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Decision analysis

Ronald J Maughan, Susan M Shirreffs, Alan Vernec
The use of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in all sports and at all levels of competition, as it is in the general population. For the athlete training at the limits of what is sustainable, or for those seeking a shortcut to achieving their aims, supplements offer the prospect of bridging the gap between success and failure. Surveys show, however, that this is often not an informed choice and that the knowledge level among consumers is often low and that they are often influenced in their decisions by individuals with an equally inadequate understanding of the issues at stake...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Anna Maria Grugnetti, Cristina Arrigoni, Maria Antonietta Fusco, Arianna Magon, Adele Sgarella, Maria Luisa Gallotti, Giuseppina Grugnetti, Rosario Caruso
Distress could be often experienced by breast cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Those distress assessment is strategic to deliver care in a tailored way, enhancing the overall wellbeing. So far, those distress is measurable by the Chemotherapy-induced Alopecia Distress Scale (CADS), which is not yet available in Italian, due to there are no validation studies on this topic. For this reason, the aim of this study was to validate and adapt Chemotherapy-induced Alopecia Distress Scale within the Italian context (I-CADS)...
March 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Folami Alamudun, Paige Paulus, Hong-Jun Yoon, Georgia Tourassi
Prior research has shown that physicians' medical decisions can be influenced by sequential context, particularly in cases where successive stimuli exhibit similar characteristics when analyzing medical images. This type of systematic error is known to psychophysicists as sequential context effect as it indicates that judgments are influenced by features of and decisions about the preceding case in the sequence of examined cases, rather than being based solely on the peculiarities unique to the present case...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Sourav Goswami, Pradeep R Deshmukh, Ramesh Pawar, Abhishek V Raut, Mansi Bhagat, Ashok M Mehendale
Background: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder among elderly population in India, yet, it is commonly misdiagnosed and undertreated. The exact burden of depression among the elderly population in rural India was not known. Objectives: To study the magnitude of depression among the elderly masses in rural Maharashtra and to find its correlates. Material and Methods: This is a cross sectional study, carried out among the elderly (≥60 years) population of both sexes residing in the field practice area of the department of community medicine...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Noha Mohsen Zommara, Muneyoshi Takahashi, Kajornvut Ounjai, Johan Lauwereyns
Researchers have used eye-tracking methods to infer cognitive processes during decision making in choice tasks involving visual materials. Gaze likelihood analysis has shown a cascading effect, suggestive of a causal role for the gaze in preference formation during evaluative decision making. According to the gaze bias hypothesis, the gaze serves to build commitment gradually towards a choice. Here, we applied gaze likelihood analysis in a two-choice version of the well-known Iowa Gambling Task. This task requires active learning of the value of different choice options...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Markus Boeckle, Georgine Szipl, Thomas Bugnyar
Background: Acoustic parameters of animal signals have been shown to correlate with various phenotypic characteristics of the sender. These acoustic characteristics can be learned and categorized and thus are a basis for perceivers' recognition abilities. One of the most demanding capacities is individual recognition, achievable only after repeated interactions with the same individual. Still, class-level recognition might be potentially important to perceivers who have not previously encountered callers but can classify unknown individuals according to the already learned categories...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Brian S White, Irena Lanc, Julie O'Neal, Harshath Gupta, Robert S Fulton, Heather Schmidt, Catrina Fronick, Edward A Belter, Mark Fiala, Justin King, Greg J Ahmann, Mary DeRome, Elaine R Mardis, Ravi Vij, John F DiPersio, Joan Levy, Daniel Auclair, Michael H Tomasson
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a disease of copy number variants (CNVs), chromosomal translocations, and single-nucleotide variants (SNVs). To enable integrative studies across these diverse mutation types, we developed a capture-based sequencing platform to detect their occurrence in 465 genes altered in MM and used it to sequence 95 primary tumor-normal pairs to a mean depth of 104×. We detected cases of hyperdiploidy (23%), deletions of 1p (8%), 6q (21%), 8p (17%), 14q (16%), 16q (22%), and 17p (4%), and amplification of 1q (19%)...
