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Marie T Dittmann, Michael Kreuzer, Ullrich Runge, Marcus Clauss
Horses achieve a higher degree of particle size reduction through ingestive mastication than functional ruminants. We characterized mastication using chew-monitoring halters (RumiWatch) in six domestic horses, cattle, and Bactrian camels each. All animals were offered grass hay of the same batch for 15 min. In cattle and camels, measurements were continued after eating until rumination was observed. Except for one horse, 96% of the horses' ingestive mastication data were identified as "rumination" by the proprietary RumiWatch algorithm, whereas ingestion and rumination by cattle and camels were mostly classified correctly...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Hans C Fledelius, Nina Jacobsen, Xiao Q Li, Ernst Goldschmidt
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A population-based Copenhagen birth year 1948 cohort with high myopia recorded since age 14 years (spherical equivalent less than or equivalent to -6 D) has been followed over 50 years. Despite complications, current follow-ups have outlined a better visual prognosis than usually drawn from selected clinical series in the literature. For the present status at age 66 years, focus was on visual ability and choroidal thickness. METHODS: Twenty-eight of the original 39 participants were available in 2014...
February 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Hazel I Blythe, Jonathan H Dickins, Colin R Kennedy, Simon P Liversedge
There has been considerable variability within the literature concerning the extent to which deaf/hard of hearing individuals are able to process phonological codes during reading. Two experiments are reported in which participants' eye movements were recorded as they read sentences containing correctly spelled words (e.g., church), pseudohomophones (e.g., cherch), and spelling controls (e.g., charch). We examined both foveal processing and parafoveal pre-processing of phonology for three participant groups-teenagers with permanent childhood hearing loss (PCHL), chronological age-matched controls, and reading age-matched controls...
January 22, 2018: Developmental Science
Deisy Dos Santos Freitas, Glaucia Braz Alcantara
INTRODUCTION: Mauritia flexuosa is a dioecious species native to the Amazon, and the gender identification can currently be determined through the differentiation between female and male flowers in the first flowering. OBJECTIVES: To identify variations in the metabolome profiles of pooled and individual samples of leaves from female and male plants of M. flexuosa in reproductive phase, and the plant in its vegetative phase, using two extraction systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Extractions of leaves were separately conducted using deuterated water and methanol...
January 21, 2018: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Alexander Leube, Caroline Kraft, Arne Ohlendorf, Siegfried Wahl
BACKGROUND: This explorative study investigated procedures for the self-assessment of spherocylindrical refractive errors. METHODS: Eighteen participants with a mean age of 34.0 ± 8.8 years were enrolled. Adjustable Alvarez lenses were mounted in a rotatable ring holder and two procedures were tested for the self-adjustment: (1) rotation of the lens in three meridians: 0°, 60° and 120° and (2) rotation of the optotypes in the same meridians. Starting from maximum positive power, the participants were required to decrease the power of the Alvarez lens until the optotypes (0...
January 21, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Edmund Kenneth Kerut, Philip G Kogos, Jason H Anderson, Michael Turner, Robert Ascuitto, Nancy Ross-Ascuitto, Sameh M Said
A healthy 20-year-old male presented with aborted sudden death. Both thoracic echocardiography and cardiac computed tomographic angiography demonstrated the characteristic findings of ALCAPA noting a dilated and tortuous right coronary artery, dilated coronary collateral arteries within the interventricular septum or along the surface of the heart, and visualization of the left coronary artery origin from the posterior aspect of the main pulmonary artery. Both imaging modalities demonstrated all three characteristic findings of this rare coronary anomaly and served as complementary imaging studies for surgical correction...
January 21, 2018: Echocardiography
Tina Y Gao, Nicola Anstice, Raiju J Babu, Joanna M Black, William R Bobier, Shuan Dai, Cindy X Guo, Robert F Hess, Michelle Jenkins, Yannan Jiang, Lisa Kearns, Lionel Kowal, Carly S Y Lam, Peter C K Pang, Varsha Parag, Jayshree South, Sandra Elfride Staffieri, Angela Wadham, Natalie Walker, Benjamin Thompson
PURPOSE: Optical treatment alone can improve visual acuity (VA) in children with amblyopia, thus clinical trials investigating additional amblyopia therapies (such as patching or videogames) for children require a preceding optical treatment phase. Emerging therapies for adult patients are entering clinical trials. It is unknown whether optical treatment is effective for adults with amblyopia and whether an optical correction phase is required for trials involving adults. METHODS: We examined participants who underwent optical treatment in the Binocular Treatment for Amblyopia using Videogames (BRAVO) clinical trial (ANZCTR ID: ACTRN12613001004752)...
