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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711812/bullying-involvement-and-adolescent-substance-use-a-multilevel-investigation-of-individual-and-neighbourhood-risk-factors
#1
Laura J Lambe, Wendy M Craig
BACKGROUND: Youth involved with school bullying are vulnerable to many negative outcomes, including substance use. Research has yet to examine how this vulnerability operates in the context of other individual and neighbourhood differences. The current study aimed to fill this gap by using multilevel modeling to investigate both the individual and neighbourhood risk factors associated with frequent drunkenness and frequent cannabis use among adolescents. METHODS: Data from the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviours in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey were analyzed...
June 29, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683515/profile-of-reproductive-issues-associated-with-different-sickle-cell-disease-genotypes
#2
Flávia Anchielle Carvalho, Ariani Impieri Souza, Ana Laura Carneiro Gomes Ferreira, Simone da Silva Neto, Ana Carolina Pessoa de Lima Oliveira, Maria Luiza Rodrigues Pinheiro Gomes, Manuela Freire Hazin Costa
Purpose To describe the reproductive variables associated with different sickle cell disease (SCD) genotypes and the influence of contraceptive methods on acute painful episodes among the women with the homozygous hemoglobin S (HbSS) genotype. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between September of 2015 and April of 2016 on 158 women afflicted with SCD admitted to a hematology center in the Northeast of Brazil. The reproduction-associated variables of different SCD genotypes were assessed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test to compare means, and the Kruskal-Wallis test to compare medians...
July 6, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673131/health-literacy-and-participation-in-sports-club-activities-among-adolescents
#3
Leena Paakkari, Sami Kokko, Jari Villberg, Olli Paakkari, Jorma Tynjälä
AIMS: The aim of this research was to compare the levels of perceived health literacy among adolescents who do or do not participate in sports club activities. Organized sport club activities reach a high proportion of adolescents, and have the potential to contribute to the development of their health literacy. METHODS: The cross-sectional data on health literacy among school children in Finland (aged 13 and 15, n=3852) were measured, as a part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, using the Health Literacy for School-aged Children (HLSAC) instrument...
July 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666277/electroretinogram-findings-in-early-stage-sickle-cell-retinopathy-according-to-hemoglobin-type
#4
Caroline Bottin, Julie Racine, Matthieu P Robert, Salomon-Yves Cohen, Benedicte M J Merle, Camille Jung, Alexandra Miere, Violaine Caillaux, Eric H Souied, Olivia Zambrowski
Purpose: Although extensive clinical research has been performed on structural analysis of sickle cell (SC) retinopathy, functional aspects have been poorly investigated. Our purpose was to report full-field electroretinogram (ffERG) findings in patients with early SC retinopathy according to the following hemoglobin types: HbSS or HbSC (homozygous or heterozygous mutations, respectively). Methods: In this monocentric retrospective observational study, patients affected by nonproliferative SC retinopathy were included from November 2014 to April 2016...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648763/technical-note-intra-alveolar-morphology-assessed-in-empty-dental-sockets-of-teeth-missing-post-mortem
#5
Lucas Raineri Capeletti, Ademir Franco, Rogério Vieira Reges, Rhonan Ferreira Silva
Dental human identification relies on distinctive traits detected and compared between ante-mortem (AM) and post-mortem (PM) data. Several distinctive traits may be found in dental roots, such as dilacerations and bifurcations. However, teeth are often dislodged during the manipulation of skeletal remains, charred bodies and bodies retrieved from water. In these situations the identification process is hampered. The present study aims to retrieve information of teeth missing PM through the investigation of intra-alveolar morphology in empty dental sockets using different dental impression materials...
June 15, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643460/periodic-limb-movement-in-sleep-and-sickle-cell-disease-a-neglected-association
#6
Ana C Cabañas-Pedro, Suely Roizenblatt, Altay A L de Souza, Sérgio Tufik, Maria S Figueiredo
High frequency of periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) has been described among children with sickle cell disease (SCD), but there is little information about PLMS among adults with SCD. We aim to determine the frequency of PLMS among adults with SCD and to identify possible associations with iron status and haemolytic parameters. We analysed polysomnography on 99 adults: 74 with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS), 19 with HbSC (double heterozygosis HbS and HbC) and 6 with HbS-beta thalassaemia. Laboratory data were collected close to the time of the polysomnography examination...
June 23, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605218/family-structure-and-adolescent-substance-use-an-international-perspective
#7
John P Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies indicate that family structure is a key correlate of adolescent substance use. Yet there are some important limitations to this research. Studies have been conducted mainly in the United States, with relatively few studies that have compared family structure and youth substance use across nations. There is also a lack of recognition of the complexity of family types prevalent in contemporary global society. Moreover, there remains a need to consider personal, interpersonal, and macro-level characteristics that may help account for the association between family structure and youth substance use...