March 21, 2018: Blood Cancer Journal
Takashi Oshio, Akiomi Inoue, Akizumi Tsutsumi
OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations among job demands and resources, work engagement, and psychological distress, adjusted for time-invariant individual attributes. METHODS: We used data from a Japanese occupational cohort survey, which included 18,702 observations of 7,843 individuals. We investigated how work engagement, measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement scale, was associated with key aspects of job demands and resources, using fixed-effects regression models...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Occupational Health
Christopher J Fonnesbeck, Katriona Shea, Spencer Carran, Jose Cassio de Moraes, Christopher Gregory, James L Goodson, Matthew J Ferrari
Resurgent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases that have previously been controlled or eliminated have been observed in many settings. Reactive vaccination campaigns may successfully control outbreaks but must necessarily be implemented in the face of considerable uncertainty. Real-time surveillance may provide critical information about at-risk population and optimal vaccination targets, but may itself be limited by the specificity of disease confirmation. We propose an integrated modelling approach that synthesizes historical demographic and vaccination data with real-time outbreak surveillance via a dynamic transmission model and an age-specific disease confirmation model...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Aimée Gayed, Josie S Milligan-Saville, Jennifer Nicholas, Bridget T Bryan, Anthony D LaMontagne, Allison Milner, Ira Madan, Rafael A Calvo, Helen Christensen, Arnstein Mykletun, Nicholas Glozier, Samuel B Harvey
Managers are in an influential position to make decisions that can impact on the mental health and well-being of their employees. As a result, there is an increasing trend for organisations to provide managers with training in how to reduce work-based mental health risk factors for their employees. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify workplace interventions for managers with an emphasis on the mental health of employees reporting directing to them. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate pooled effect sizes using the random effects model for both manager and employee outcomes...
March 21, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Jiangdian Song, Jingyun Shi, Di Dong, Mengjie Fang, Wenzhao Zhong, Kun Wang, Ning Wu, Yanqi Huang, Zhenyu Liu, Yue Cheng, Yuncui Gan, Yongzhao Zhou, Ping Zhou, Bojiang Chen, Changhong Liang, Zaiyi Liu, Weimin Li, Jie Tian
PURPOSE: We established a computed tomography (CT)-derived approach to achieve accurate progression-free survival (PFS) prediction to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) therapy in multicenter, stage IV EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 1032 CT-based phenotypic characteristics were extracted according to the intensity, shape and texture of NSCLC pre-therapy images. Based on these CT features extracted from 117 stage IV EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients, a CT-based phenotypic signature was proposed using a Cox regression model with LASSO penalty for the survival risk stratification of EGFR-TKI therapy...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
B Maskery, D L Posey, M S Coleman, R Asis, W Zhou, J A Painter, L T Wingate, M Roque, M S Cetron
SETTING: In 2007, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revised its tuberculosis (TB) technical instructions for panel physicians who administer mandatory medical examinations among US-bound immigrants. Many US-bound immigrants come from the Philippines, a high TB prevalence country. OBJECTIVE: To quantify economic and health impacts of smear- vs. culture-based TB screening. DESIGN: Decision tree modeling was used to compare three Filipino screening programs: 1) no screening, 2) smear-based screening, and 3) culture-based screening...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Gunnar Elke, Frank Bloos, Darius Cameron Wilson, Frank Martin Brunkhorst, Josef Briegel, Konrad Reinhart, Markus Loeffler, Stefan Kluge, Axel Nierhaus, Ulrich Jaschinski, Onnen Moerer, Andreas Weyland, Patrick Meybohm
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the ability of mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in comparison to conventional biomarkers (procalcitonin (PCT), lactate, C-reactive protein) and clinical scores to identify disease severity in patients with sepsis. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock across 33 German intensive care units. The association between biomarkers and clinical scores with mortality was assessed by Cox regression analysis, area under the receiver operating characteristic and Kaplan-Meier curves...
