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Immunisation community strategies

Alex Keenan, Sam Ghebrehewet, Roberto Vivancos, Dan Seddon, Peter MacPherson, Daniel Hungerford
OBJECTIVES: There was a large outbreak of measles in Liverpool, UK, in 2012-2013, despite measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) immunisation uptake rates that were higher than the national average. We estimated measles susceptibility of a cohort of children born in Liverpool between 1995 and 2012 to understand whether there was a change in susceptibility before and after the outbreak and to inform vaccination strategy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: The city of Liverpool, North West UK...
March 30, 2017: BMJ Open
Claire Hooker, Adam Capon, Julie Leask
In this article, we summarise research that identifies best practice for communicating about hazards where the risk is low but public concern is high. We apply Peter Sandman's 'risk = hazard + outrage' formulation to these risks, and review factors associated with the amplification of risk signals. We discuss the structures that determine the success of risk communication strategies, such as the capacity for early communication to 'capture' the dominant representation of risk issues, the importance of communicating uncertainty, and the usefulness of engaging with communities...
January 15, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Nina J Berry, Alexandra Henry, Margie Danchin, Lyndal J Trevena, Harold W Willaby, Julie Leask
BACKGROUND: Increasingly, the experiences and perceptions of parents who decline vaccination are the subject of investigation. However, the experiences of clinicians who encounter these parents in the course of their work has received little academic attention to date. This study aimed to understand the challenges faced and strategies used when general practitioners and immunising nurses encounter parents who choose not to vaccinate their children. METHODS: Primary care providers were recruited from regions identified through the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) as having higher than national average rates of registered objection to childhood vaccination...
January 17, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
David Moreno-Pérez, Francisco José Álvarez García, Javier Arístegui Fernández, María José Cilleruelo Ortega, José María Corretger Rauet, Nuria García Sánchez, Ángel Hernández Merino, Teresa Hernández-Sampelayo Matos, Manuel Merino Moína, Luis Ortigosa Del Castillo, Jesús Ruiz-Contreras
The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics (CAV- AEP) annually publishes the immunisation schedule which, in our opinion, is considered optimal for children resident in Spain, taking into account the evidence available on current vaccines. Pneumococcal and varicella immunisation in early childhood is already included in all funded vaccines present in the regional immunisation programmes. Furthermore, this committee establishes recommendations on vaccines not included in official calendars (non-funded immunisations), such as rotavirus, meningococcal B, and meningococcal ACWY...
February 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Yolanda G Lovie-Toon, Kerry K Hall, Anne B Chang, Jennie Anderson, Kerry-Ann F O'Grady
BACKGROUND: To evaluate immunisation coverage, timeliness and predictors of delayed receipt in urban Australian Indigenous children during the first 18 months of life. METHODS: Cross-sectional retrospective analysis of data collected from 140 Australian Indigenous children aged < 5 years at the time of enrolment in a prospective cohort study on respiratory illness between 14 February 2013 and 28 January 2015. Children were recruited through an urban community primary health care centre in the Northern suburbs of Brisbane, Queensland...
November 14, 2016: BMC Public Health
María Isabel Fernández-Cano, Xavier Espada-Trespalacios, Azahara Reyes-Lacalle, Josep Maria Manresa Domínguez, Lluís Armadans-Gil, Magda Campins-Martí, Gemma Falguera-Puig, Pere Toran Monserrat
INTRODUCTION: The re-emergence of pertussis and the severity of its complications in infants younger than 3 months, were determining factors for starting a vaccination program for pregnant women in the third trimester of gestation in Catalonia in February 2014. This was the first autonomous community to introduce it in Spain. The aim of the study was to estimate the coverage of the program in its first year of implementation. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the data from the Primary Care Centre computerised medical records of pregnant women attending Sexual and Reproductive Health Care centres of the Metropolitan Nord area of the province of Barcelona, part of the Catalan Institute of Health...
October 18, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Shoaib Fahad Hussain, Peter Boyle, Preeti Patel, Richard Sullivan
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988 the global incidence of poliomyelitis has fallen by nearly 99 %. From a situation where wild type poliovirus was endemic in 125 countries across five continents, transmission is now limited to regions of just three countries - Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria. A sharp increase in Pakistan's poliomyelitis cases in 2014 prompted the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee to declare the situation a 'public health emergency of international concern'...