June 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583432/bullying-in-school-aged-children-in-iceland-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Pernilla Garmy, Rúnar Vilhjálmsson, Guðrún Kristjánsdóttir
PURPOSE: We describe the frequency and variations in bullying among a representative national sample of school-age children and examine whether sociodemographic characteristics are associated with bullying. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study is based on a cross-sectional school-based survey-the Icelandic contribution to the international research network Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC). The study population included all students in Iceland in grades 6, 8 and 10 (mean ages: 11, 13 and 15years, respectively) (participation rate: 84%; n=11,018)...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575177/the-prevalence-and-role-of-hemoglobin-variants-in-biometric-screening-of-a-multiethnic-population-one-large-health-system-s-experience
#9
Clayton R Wilburn, David W Bernard, Arthur W Zieske, Julia Andrieni, Tara Miller, Ping Wang
Objectives: To characterize and quantitate hemoglobin (Hb) variants discovered during biometric hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) analyses in a large multiethnic population with a focus on the effect of variants on testing method and results. Methods: In total, 13,913 individuals had their HbA1c measured via ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples that had a variant Hb detected or HbF fraction more than 25% underwent variant Hb characterization and confirmation by gel electrophoresis...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529392/school-composition-school-culture-and-socioeconomic-inequalities-in-young-people-s-health-multi-level-analysis-of-the-health-behaviour-in-school-aged-children-hbsc-survey-in-wales
#10
Graham F Moore, Hannah J Littlecott, Rhiannon Evans, Simon Murphy, Gillian Hewitt, Adam Fletcher
Health inequalities emerge during childhood and youth, before widening in adulthood. Theorising, testing and interrupting the mechanisms through which inequalities are perpetuated and sustained is vital. Schools are viewed as settings through which inequality in young people's health may be addressed, but few studies examine the social processes via which institutional structures reproduce or mitigate health inequalities. Informed by Markham and Aveyard's theory of human functioning and school organisation, including their concept of institutional boundaries, critical theories of marketisation and the concept of micro-political practices within schools, this paper presents analysis of student survey data (N = 9055) from 82 secondary schools in Wales...
April 2017: British Educational Research Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489923/differences-of-microparticle-patterns-between-sickle-cell-anemia-and-hemoglobin-sc-patients
#11
Yohann Garnier, Séverine Ferdinand, Maryse Etienne-Julan, Gisèle Elana, Marie Petras, Lydia Doumdo, Benoit Tressières, Marie-Laure Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Dominique Hardy-Dessources, Philippe Connes, Marc Romana
Sickle cell anemia (SCA) and hemoglobin SC (HbSC) disease are the two most common forms of sickle cell disease (SCD), a frequent hemoglobinopathy which exhibits a highly variable clinical course. Although high levels of microparticles (MPs) have been consistently reported in SCA and evidence of their harmful impact on the SCA complication occurrences have been provided, no data on MP pattern in HbSC patients has been reported so far. In this study, we determined and compared the MP patterns of 84 HbSC and 96 SCA children, all at steady-state, using flow cytometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486676/associations-between-self-rated-health-mental-health-problems-and-physical-inactivity-among-urban-adolescents
#12
Marketa Lachytova, Zuzana Katreniakova, Pavol Mikula, Marian Jendrichovsky, Iveta Nagyova
Self-rated health is a valid and reliable subjective indicator of general health. We aimed to assess the associations between self-rated health, mental health problems, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and BMI among Slovak urban adolescents. Data were collected within the EU-FP7: EURO-URHIS 2 (The European Health Indicator System Part 2) project in two largest Slovak cities: Bratislava and Kosice. Sample included 1111 adolescents (response rate 73.7%, mean age 14.32 ± 0.48 years, 52.8% boys). Self-rated health was measured with the first item from the Short Form Health Survey 36 questionnaire, mental health problems were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and for physical activity and sedentary behaviour questions from the WHO HBSC questionnaire were used...
May 9, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435652/stroke-in-a-child-with-hemoglobin-sc-disease-a-case-report-describing-use-of-hydroxyurea-after-transfusion-therapy
#13
Diana Fridlyand, Caroline Wilder, E Leila Jerome Clay, Bruce Gilbert, Betty S Pace
Children with hemoglobin SC (HbSC) disease suffer a significant incidence of silent cerebral infarcts but stroke is rare. A 2-year-old African American boy with HbSC disease presented with focal neurologic deficits associated with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of cerebral infarction with vascular abnormalities. After the acute episode he was treated with monthly transfusions and subsequently transitioned to hydroxyurea therapy. The benefits of hydroxyurea as a fetal hemoglobin inducer in HbSC disease, to ameliorate clinical symptoms are supported by retrospective studies...