January 22, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Moti Freiman, Hannes Nickisch, Holger Schmitt, Pál Maurovich-Horvat, Patrick M Donnelly, Mani Vembar, Liran Goshen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a functionally personalized boundary condition (BC) model for estimating the fractional flow reserve (FFR) from coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) using flow simulation (CT-FFR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: CCTA data of 90 subjects with subsequent invasive FFR in 123 lesions within 21 days (range: 0-83) were retrospectively collected. We developed a functionally-personalized BC model accounting specifically for the coronary micro-vascular resistance dependency on the coronary outlets pressure suggested by several physiological studies...
January 22, 2018: Medical Physics
Satoshi S Nishizuka, Gen Tamura, Masahiro Nakatochi, Norimasa Fukushima, Yukimi Ohmori, Chihiro Sumida, Takeshi Iwaya, Takashi Takahashi, Keisuke Koeda
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Limited information exists regarding beneficial effects of Helicobacter pylori. To examine the effect in advanced gastric cancer, we compared survival for patients treated with surgery-only or adjuvant chemotherapy on the basis of H. pylori infection status. METHODS: A cohort of 491 patients who underwent R0 resection for locally advanced gastric cancer between 2000 and 2009 at 12 institutions in northern Japan was included. H. pylori infection status, was assessed from paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed samples...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Minna Torniainen-Holm, Jaana Suvisaari, Maija Lindgren, Tommi Härkänen, Faith Dickerson, Robert H Yolken
BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have documented an association between cytomegalovirus and cognitive impairment, but results have been inconsistent. Few studies have investigated the association of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus with cognitive decline longitudinally. Our aim was to examine whether cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus are associated with cognitive decline in adults METHOD: The study sample is from the Finnish Health 2000 Survey (BRIF8901, n = 7112), which is representative of the Finnish adult population...
January 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Amol Mehta, Benjamin E Zusman, Ravi Choxi, Lori A Shutter, Ahmed Yassin, Arun Antony, Parthasarathy D Thirumala
OBJECTIVE: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most frequent causes of epilepsy in the United States. However, reported risk factors for seizure after are inconsistent, and their impact on inpatient morbidity and mortality is unclear. We aimed to study the incidence, risk factors, and impact of seizures following ICH in a nationwide patient sample. METHODS: We queried the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) for patients admitted to the hospital with a primary diagnosis of ICH between the years 1999 and 2011...
January 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Sergey O Ryabykh, Olga M Pavlova, Dmitry M Savin, Alexander V Burcev, Alexander V Gubin
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study OBJECTIVE: To evaluate optimal timing and type of surgical treatment of myelomeningocele-related spinal deformities. To provide long term follow-up of surgical treatment. METHODS: We reviewed and presented clinical pictures, treatment strategies and results of 20 patients with myelomeningocele-related spinal deformities, treated at the Ilizarov Center (Kurgan, Russia) from 2010 to 2017. RESULTS: Average age was 6...
January 17, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Koji Tamai, Joshua Romanu, Phillip Grisdela, Permsak Paholpak, Pengfei Zheng, Hiroaki Nakamura, Zorica Buser, Jeffrey C Wang
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Cervical sagittal vertical axis (cSVA) of ≥40mm is recognized as the key factor of poor health-related quality of life, poor surgical outcomes, and correction loss after surgery for cervical deformity. However, little is known about the radiological characteristics of patients with cSVA≥40mm. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the radiological characteristics of patients with cervical imbalance. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of weight-bearing cervical magnetic resonance (MR) images PATIENT SAMPLE: Consecutive 1,500 MR images of symptomatic patients in weight-bearing position OUTCOME MEASURES: cSVA, cervical alignment, cervical balance parameters (T1 slope, Co-C2 angle, C2-C7 angle, C7-T1 angle, neck tilt and thoracic inlet angle), disc degeneration (Pfirmann and Suzuki classification), endplate degeneration (Modic change), Spondylolisthesis (antero- and retrolisthesis), antero-posterior (AP) diameter of dural sac, cross-sectional area (CSA) and fat infiltration ratio of the transversospinalis muscles at C4 and C7 levels METHODS: Patients were divided into two groups: cervical sagittal vertical axis (cSVA) ≥40mm and <40mm...
