated glucocorticoid levels are mostly associated with immunosuppression. However, there is still a paucity of knowledge regarding the amphibian physiological reaction to short- and long-term stress conditions, including glucocorticoid effects on the immune response. In order to better clarify the relationship between glucocorticoids and immune response, newly captured Brazilian toads (Rhinella icterica) (1 week in captivity) were subjected to a daily transdermal application (TA), of corticosterone or vehicle, for 30 consecutive days...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Laura M E Blanken, Alena Dass, Gail Alvares, Jan van der Ende, Nikita K Schoemaker, Hanan El Marroun, Martha Hickey, Craig Pennell, Scott White, Murray T Maybery, Cheryl Dissanayake, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier, Will McIntosh, Tonya White, Andrew Whitehouse
Altered trajectories of brain growth are often reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), particularly during the first year of life. However, less is known about prenatal head growth trajectories, and no study has examined the relation with postnatal autistic symptom severity. The current study prospectively examined the association between fetal head growth and the spectrum of autistic symptom severity in two large population-based cohorts, including a sample of individuals with clinically diagnosed ASD...
January 22, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Yanjun Zan, Örjan Carlborg
The adaptation to a new habitat often results in a confounding between genome-wide genotype and beneficial alleles. When the confounding is strong, or the allelic effects weak, it is a major statistical challenge to detect the adaptive polymorphisms. We describe a novel approach to dissect polygenic traits in natural populations. First, candidate adaptive loci are identified by screening for loci directly associated with the adaptive trait or the expression of genes known to affect it. Then, a multi-locus genetic architecture is inferred using a backward elimination association analysis across all candidate loci with an adaptive false discovery rate based threshold...
January 22, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Sheng-Zhou Zhang, Ting Meng, Xue Zhu, Huan Wang, Yong-Kang Zhou, Xiao-Bing Wu
The Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis), a freshwater crocodilian endemic to China, is one of the most endangered crocodilian species; up to this date, very little is known about the endocrine regulation of its metabolic activities during different physiological states. In this study, we characterized the structure of the prepro-vasoactive intestinal peptide in Chinese alligator (prepro-caVIP) for the first time and examined its expression profiles in various tissues during the active and hibernating periods...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Zachary M Laubach, Wei Perng, Dana C Dolinoy, Christopher D Faulk, Kay E Holekamp, Thomas Getty
Developmental plasticity, a phenomenon of importance in both evolutionary biology and human studies of the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD), enables organisms to respond to their environment based on previous experience without changes to the underlying nucleotide sequence. Although such phenotypic responses should theoretically improve an organism's fitness and performance in its future environment, this is not always the case. Herein, we first discuss epigenetics as an adaptive mechanism of developmental plasticity and use signaling theory to provide an evolutionary context for DOHaD phenomena within a generation...
January 21, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Fabian Obstals, Mariia Vorobii, Tomáš Riedel, Andres de Los Santos Pereira, Michael Bruns, Smriti Singh, Cesar Rodriguez-Emmenegger
Nonthrombogenic modifications of membranes for extracorporeal membrane oxygenators (ECMOs) are of key interest. The absence of hemocompatibility of these membranes and the need of anticoagulation of patients result in severe and potentially life-threatening complications during ECMO treatment. To address the lack of hemocompatibility of the membrane, surface modifications are developed, which act as barriers to protein adsorption on the membrane and, in this way, prevent activation of the coagulation cascade...
January 22, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Svenn-Erik Mamelund
BACKGROUND: Whether morbidity from the 1918-19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. In lack of data to study this issue recent literature have hypothesized that morbidity was "socially neutral". OBJECTIVES: To study the associations between Influenza like illness (ILI) and socioeconomic status (SES), gender and wave during the 1918-19 influenza pandemic. METHODS: Availability of incidence data on the 1918-19 pandemic is scarce, in particular for waves other than the "fall wave" October-December 1918...
