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Alcoholism as a choice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919738/long-term-ethanol-self-administration-induces-%C3%AE-fosb-in-male-and-female-adolescent-but-not-in-adult-wistar-rats
#1
Aranza Wille-Bille, Soledad de Olmos, Leonardo Marengo, Florencia Chiner, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi
Early-onset ethanol consumption predicts later development of alcohol use disorders. Age-related differences in reactivity to ethanol's effects may underlie this effect. Adolescent rats are more sensitive and less sensitive than adults to the appetitive and aversive behavioral effects of ethanol, respectively, and more sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of experimenter-administered binge doses of ethanol. However, less is known about age-related differences in the neural consequences of self-administered ethanol...
December 2, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918314/a-mouse-model-for-chronic-pain-induced-increase-in-ethanol-consumption
#2
Ryan K Butler, Darin J Knapp, Veronica Ulici, Lara Longobardi, Richard F Loeser, George R Breese
Chronic pain conditions are often co-morbid with alcohol abuse. "Self-medication" with alcohol introduces a host of problems associated with the abuse of alcohol which over time has the potential of exacerbating the painful condition. Despite the prevalence of chronic pain being associated with alcohol abuse, rodent models which mimic the co-morbid conditions are lacking. In the present study, we model osteoarthritis (OA) in C57BL/6J mice by surgically destabilizing the medial meniscus (DMM). Sham operated mice served as controls...
November 30, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895389/comparisons-of-dietary-intake-in-japanese-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Yukiko Kobayashi, Hina Tatsumi, Mikako Hattori, Hiroki Sugiyama, Sayori Wada, Masashi Kuwahata, Saiyu Tanaka, Kazuyuki Kanemasa, Yoshio Sumida, Yuji Naito, Michiaki Fukui, Yasuhiro Kido
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multifactorial disease that involves a complex interaction between genetics, diet, and lifestyle, all of which combine to form the NAFLD phenotype. In Japan, medical nutrition therapy for NAFLD has not yet been established, so NAFLD patients are instructed in the dietary modifications used for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Because points of difference may exist in the effects of dietary choices on NAFLD and T2DM, the present study aimed to compare and assess the dietary intake of Japanese individuals with NAFLD and T2DM...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894930/sex-dependent-influence-of-chronic-mild-stress-cms-on-voluntary-alcohol-consumption-study-of-neurobiological-consequences
#4
Eva M Marco, Javier Antonio Ballesta, Carlos Irala, María-Donina Hernández, María Elisa Serrano, Virginia Mela, Meritxell López-Gallardo, María-Paz Viveros
Alcohol use disorder and depression are highly comorbid, and both conditions exhibit important sexual dimorphisms. Here, we aimed to investigate voluntary alcohol consumption after 6weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) in Wistar rats - employed as an animal model of depression. Male and female rats were investigated, and changes in several molecular markers were analysed in frontal cortex (FCx) and hippocampal formation (HF). CMS induced depressive-like responses in the forced swimming test - increased immobility time - in male and female animals, without affecting anhedonia (sucrose preference test) nor motor activity (holeboard); body weight gain and food intake were diminished only among CMS males...
November 25, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880034/synthesis-of-monoalkyl-glyceryl-ethers-by-ring-opening-of-glycidol-with-alcohols-in-the-presence-of-lewis-acids
#5
Raffaele Cucciniello, Maria Ricciardi, Rosa Vitiello, Martino Di Serio, Antonio Proto, Carmine Capacchione
The present work deals with the production of monoalkyl glyceryl ethers (MAGEs) through a new reaction pathway based on the reaction of glycidol and alcohols catalyzed by Lewis acid-based catalysts. Glycidol is quantitatively converted with high selectivity (99 %) into MAGEs under very mild reaction conditions (80 °C and 0.01 mol % catalyst loading) in only 1 h using Al(OTf)3 or Bi(OTf)3 as catalyst. The proposed method enhances the choice of possible green synthetic approaches for the production of value-added products such as MAGEs...
