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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749623/utility-of-various-bronchoscopic-modalities-in-lung-cancer-diagnosis
#1
Vishak Acharya K, Unnikrishnan B, Archana Shenoy, Ramesh Holla
Background: Bronchoscopy and different techniques to obtain tissue sample form the cornerstone of lung cancer diagnostics. The utility, specificity and sensitivity of various techniques are compared against each other and also in relation to the tumour type, location and morphology. Aim: To assess and compare the utility of various bronchoscopic procedures in lung malignancies. Study also compares the utility of these techniques on tumour site, morphology and cell type. Methods: One hundred and fifty six patients with suspected malignancies in whom bronchoscopy was deemed as the primary diagnostic procedure were selected...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749604/a-simulation-of-dementia-epidemiology-and-resource-use-in-australia
#2
Lachlan B Standfield, Tracy Comans, Paul Scuffham
OBJECTIVES: The number of people in the developed world who have dementia is predicted to rise markedly. This study presents a validated predictive model to assist decision-makers to determine this population's future resource requirements and target scarce health and welfare resources appropriately. METHODS: A novel individual patient discrete event simulation was developed to estimate the future prevalence of dementia and related health and welfare resource use in Australia...
July 27, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749595/morbidity-and-mortality-in-infant-mountain-gorillas-gorilla-beringei-beringei-a-46-year-retrospective-review
#3
James M Hassell, Dawn Zimmerman, Michael R Cranfield, Kirsten Gilardi, Antoine Mudakikwa, Jan Ramer, Elisabeth Nyirakaragire, Linda J Lowenstine
Long-term studies of morbidity and mortality in free-ranging primates are scarce, but may have important implications for the conservation of extant populations. Infants comprise a particularly important age group, as variation in survival rates may have a strong influence on population dynamics. Since 1968, the Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project (MGVP, Inc.) and government partners have conducted a comprehensive health monitoring and disease investigation program on mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Rwanda, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo...
July 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748610/using-family-and-staff-experiences-of-a-botulinum-toxin-a-service-to-improve-service-quality
#4
K L O Burton, K Bau, J Lewis, K R Aroyan, B Botha, A G M Botman, K Stewart, M-C A Waugh, S P Paget
BACKGROUND: The decision for families to proceed with botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) injections for managing childhood conditions involving hypertonia can be complex. Family-centred care is a service model that facilitates supporting families in this decision-making process. Understanding families' experiences of services is critical to developing family-centred care. The aim of this project was therefore to increase understanding of the experiences of families of children attending a BoNT-A service in order to improve the service and its family-centred approach to care...
July 26, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748493/cost-effectiveness-of-preimplantation-genetic-screening-for-women-older-than-37-undergoing-in-vitro-fertilization
#5
Stephen C Collins, Xiao Xu, Winifred Mak
PURPOSE: Adding preimplantation genetic screening to in vitro fertilization has been shown to increase live birth rate in women older than 37. However, preimplantation genetic screening is an expensive procedure. Information on the cost-effectiveness of preimplantation genetic screening can help inform clinical decision making. METHODS: We constructed a decision analytic model for a hypothetical fresh, autologous in vitro fertilization cycle (with versus without preimplantation genetic screening) for women older than age 37 who had a successful oocyte retrieval and development of at least one blastocyst...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748450/replicating-health-economic-models-firm-foundations-or-a-house-of-cards
#6
Inigo Bermejo, Paul Tappenden, Ji-Hee Youn
Health economic evaluation is a framework for the comparative analysis of the incremental health gains and costs associated with competing decision alternatives. The process of developing health economic models is usually complex, financially expensive and time-consuming. For these reasons, model development is sometimes based on previous model-based analyses; this endeavour is usually referred to as model replication. Such model replication activity may involve the comprehensive reproduction of an existing model or 'borrowing' all or part of a previously developed model structure...