January 21, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Riccardo Montioli, Giacomo Janson, Alessandro Paiardini, Mariarita Bertoldi, Carla Borri Voltattorni
Aromatic amino acid or Dopa decarboxylase (AADC or DDC) is a homodimeric pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) enzyme responsible for the generation of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. AADC deficiency is a rare inborn disease caused by mutations of the AADC gene leading to a defect of AADC enzyme and resulting in impaired dopamine and serotonin synthesis. Until now, only the molecular effects of homozygous mutations were analyzed. However, although heterozygous carriers of AADC deficiency were identified, the molecular aspects of their enzymatic phenotypes are not yet investigated...
January 22, 2018: IUBMB Life
Simon Escalard, Benjamin Gory, Maéva Kyheng, Jean-Philippe Desilles, Hocine Redjem, Gabriele Ciccio, Stanislas Smajda, Julien Labreuche, Mikael Mazighi, Michel Piotin, Raphaël Blanc, Bertrand Lapergue, Robert Fahed
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The DAWN Trial recently showed compelling evidence in treating late window and wake-up stroke patients with thrombectomy using a clinical-imaging mismatch. We aimed to evaluate the results of thrombectomy for unknown-onset strokes (UOS) treated in our centers after a DWI-FLAIR mismatch based selection. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, cohort study of consecutive UOS treated by thrombectomy between 2012 and 2016. We compared UOS with proximal anterior circulation occlusion discovered beyond 6 hours from "last seen normal" with known-onset strokes (KOS) for whom thrombectomy was started within 6 hours from onset...
January 21, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Biao Yu, Shengyang Wang, Jiansong Sun, Qingju Zhang, Xin Cao, Yachen Zhao, Gongli Tang
The proposed diastereoisomers (1a-1d) together with their C8'-epimers (1e-1h) of amipurimycin, a unique antifungal peptidyl nucleoside antibiotic, have been synthesized for the first time. The synthetic approach is efficient and stereo-divergent, featuring a stereoselective aldol condensation to build the branched C9 sugar amino acid skeleton and a regio- and stereo-controlled gold(I)-catalyzed N-glycosylation to furnish the purine nucleoside. Analysis of the NMR data suggests that the previously assigned configuration of the tertiary C-3' in amipurimycin should be inverted...
January 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Yanjun Gao, Hongyu Zhao, Yang Li
Sauchinone is one of the active lignan isolated from Saururus chinensis, which has been considered to possess various pharmacological activities, such as antitumor, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the functional roles of sauchinone in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)-stimulated human osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes are still unknown. Thus, in this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of sauchinone in IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes. Our results demonstrated that sauchinone significantly attenuated NO and PGE2 production, as well as inhibited iNOS and COX-2 expression in IL-1β-stimulated OA chondrocytes...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Olga Charnaya, Shamir Tuchman, Asha Moudgil
The development of dnDSA anti-HLA antibodies has been shown to be a significant risk factor for graft failure. In 2008, we instituted a routine protocol of standardized monitoring and treatment of dnDSA in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Of 67 first-time pediatric kidney transplant recipients, 26 (38%) developed dnDSA after 1.36 (IQ 1-2.14) years. Coefficient of variance of tacrolimus, a surrogate marker of non-adherence, was found to be the single most important risk factor for dnDSA development. Overall, there was a significant reduction in dnDSA with treatment in 19 (76%) children...
January 22, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Zheyu Shen, Jibin Song, Bryant C Yung, Zijian Zhou, Aiguo Wu, Xiaoyuan Chen
Ferroptosis, a new form of regulated cell death that is iron- and reactive oxygen species dependent, has attracted much attention in the research communities of biochemistry, oncology, and especially material sciences. Since the first demonstration in 2012, a series of strategies have been developed to induce ferroptosis of cancer cells, including the use of nanomaterials, clinical drugs, experimental compounds, and genes. A plethora of research work has outlined the blueprint of ferroptosis as a new option for cancer therapy...