March 21, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Farhaan S Vahidy, Ellie G Meyer, Arvind B Bambhroliya, Jennifer R Meeks, Charles E Begley, Tzu-Ching Wu, Jon E Tyson, Charles C Miller, Ritvij Bowry, Wamda O Ahmed, Gretchel A Gealogo, Louise D McCullough, Steven Warach, Sean I Savitz
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage is a devastating disease with no specific treatment modalities. A significant proportion of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage are transferred to large stroke treatment centers, such as Comprehensive Stroke Centers, because of perceived need for higher level of care. However, evidence of improvement in patient-centered outcomes for these patients treated at larger stroke treatment centers as compared to community hospitals is lacking. METHODS / DESIGN: "Efficient Resource Utilization for Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage (EnRICH)" is a prospective, multisite, state-wide, cohort study designed to assess the impact of level of care on long-term patient-centered outcomes for patients with primary / non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage...
March 21, 2018: BMC Neurology
Ellen C L Geerlings, Claire Heffernan
BACKGROUND: Efficient A(H5N1) control is unlikely to be based on epidemiological data alone. Such control depends on a thorough understanding and appreciation of the interconnectedness of epidemiological, social, and economic factors that contribute to A(H5N1) vulnerability. To date, the control of A(H5N1) in Egypt has been challenging. The disease has been endemic for more than 10 years with a dramatic increase in human cases between December 2014 and March 2015. Part of the problem has been a lack of understanding of the inter-play of drivers, conditions and motives that influence preventive behaviours at the household level...
March 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
Manuela Rigo, Jane Willcox, Alison Spence, Anthony Worsley
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity among Australian pre-school children is a major concern with links to poor health outcomes. One contributing factor is excess energy intake. Sugar-sweetened beverages are energy-dense, nutrient-poor, readily available and have been implicated in the increasing prevalence of obesity. Furthermore, preschooler beverage consumption may develop into dietary habits that track into adulthood. There is little research on factors influencing parents' decision-making when serving beverages to their preschoolers, or on mothers' perceptions of preschooler's beverages...
March 19, 2018: Nutrients
Rupen Shah, Kristopher Attwood, Shipra Arya, Daniel E Hall, Jason M Johanning, Emmanuel Gabriel, Anthony Visioni, Steven Nurkin, Moshim Kukar, Steven Hochwald, Nader N Massarweh
Importance: Failure to rescue (FTR), or death after a potentially preventable complication, is a nationally endorsed, publicly reported quality measure. However, little is known about the impact of frailty on FTR, in particular after low-risk surgical procedures. Objective: To assess the association of frailty with FTR in patients undergoing inpatient surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study assessed a cohort of 984 550 patients undergoing inpatient general, vascular, thoracic, cardiac, and orthopedic surgery in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Fernando Mitano, Amélia Nunes Sicsú, Luciana de Oliveira Sousa, Rarianne Carvalho Peruhype, Jaqueline Garcia de Almeida Ballestero, Pedro Fredemir Palha
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the discourses of health professionals about the obstacles in the process of detection and reporting of tuberculosis cases in Mozambique. METHOD: Qualitative exploratory study with a theoretical-methodological approach of Discourse Analysis of French matrix. The study was conducted in Mozambique in 2014 at three levels: central, provincial and district. The study included 15 health professionals, 4 physicians, 6 technicians and 5 nursing professionals, who worked in the National Tuberculosis Control Program, with more than 1 year of experience...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Philip A Powell, Olivia Wills, Gemma Reynolds, Kaisa Puustinen-Hopper, Jennifer Roberts
In this paper we explored the effects of exposure to images of the suffering and vulnerability of others on altruistic, trust-based, and reciprocated incentivized economic decisions, accounting for differences in participants' dispositional empathy and reported in-group trust for their recipient(s). This was done using a pictorial priming task, framed as a memory test, and a triadic economic game design. Using the largest experimental sample to date to explore this issue, our integrated analysis of two online experiments (total N = 519), found statistically consistent evidence that exposure to images of suffering and vulnerability (vs...
2018: PloS One
Tan Li, Qingguo Zhang, Ying Zhang
The assessment of forest ecosystem services can quantify the impact of these services on human life and is the main basis for formulating a standard of compensation for these services. Moreover, the calculation of the indirect value of forest ecosystem services should not be ignored, as has been the case in some previous publications. A low compensation standard and the lack of a dynamic coordination mechanism are the main problems existing in compensation implementation. Using comparison and analysis, this paper employed accounting for both the costs and benefits of various alternatives...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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