January 17, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Sujal Ghosh, Marlene Carmo, Miguel Calero-Garcia, Ida Ricciardelli, Juan Carlos Bustamante Ogando, Michael P Blundell, Axel Schambach, Philip G Ashton-Rickardt, Claire Booth, Stephan Ehl, Kai Lehmberg, Adrian J Thrasher, H Bobby Gaspar
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the PRF1 gene account for up to 58% of familial haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) syndromes. The resulting defects in effector cell cytotoxicity lead to hypercytokinaemia and hyperactivation with inflammation in various organs. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether autologous gene corrected T cells can restore cytotoxic function, reduce disease activity and prevent haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) symptoms in in vivo models. METHODS: We developed a gammaretroviral vector to transduce murine CD8-T cells in the prf-/- mouse model...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Ming-Ching Chiang, Arthur J Y Huang, Marie E Wintzer, Toshio Ohshima, Thomas J McHugh
Social recognition memory is crucial for survival across species, underlying the need to correctly identify conspecifics, mates and potential enemies. In humans the hippocampus is engaged in social and episodic memory, however the circuit mechanisms of social memory in rodent models has only recently come under scrutiny. Work in mice has established that the dorsal CA2 and ventral CA1 regions play critical roles, however a more comprehensive comparative analyses of the circuits and mechanisms required has not been reported...
January 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Vicente Plaza, Jordi Giner, Gustavo J Rodrigo, Myrna B Dolovich, Joaquin Sanchis
BACKGROUND: Inefficient inhaler technique (IT) compromises the optimal delivery of medication. However, the IT knowledge of health care professionals (HCP) has received scant attention. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of published reports assessing the IT proficiency of HCPs in using pressurized metered dose (pMDI) and dry powder (DPI) inhalers. METHODS: Studies published between 1975 and 2014 that directly assessed the IT skills of HCPs were selected according to pre-defined selection criteria...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Diane Naouri, Clémence Bussiere, Nathalie Pelletier-Fleury
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the determinants of dental care expenditures among adults with disabilities living in institutions. DESIGN: The French National Health and Disability Survey - Institution Section (cross sectional survey, 2009), and The French National Health Insurance database (SNIIRAM). SETTING: Institutional setting. PARTICIPANTS: People living in institutions for adults with cognitive, sensory, and mobility disabilities for whom the dental care expenditures from the SNIIRAM were available (456 institutions and 2,222 individuals)...
January 17, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Xiangjia Zhu, Wenwen He, Yinglei Zhang, Minjie Chen, Yu Du, Yi Lu
PURPOSE: To investigate the tilt and decentration of multifocal intraocular lenses (MfIOLs) implanted in myopic eyes. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. METHODS: Twenty-eight myopic eyes and 56 emmetropic eyes were evaluated. Phacoemulsification with Tecnis ZMB00 MfIOL (Abbott Medical Optics) implantation was performed. At 1 year post-surgery, routine postoperative examinations were performed, and tilt and decentration of the MfIOLs, high-order aberrations, and modulation transfer function (MTF) were evaluated using the OPD-Scan III aberrometer...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
David Rodbard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Massihullah Hamidi, Paul Nikolaidis, Frank H Miller, David D Casalino, Nancy A Hammond, Jeanne M Horowitz, Helena Gabriel
OBJECTIVE: Differentiation of scrotal lesions is often dictated by whether they are intraor extratesticular. However, these regions are not entirely isolated, and disease processes can span both spaces. We review a variety of lesions that can involve both regions, describe the relevant anatomy, and illustrate their imaging appearances. CONCLUSION: Identification of involvement of both intra- and extratesticular regions by a single process can narrow the differential considerations and help arrive at the correct diagnosis...
February 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
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