October 12, 2016: Globalization and Health
Esther van Kleef, Sarah R Deeny, Mark Jit, Barry Cookson, Simon D Goldenberg, W John Edmunds, Julie V Robotham
BACKGROUND: Early clinical trials of a Clostridium difficile toxoid vaccine show efficacy in preventing C. difficile infection (CDI). The optimal patient group to target for vaccination programmes remains unexplored. This study performed a model-based evaluation of the effectiveness of different CDI vaccination strategies, within the context of existing infection prevention and control strategies such as antimicrobial stewardship. METHODS: An individual-based transmission model of CDI in a high-risk hospital setting was developed...
November 4, 2016: Vaccine
C Raina MacIntyre, Robert Menzies, Elizabeth Kpozehouen, Michael Chapman, Joanne Travaglia, Michael Woodward, Lisa Jackson Pulver, Christopher J Poulos, David Gronow, Timothy Adair
On the 20th June, 2014 the National Health and Medical Research Council's Centre for Research Excellence in Population Health "Immunisation in under Studied and Special Risk Populations", in collaboration with the Public Health Association of Australia, hosted a workshop "Equity in disease prevention: vaccines for the older adults". The workshop featured international and national speakers on ageing and vaccinology. The workshop was attended by health service providers, stakeholders in immunisation, ageing, primary care, researchers, government and non-government organisations, community representatives, and advocacy groups...
September 26, 2016: Vaccine
Angela Oyo-Ita, Charles S Wiysonge, Chioma Oringanje, Chukwuemeka E Nwachukwu, Olabisi Oduwole, Martin M Meremikwu
BACKGROUND: Immunisation is a powerful public health strategy for improving child survival, not only by directly combating key diseases that kill children but also by providing a platform for other health services. However, each year millions of children worldwide, mostly from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), do not receive the full series of vaccines on their national routine immunisation schedule. This is an update of the Cochrane review published in 2011 and focuses on interventions for improving childhood immunisation coverage in LMICs...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Nadia Akseer, Ahmad S Salehi, S M Moazzem Hossain, M Taufiq Mashal, M Hafiz Rasooly, Zaid Bhatti, Arjumand Rizvi, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: After the fall of the Taliban in 2001, Afghanistan experienced a tumultuous period of democracy overshadowed by conflict, widespread insurgency, and an inflow of development assistance. Although there have been several cross-sectional assessments of health gains over the last decade, there has been no systematic analysis of progress and factors influencing maternal and child health in Afghanistan. METHODS: We undertook a comprehensive, systematic assessment of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health in Afghanistan over the last decade...
June 2016: Lancet Global Health
Sonia Pagliusi, Ching-Chia Ting, Sumana Khomvilai
The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN) assembled high-profile leaders from global health organisations and vaccine manufactures for its 16th Annual General Meeting to work towards a common goal: providing quality vaccines for all people. Vaccines contribute to a healthy community and robust health system; the Ebola outbreak has raised awareness of the threat and damage one single infectious disease can make, and it is clear that the world was not prepared. However, more research to better understand emerging infectious agents might lead to suitable vaccines which help prevent future outbreaks...
June 30, 2016: Vaccine
Afiong Oku, Angela Oyo-Ita, Claire Glenton, Atle Fretheim, Heather Ames, Artur Muloliwa, Jessica Kaufman, Sophie Hill, Julie Cliff, Yuri Cartier, Xavier Bosch-Capblanch, Gabriel Rada, Simon Lewin
BACKGROUND: Effective communication is a critical component in ensuring that children are fully vaccinated. Although numerous communication interventions have been proposed and implemented in various parts of Nigeria, the range of communication strategies used has not yet been mapped systematically. This study forms part of the 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC) project, an initiative aimed at building research evidence for improving communication with parents and communities about childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries...
2016: Global Health Action
Tony Walls, Patricia Graham, Helen Petousis-Harris, Linda Hill, Nicola Austin
OBJECTIVE: Pertussis vaccination during pregnancy has recently been recommended in both the USA and UK to prevent pertussis infection in infants. While there are no apparent safety concerns about the administration of Tdap vaccine during pregnancy, there is only limited safety data available. We aimed to closely monitor infants exposed to Tdap during pregnancy to look for any adverse outcomes that may be attributable to the vaccine. DESIGN: This was a prospective observational study, collecting information to evaluate the safety of Tdap vaccine for infants exposed during pregnancy...