July 26, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748428/land-use-and-land-cover-lulc-of-the-republic-of-the-maldives-first-national-map-and-lulc-change-analysis-using-remote-sensing-data
#7
Luca Fallati, Alessandra Savini, Simone Sterlacchini, Paolo Galli
The Maldives islands in recent decades have experienced dramatic land-use change. Uninhabited islands were turned into new resort islands; evergreen tropical forests were cut, to be replaced by fields and new built-up areas. All these changes happened without a proper monitoring and urban planning strategy from the Maldivian government due to the lack of national land-use and land-cover (LULC) data. This study aimed to realize the first land-use map of the entire Maldives archipelago and to detect land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) using high-resolution satellite images and socioeconomic data...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747744/predicting-trend-of-early-childhood-caries-in-mainland-china-a-combined-meta-analytic-and-mathematical-modelling-approach-based-on-epidemiological-surveys
#8
Xiaonan Zhang, Lei Zhang, Yonghong Zhang, Zhaoying Liao, Jinlin Song
Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most common chronic disease in young children. A reliable predictive model for ECC prevalence is needed in China as a decision supportive tool for planning health resources. In this study, we first established the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and grey predictive model (GM) based on the estimated national prevalence of ECC with meta-analysis from the published articles. The pooled data from 1988 to 2010 were used to establish the model, while the data from 2011 to 2013 were used to validate the models...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747245/utilisation-of-medicare-funded-schemes-for-people-with-cardiovascular-disease
#9
Julie Redfern, Karice Hyun, Emily Atkins, Clara Chow, Tom Briffa, Bindu Patel, Nick Zwar, Tim Usherwood, Qiang Li, Anushka Patel, David Peiris
The aim of this study is to investigate the utilisation of Medicare Benefit Scheme items for chronic disease in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general practice and to compare characteristics of CVD patients with and without a General Practice Management Plan (GPMP). Subgroup analysis of Treatment of Cardiovascular Risk using Electronic Decision Support (TORPEDO) baseline data was collected in a cohort comprising 6123 patients with CVD. The mean age (s.d.) was 71 (±13) years, 55% were male, 64% had a recorded diagnosis of coronary heart disease, 31% also had a diagnosis of diabetes and the mean number of general practice (GP) visits (s...
July 27, 2017: Australian Journal of Primary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747103/a-deliberative-framework-to-identify-the-need-for-real-life-evidence-building-of-new-cancer-drugs-after-interim-funding-decision
#10
Leanne Leung, Mário L de Lemos, Laurel Kovacic
Background With the rising cost of new oncology treatments, it is no longer sustainable to base initial drug funding decisions primarily on prospective clinical trials as their performance in real-life populations are often difficult to determine. In British Columbia, an approach in evidence building is to retrospectively analyse patient outcomes using observational research on an ad hoc basis. Methods The deliberative framework was constructed in three stages: framework design, framework validation and treatment programme characterization, and key informant interview...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747088/hierarchical-bayes-approach-for-subgroup-analysis
#11
Yu-Yi Hsu, Jyoti Zalkikar, Ram C Tiwari
In clinical data analysis, both treatment effect estimation and consistency assessment are important for a better understanding of the drug efficacy for the benefit of subjects in individual subgroups. The linear mixed-effects model has been used for subgroup analysis to describe treatment differences among subgroups with great flexibility. The hierarchical Bayes approach has been applied to linear mixed-effects model to derive the posterior distributions of overall and subgroup treatment effects. In this article, we discuss the prior selection for variance components in hierarchical Bayes, estimation and decision making of the overall treatment effect, as well as consistency assessment of the treatment effects across the subgroups based on the posterior predictive p-value...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746709/association-of-coronary-artery-calcium-score-vs-age-with-cardiovascular-risk-in-older-adults-an-analysis-of-pooled-population-based-studies
#12
Yuichiro Yano, Christopher J O'Donnell, Lewis Kuller, Maryam Kavousi, Raimund Erbel, Hongyan Ning, Ralph D'Agostino, Anne B Newman, Khurram Nasir, Albert Hofman, Nils Lehmann, Klodian Dhana, Ron Blankstein, Udo Hoffmann, Stefan Möhlenkamp, Joseph M Massaro, Amir-Abbas Mahabadi, Joao A C Lima, M Arfan Ikram, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Oscar H Franco, Kiang Liu, Donald Lloyd-Jones, Philip Greenland
Importance: Besides age, other discriminators of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk are needed in older adults. Objectives: To examine the predictive ability of coronary artery calcium (CAC) score vs age for incident ASCVD and how risk prediction changes by adding CAC score and removing only age from prediction models. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted an analysis of pooled US population-based studies, including the Framingham Heart Study, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and the Cardiovascular Health Study...
July 26, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746700/risk-factors-for-melanoma-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#13
Mona Ascha, Mustafa S Ascha, Joseph Tanenbaum, Jeremy S Bordeaux
Importance: Melanoma risk factors and incidence in renal transplant recipients can inform decision making for both patients and clinicians. Objective: To determine risk factors and characteristics of renal transplant recipients who develop melanoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study of a large national data registry used a cohort of renal transplant recipients from the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) database from the years 2004 through 2012...
July 26, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746699/association-of-risk-of-suicide-attempts-with-methylphenidate-treatment
#14
Kenneth K C Man, David Coghill, Esther W Chan, Wallis C Y Lau, Chris Hollis, Elizabeth Liddle, Tobias Banaschewski, Suzanne McCarthy, Antje Neubert, Kapil Sayal, Patrick Ip, Martijn J Schuemie, Miriam C J M Sturkenboom, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Jan Buitelaar, Sara Carucci, Alessandro Zuddas, Hanna Kovshoff, Peter Garas, Peter Nagy, Sarah K Inglis, Kerstin Konrad, Alexander Häge, Eric Rosenthal, Ian C K Wong
Importance: Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at an increased risk of attempting suicide. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate hydrochloride, are the most common treatment for ADHD, but the association between their therapeutic use and suicide is unclear. Objective: To investigate the association between methylphenidate and the risk of suicide attempts. Design, Setting, and Participants: A population-based, electronic medical records database from the Hong Kong Clinical Data Analysis & Reporting System was used to identify 25 629 individuals aged 6 to 25 years who were treated with methylphenidate between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2015...