March 22, 2017: Pediatric Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426137/hydroxyurea-hydroxycarbamide-for-sickle-cell-disease
#14
REVIEW
Sarah J Nevitt, Ashley P Jones, Jo Howard
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common inherited diseases worldwide. It is associated with lifelong morbidity and a reduced life expectancy. Hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide), an oral chemotherapeutic drug, ameliorates some of the clinical problems of SCD, in particular that of pain, by raising fetal haemoglobin. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of hydroxyurea therapy in people with SCD (all genotypes), of any age, regardless of setting...
April 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399351/experience-of-czech-children-with-alcohol-consumption-in-relation-to-selected-family-indicators
#15
Lenka Hodačová, Jindra Šmejkalová, Eva Čermáková, Michal Kalman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to monitor and analyze the influence of chosen family indicators related to alcohol consumption and experience of drunkenness in a representative sample of Czech children. METHODS: Data for our work were obtained from the Health Behaviour in School Aged Children (HBSC) study - a World Health Organization (WHO) cross national study. The sample consisted of 4,293 children aged 11, 13 and 15 years. Data collection was conducted in June 2010 in 88 randomly selected schools in the Czech Republic using standardized questionnaires...
March 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384522/poor-nutrition-and-bullying-behaviors-a-comparison-of-deviant-and-non-deviant-youth
#16
Dylan B Jackson, Michael G Vaughn, Christopher P Salas-Wright
Research on the topic of bullying has revealed that a substantial number of youth are bullied each year. Even so, a complete understanding of the origins of bullying behaviors remains elusive. In the current study, we propose that poor nutrition may constitute an important modifiable risk factor for bullying behaviors during adolescence, and that behavioral sensitivity to nutrition may vary across deviant and non-deviant youth. We employ data from the US sample of youth (52% male) ages 10-17 from the 2009-2010 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study to examine our hypothesis (N = 8753)...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382831/psychometric-properties-of-the-five-item-version-of-the-mindful-awareness-attention-scale-maas-in-norwegian-adolescents
#17
Otto R F Smith, Ole Melkevik, Oddrun Samdal, Torill M Larsen, Ellen Haug
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure, model-based reliability, measurement invariance and concurrent validity of the five-item version of the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) in Norwegian adolescents. METHODS: An initial pilot study was carried out using a sample of 77 fifteen year olds. For the main analyses, a sample of 2140 Norwegian adolescents was used who participated in the cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340189/the-relationship-between-pain-severity-and-alcohol-use-among-school-aged-children-and-adolescents-the-moderating-role-of-drinking-motives
#18
Claudia Horn-Hofmann, Zina Trost, Anne Hublet, Sylvie Mrug, Joris Van Damme, Tine Vervoort
Objective. : Evidence from adult samples suggests a co-occurrence between pain and alcohol abuse. However, studies in adolescents are scarce and results are inconsistent, with some studies observing heightened and others observing reduced alcohol consumption in adolescents suffering from pain. We hypothesized that in adolescents the association between pain and alcohol use will be moderated by drinking motives. Methods. : Data from a large representative sample of Flemish school children and adolescents (N = 10,650, 50...
March 15, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221266/body-mass-index-and-the-association-with-vaso-occlusive-crises-in-pediatric-sickle-cell-disease
#19
Andrea Zivot, Nataly Apollonsky, Edward Gracely, Deepti Raybagkar
BACKGROUND: Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) historically have been underweight and have poor overall growth. Recent studies have demonstrated a trend toward obesity in pediatric SCD populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through retrospective chart review of patients with SCD followed at our center, we collected patient's data, including body mass index (BMI), weight percentiles, sickle cell genotype, baseline hemoglobin, medical and psychiatric comorbidities, 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, treatment with hydroxyurea, and chronic transfusions...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159023/factors-affecting-the-well-being-of-adolescents-living-with-unemployed-parents-in-times-of-economic-recession-findings-from-the-portuguese-hbsc-study
#20
D Frasquilho, M G de Matos, A Marques, T Gaspar, J M Caldas-de-Almeida
OBJECTIVES: Using a national representative sample of adolescents with unemployed parents, this study examined which factors (sociodemographic and of satisfaction with family life and peers) are related to the negative effect of parents' unemployment on emotional well-being. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey study. METHODS: Data on adolescents (14.1 ± 1.7 years old), with at least one parent unemployed (n = 1311, 53.2% girls), was provided by the Portuguese Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study...
February 2017: Public Health
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