January 6, 2016: BMJ Open
Heather Ames, Diangha Mabel Njang, Claire Glenton, Atle Fretheim, Jessica Kaufman, Sophie Hill, Afiong Oku, Julie Cliff, Yuri Cartier, Xavier Bosch-Capblanch, Gabriel Rada, Artur Muloliwa, Angela Oyo-Ita, Simon Lewin
BACKGROUND: The 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC) project builds research evidence for improving communication with parents and communities about childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries. Understanding and mapping the range of vaccination communication strategies used in different settings is an important component of this work. In this part of the COMMVAC project, our objectives were: (1) to identify the vaccination communication interventions used in two regions of Cameroon; (2) to apply the COMMVAC taxonomy, a global taxonomy of vaccination communication interventions, to these communication interventions to help us classify these interventions, including their purposes and target audiences; and identify whether gaps in purpose or target audiences exist; (3) to assess the COMMVAC taxonomy as a research tool for data collection and analysis...
2015: BMC Public Health
Carlo Signorelli
The EU and Italian institutions have recently reiterated their commitment to harmonize and implement vaccination policies as a fundamental strategy for public health. Nonetheless, vaccines are losing public confidence. False myths related to vaccine adverse reactions and commercial interests, combined with the recent judgements of the Court and the "Fluad® episode", are fuelling vaccine hesitancy. In such a context, a lively debate is ongoing in Italian scientific community. Aim of this contribution is to recall the available solid scientific evidence demonstrating that vaccines are among the most effective prevention tools ever invented and recall the economic data that support the cost-effectiveness of the immunisation...
2015: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Marc Baguelin, Anton Camacho, Stefan Flasche, W John Edmunds
BACKGROUND: The present study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of extending the pre-2013 influenza immunisation programme for high-risk and elderly individuals to those at low risk of developing complications following infection with seasonal influenza. METHODS: We performed an economic evaluation comparing different extensions of the pre-2013 influenza programme to seven possible age groups of low-risk individuals (aged 2-4 years, 50-64 years, 5-16 years, 2-4 and 50-64 years, 2-16 years, 2-16 and 50-64 years, and 2-64 years)...
October 13, 2015: BMC Medicine
A A Adegoke, F B Atiyaye, A S Abubakar, A Auta, A Aboda
BACKGROUND: Nigeria is one of the 57 countries with a critical shortage of human resources for health, especially in remote rural areas and in northern states. The National Midwifery Service Scheme (MSS) is one approach introduced by the Government of Nigeria to address the health workforce shortage in rural areas. Since 2009, unemployed, retired and newly graduated midwives are deployed to primary health care (PHC) facilities in rural areas of Nigeria. These midwives form the mainstay of the health system at the primary health care level especially as it relates to the provision of skilled attendance at birth...
October 2015: Midwifery
Fatima Mir, Farheen Quadri, Ondrej Mach, Imran Ahmed, Zaid Bhatti, Asia Khan, Najeeb Ur Rehman, Elias Durry, Maha Salama, Steven M Oberste, William C Weldon, Roland W Sutter, Anita K M Zaidi
BACKGROUND: Supplementary immunisation activities with oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs) are usually separated by 4 week intervals; however, shorter intervals have been used in security-compromised areas and for rapid outbreak responses. We assessed the immunogenicity of monovalent type-1 oral poliovirus vaccine (mOPV1) given at shorter than usual intervals in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: This was a multicentre, randomised, controlled, four-arm, open-label, non-inferiority trial done at five primary health-care centres in low-income communities in and around Karachi, Pakistan...
August 2015: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Els Duysburgh, Birgit Kerstens, Seni Kouanda, Charles Paulin Kaboré, Danielle Belemsaga Yugbare, Peter Gichangi, Gibson Masache, Beatrice Crahay, Gilda Gondola Sitefane, Nafissa Bique Osman, Severiano Foia, Henrique Barros, Sofia Castro Lopes, Susan Mann, Bejoy Nambiar, Tim Colbourn, Marleen Temmerman
BACKGROUND: Postpartum maternal and infant mortality is high in sub-Saharan Africa and improving postpartum care as a strategy to enhance maternal and infant health has been neglected. We describe the design and selection of suitable, context-specific interventions that have the potential to improve postpartum care. METHODS: The study is implemented in rural districts in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Mozambique. We used the four steps 'systems thinking' approach to design and select interventions: 1) we conducted a stakeholder analysis to identify and convene stakeholders; 2) we organised stakeholders causal analysis workshops in which the local postpartum situation and challenges and possible interventions were discussed; 3) based on comprehensive needs assessment findings, inputs from the stakeholders and existing knowledge regarding good postpartum care, a list of potential interventions was designed, and; 4) the stakeholders selected and agreed upon final context-specific intervention packages to be implemented to improve postpartum care...
June 3, 2015: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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