November 23, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876231/paternal-preconception-alcohol-exposure-imparts-intergenerational-alcohol-related-behaviors-to-male-offspring-on-a-pure-c57bl-6j-background
#6
Gregory R Rompala, Andrey Finegersh, Michelle Slater, Gregg E Homanics
While alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a highly heritable condition, the basis of AUD in families with a history of alcoholism is difficult to explain by genetic variation alone. Emerging evidence suggests that parental experience prior to conception can impact inheritance of complex behaviors in offspring via non-genomic (epigenetic) mechanisms. For instance, male C57BL/6J (B6) mice exposed to chronic intermittent vapor ethanol (CIE) prior to mating with Strain 129S1/SvImJ ethanol-naïve females produce male offspring with reduced ethanol drinking preference, increased ethanol sensitivity, and increased BDNF expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
November 5, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873056/individual-pheromone-signature-in-males-prerequisite-for-pheromone-mediated-mate-assessment-in-the-central-american-locust-schistocerca-piceifrons
#7
Christiane Stahr, Karsten Seidelmann
Living in high-density groups of animals has advantages and disadvantages for mating. The advantage of facilitated mate finding is compromised by difficulties in protecting a suitable partner from competitors. Thus, males regularly are faced with increased competition for sperm, and females with harassment by males at high population densities. To cope with these problems, mating tactics and mate choice mechanisms have to be adjusted. An adaptation to gregarious condition observed in locusts includes the use of male-emitted pheromones...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862011/effective-reduction-of-acute-ethanol-withdrawal-by-the-tetracycline-derivative-tigecycline-in-female-and-male-dba-2j-mice
#8
Joseph M Martinez, Jessica A Groot, David C Curtis, Clayton L Allison, Patrick C Marquardt, Ashley N Holmes, David S Edwards, David R M Trotter, Peter J Syapin, Deborah A Finn, Susan E Bergeson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a spectrum disorder characterized by mild to severe symptoms, including potential withdrawal signs upon cessation of consumption. Approximately five hundred thousand patients with AUD undergo clinically relevant episodes of withdrawal annually (New Engl J Med, 2003, 348, 1786). Recent evidence indicates potential for drugs that alter neuroimmune pathways as new AUD therapies. We have previously shown the immunomodulatory drugs, minocycline and tigecycline, were effective in reducing ethanol (EtOH) consumption in both the 2-bottle choice and drinking-in-the-dark paradigms...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859429/tigecycline-reduces-ethanol-intake-in-dependent-and-nondependent-male-and-female-c57bl-6j-mice
#9
Susan E Bergeson, Michelle A Nipper, Jeremiah Jensen, Melinda L Helms, Deborah A Finn
BACKGROUND: The chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) paradigm is valuable for screening compounds for efficacy to reduce drinking traits related to alcohol use disorder (AUD), as it measures alcohol consumption and preference under physical dependence conditions. Air control-treated animals allow simultaneous testing of similarly treated, nondependent animals. As a consequence, we used CIE to test the hypothesis that tigecycline, a semisynthetic tetracycline similar to minocycline and doxycycline, would reduce alcohol consumption regardless of dependence status...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857195/synthesis-of-3r-acetoin-and-2-3-butanediol-isomers-by-metabolically-engineered-lactococcus-lactis
#10
Vijayalakshmi Kandasamy, Jianming Liu, Shruti Harnal Dantoft, Christian Solem, Peter Ruhdal Jensen
The potential that lies in harnessing the chemical synthesis capabilities inherent in living organisms is immense. Here we demonstrate how the biosynthetic machinery of Lactococcus lactis, can be diverted to make (3R)-acetoin and the derived 2,3-butanediol isomers meso-(2,3)-butanediol (m-BDO) and (2R,3R)-butanediol (R-BDO). Efficient production of (3R)-acetoin was accomplished using a strain where the competing lactate, acetate and ethanol forming pathways had been blocked. By introducing different alcohol dehydrogenases into this strain, either EcBDH from Enterobacter cloacae or SadB from Achromobacter xylosooxidans, it was possible to achieve high-yield production of m-BDO or R-BDO respectively...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844059/developmental-ethanol-exposure-leads-to-long-term-deficits-in-attention-and-its-underlying-prefrontal-circuitry
#11
Emma L Louth, Warren Bignell, Christine L Taylor, Craig D C Bailey
Chronic prenatal exposure to ethanol can lead to a spectrum of teratogenic outcomes that are classified in humans as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). One of the most prevalent and persistent neurocognitive components of FASD is attention deficits, and it is now thought that these attention deficits differ from traditional attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in their quality and response to medication. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying attention deficits in FASD are not well understood...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835996/developing-precision-medicine-for-people-of-east-asian-descent
#12
REVIEW
Stacy L McAllister, Katherine Sun, Eric R Gross
The goal of precision medicine is to separate patient populations into groups to ultimately provide customized care tailored to patients. In terms of precision medicine, ~540 million people in the world have a genetic variant of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) enzyme causing a flushing response and tachycardia after alcohol consumption. The genetic variant is identified as ALDH2*2 and originates from East Asian descendants of the Han Chinese. The variant is particularly important to consider when discussing lifestyle choices with patients in terms of risk for developing specific diseases, preventative screening, and selection of medications for treatment...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822501/inhibition-of-ikk%C3%AE-reduces-ethanol-consumption-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#13
Jay M Truitt, Yuri A Blednov, Jillian M Benavidez, Mendy Black, Olga Ponomareva, Jade Law, Morgan Merriman, Sami Horani, Kelly Jameson, Amy W Lasek, R Adron Harris, R Dayne Mayfield
Proinflammatory pathways in neuronal and non-neuronal cells are implicated in the acute and chronic effects of alcohol exposure in animal models and humans. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family of DNA transcription factors plays important roles in inflammatory diseases. The kinase IKKβ mediates the phosphorylation and subsequent proteasomal degradation of cytosolic protein inhibitors of NF-κB, leading to activation of NF-κB. The role of IKKβ as a potential regulator of excessive alcohol drinking had not previously been investigated...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819430/factors-associated-with-younger-adolescents-exposure-to-online-alcohol-advertising
#14
Elizabeth J D'Amico, Steven C Martino, Rebecca L Collins, William G Shadel, Anagha Tolpadi, Stephanie Kovalchik, Kirsten M Becker
Little is known about the extent and nature of youth exposure to online alcohol advertising, or factors that may be associated with exposure. The current study recruited middle school students who completed a paper survey and then logged each alcohol advertisement that they encountered over a 2-week period using cell phones as part of an ecological momentary assessment design. We examined the percentage of youth who reported exposure to online alcohol advertising in the past 2 weeks, average weekly rate of exposure, types of online alcohol advertisements youth reported seeing, and factors that increased youths' risk of exposure to online alcohol advertising...