January 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
Cláudia C Dias, Bárbara Figueiredo, Magda Rocha, Tiffany Field
This paper is a systematic review on the reference values and changes in infant sleep-wake behaviour during the first 12 months of life. This systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). Seventy-four papers were included, and the reference values and changes in sleep-wake behaviour during the first 12 months of life were identified. Sleep duration during the 24-h period, and day and sleep periods during the night decreased over the first 12 months of life...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Daniel Poehnert, Nils Hadeler, Harald Schrem, Alexander Kaltenborn, Juergen Klempnauer, Markus Winny
This single-center prospective, controlled observational study investigates the impact of incisional negative pressure wound therapy on wound healing processes and its potency to prevent superficial surgical site infections after reversal of a double loop ileostomy. Furthermore, this study gains insight in socio-economic aspects, like duration of hospital stay and, for the first time, patient's quality of life during the incisional negative pressure wound treatment. To address this question, an interventional group of 24 patients treated with incisional negative pressure wound therapy (Prevena® incisional wound management system, KCI, Germany) and a respective control cohort of 25 patients treated with a standard sterile dressing were observed for 30 days in the post-operative course...
January 22, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Jodie A Austin, Ian R Smith, Amina Tariq
Closed-loop electronic medication management systems (EMMS) are recognised as an effective intervention to improve medication safety, yet evidence of their effectiveness in hospitals is limited. Few studies have compared medication turnaround time for a closed-loop electronic versus paper-based medication management environment. OBJECTIVE: To compare medication turnaround times in a paper-based hospital environment with a digital hospital equipped with a closed-loop EMMS, consisting of computerised physician order entry, profiled automated dispensing cabinets packaged with unit dose medications and barcode medication administration...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Narumi Oka, Fuyuki Ito, Yohei Haketa, Hiromitsu Maeda, Tetsuya Miyano, Norimitsu Tohnai, Syoji Ito, Hiroshi Miyasaka, Sumio Ozeki
Understanding the polymorph phenomenon for organic crystals is essential for the development of organic solid materials. Here, we report the fluorescence study of the evaporative crystallization of 1,3-dipyrrol-2-yl-1,3-propanedione boron difluoride complex (1), which has three polymorphs showing different emission profiles. The droplet of 1 in 1,2-dichloroethane showed blue emission just after dropping. The solids with bluish-green emission were observed. As time elapsed, a solid with red or orange emission was observed around the droplet...
January 22, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Kunfang Jia, Junzhao Li, Yiyun Chen
Here we report the first phosphorus-C(sp3) bond cleavage and radical alkynylation of alpha-phosphorus alcohols to construct phosphonoalkynes. The phosphorus radical is generated by P-C bond cleavage reaction via the alkoxyl radical by photoredox catalysis with different cyclic iodine(III) reagents. Various arylphosphinoyl-, alkylphosphinoyl-, phosphonate-, and phosphonic amide alcohols serve as phosphorus radical precursors for the first time to construct phosphonoalkynes.
January 22, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Pamela Rueda-Cediel, Kurt E Anderson, Tracey J Regan, Helen M Regan
The IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria is a quantitative framework for classifying species according to extinction risk. Population models may be used to estimate extinction risk or population declines. Uncertainty and variability arise in threat classifications through measurement and process error in empirical data and uncertainty in the models used to estimate extinction risk and population declines. Furthermore, species traits are known to affect extinction risk. We investigated the effects of measurement and process error, model type, population growth rate, and age at first reproduction on the reliability of risk classifications based on projected population declines on IUCN Red List classifications...
January 22, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
B R Díaz, C S Galina, I Rubio, M Corro, J L Pablos, A Orihuela
With the objective of testing the hypothesis if animals with a stable layer of body fat (FAT) during the peripartum have a better chance of becoming pregnant after calving, fifty-nine multiparous Brahman cows in their last trimester of pregnancy were used. Animals averaged four parturitions and were stocked at a rate of 1.25 animal units per hectare and divided into two groups depending on the time postpartum (dpp) that the intravaginal releasing device CIDR was inserted; Group 1 (<30 dpp; n = 30) received the implant at 25...
January 21, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
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