July 26, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746664/what-do-cochrane-systematic-reviews-say-about-non-pharmacological-interventions-for-treating-cognitive-decline-and-dementia
#15
Vitória Carvalho Vilela, Rafael Leite Pacheco, Carolina Oliveira Cruz Latorraca, Daniela Vianna Pachito, Rachel Riera
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a highly prevalent condition worldwide. Its chronic and progressive presentation has an impact on physical and psychosocial characteristics and on public healthcare. Our aim was to summarize evidence from Cochrane reviews on non-pharmacological treatments for cognitive disorders and dementia. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo...
May 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746434/critical-analysis-on-the-present-methods-for-brain-volume-measurements-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Yara Dadalti Fragoso, Paulo Roberto Willie, Marcus Vinicius Magno Goncalves, Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks
Objective: The treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has quickly evolved from a time when controlling clinical relapses would suffice, to the present day, when complete disease control is expected. Measurement of brain volume is still at an early stage to be indicative of therapeutic decisions in MS. Methods: This paper provides a critical review of potential biases and artifacts in brain measurement in the follow-up of patients with MS. Results: Clinical conditions (such as hydration or ovulation), time of the day, type of magnetic resonance machine (manufacturer and potency), brain volume artifacts and different platforms for volumetric assessment of the brain can induce variations that exceed the acceptable physiological rate of annual loss of brain volume...
July 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746395/the-disease-burden-of-human-cystic-echinococcosis-based-on-hdrs-from-2001-to-2014-in-italy
#17
Toni Piseddu, Diego Brundu, Giovanni Stegel, Federica Loi, Sandro Rolesu, Gabriella Masu, Salvatore Ledda, Giovanna Masala
BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important neglected zoonotic parasitic infection belonging to the subgroup of seven Neglected Zoonotic Disease (NZDs) included in the World Health Organization's official list of 18 Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). CE causes serious global human health concerns and leads to significant economic losses arising from the costs of medical treatment, morbidity, life impairments and fatality rates in human cases. Moreover, CE is endemic in several Italian Regions...
July 26, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746377/evaluating-the-impact-of-a-mandatory-pre-abortion-ultrasound-viewing-law-a-mixed-methods-study
#18
Ushma D Upadhyay, Katrina Kimport, Elise K O Belusa, Nicole E Johns, Douglas W Laube, Sarah C M Roberts
BACKGROUND: Since mid-2013, Wisconsin abortion providers have been legally required to display and describe pre-abortion ultrasound images. We aimed to understand the impact of this law. METHODS: We used a mixed-methods study design at an abortion facility in Wisconsin. We abstracted data from medical charts one year before the law to one year after and used multivariable models, mediation/moderation analysis, and interrupted time series to assess the impact of the law, viewing, and decision certainty on likelihood of continuing the pregnancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746214/external-validation-of-non-invasive-prediction-models-for-identifying-ultrasonography-diagnosed-fatty-liver-disease-in-a-chinese-population
#19
Ya-Nan Shen, Ming-Xing Yu, Qian Gao, Yan-Yan Li, Jian-Jun Huang, Chen-Ming Sun, Nan Qiao, Hai-Xia Zhang, Hui Wang, Qing Lu, Tong Wang
Several prediction models for fatty liver disease (FLD) are available with limited externally validation and less comprehensive evaluation. The aim was to perform external validation and direct comparison of 4 prediction models (the Fatty Liver Index, the Hepatic Steatosis Index, the ZJU index, and the Framingham Steatosis Index) for FLD both in the overall population and the obese subpopulation.This cross-sectional study included 4247 subjects aged 20 to 65 years recruited from the north of Shanxi Province in China...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745974/role-of-total-ankle-arthroplasty-in-stiff-ankles
#20
James W Brodsky, Justin M Kane, Akira Taniguchi, Scott Coleman, Yahya Daoud
BACKGROUND: The decision tree for the operative treatment of end-stage ankle arthritis involves either ankle arthrodesis (AA) or total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). Although both have documented success providing diminished pain, improved patient-centered outcomes, and improved objective measures of function, arthroplasty is unique in its ability to preserve motion at the tibiotalar joint. Arthroplasty procedures are normally thought of as a motion-sparing surgery rather than a motion-producing procedure, which may limit its success in patients with stiff ankles...
July 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
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