November 7, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813184/expanding-the-scope-of-chelating-triazolylidenes-mesoionic-carbenes-from-the-1-5-click-regioisomer-and-catalytic-synthesis-of-secondary-amines-from-nitroarenes
#15
Lisa Suntrup, Stephan Hohloch, Biprajit Sarkar
Chelating 1,2,3-triazolylidenes have been established as privileged ligands in homogeneous catalysis. We present herein a new approach towards chelating 1,2,3-triazolylidene ligands based on the 1,5-regioisomer of the corresponding triazole, which can be obtained through simple click chemistry. The new ligands are compared to their 1,4-regioisomeric counterparts through coordination to the ruthenium p-cymene fragment. The complexes are characterized structurally and spectroscopically and are employed as (pre)catalysts in the reductive condensation of nitroarenes and primary alcohols to yield secondary amines...
November 4, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779943/the-future-of-the-small-rural-grocery-store-a-qualitative-exploration
#16
Courtney A Pinard, Hollyanne E Fricke, Teresa M Smith, Leah R Carpenter, Amy L Yaroch
OBJECTIVES: Rural communities face unique challenges to and opportunities for offering more healthful foods and are often understudied in comparison to their urban counterparts. The purpose of this study was to conduct a qualitative assessment of rural storeowners' perceptions of their communities, their business practices, and factors that influences their viability, sustainability, and ability to support healthy food choices. METHODS: We conducted interviews with storeowners (N = 15) in small stores in rural Nebraska and explored perceptions of business practices, role in the community, and consumer demand for more healthful foods...
November 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775161/prospective-analysis-of-behavioral-economic-predictors-of-stable-moderation-drinking-among-problem-drinkers-attempting-natural-recovery
#17
Jalie A Tucker, JeeWon Cheong, Susan D Chandler, Brice H Lambert, Brittney Pietrzak, Heather Kwok, Susan L Davies
BACKGROUND: As interventions have expanded beyond clinical treatment to include brief interventions for persons with less severe alcohol problems, predicting who can achieve stable moderation drinking has gained importance. Recent behavioral economic (BE) research on natural recovery has shown that active problem drinkers who allocate their monetary expenditures on alcohol and saving for the future over longer time horizons tend to have better subsequent recovery outcomes, including maintenance of stable moderation drinking...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750077/soil-characterisation-by-bacterial-community-analysis-for-forensic-applications-a-quantitative-comparison-of-environmental-technologies
#18
Habteab Habtom, Sandrine Demanèche, Lorna Dawson, Chen Azulay, Ofra Matan, Patrick Robe, Ron Gafny, Pascal Simonet, Edouard Jurkevitch, Zohar Pasternak
The ubiquity and transferability of soil makes it a resource for the forensic investigator, as it can provide a link between agents and scenes. However, the information contained in soils, such as chemical compounds, physical particles or biological entities, is seldom used in forensic investigations; due mainly to the associated costs, lack of available expertise, and the lack of soil databases. The microbial DNA in soil is relatively easy to access and analyse, having thus the potential to provide a powerful means for discriminating soil samples or linking them to a common origin...
October 6, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723160/implementing-personal-health-budgets-in-england-a-user-led-approach-to-substance-misuse
#19
Elizabeth Welch, Karen Jones, James Caiels, Karen Windle, Rosalyn Bass
Personal health budgets (PHBs) in England have been viewed as a vehicle for developing a personalised patient-based strategy within the substance misuse care pathway. In 2009, the Department of Health announced a 3-year pilot programme of PHBs to explore opportunities offered by this new initiative across a number of long-term health conditions, and commissioned an independent evaluation to run alongside as well as a separate study involving two pilot sites that were implementing PHBs within the substance misuse service...
October 10, 2016: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721572/of-neoliberalism-and-global-health-human-capital-market-failure-and-sin-social-taxes
#20
David Reubi
This article tells a different but equally important story about neoliberalism and global health than the narrative on structural adjustment policies usually found in the literature. Rather than focus on macroeconomic structural adjustment policies, this story draws our attention to microeconomic taxation policies on tobacco, alcohol and sugar now widely recognised as the best strategy to control the global non-communicable disease epidemic. Structural adjustment policies are the product of the shift from statist to market-based development models, which was brought about by neoliberal thinkers like Peter Blau and Deepak Lal...
October 19, 2016: Critical Public Health
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