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Alcoholism as a choice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639261/the-effects-of-ethanol-on-diverse-components-of-choice-in-the-rat-reward-discrimination-preference-and-relative-valuation
#1
Justin J McGraw, Luke C Zona, Howard C Cromwell
Alcohol consumption impairs judgment and choice. How alcohol alters these crucial processes is primarily unknown. Choice can be fractionated into different components including reward discrimination, preference and relative valuation that can function together or in isolation depending upon diverse factors including choice context. We examined the diverse components and contextual effects by analyzing the effects of alcohol drinking on choice behavior in a task with a reduced level of temporal and spatial constraints...
June 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632074/isopropyl-alcohol-swabs-as-a-preferred-substance-of-abuse
#2
Aditi Sharma, Jonathan D Morrow
The authors describe the treatment of a 36-year-old woman who presented with excessive consumption of antiseptic alcohol swabs. Her behavior was diagnosed as a severe substance use disorder with isopropyl alcohol as the primary drug of choice. Diagnostic and treatment challenges involved in the case are discussed in detail, with particular focus on the differential diagnosis for this unusual presentation, including obsessive compulsive disorder, pica, and intentional self-injurious behavior. A brief review of the literature on non-ethanol ingestion for the purposes of intoxication is included, as well as clinical information about the potential dangers posed by isopropyl alcohol consumption...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627762/quantitative-nmr-approach-to-optimize-the-formation-of-chemical-building-blocks-from-abundant-carbohydrates
#3
Sebastian Meier, Samuel Elliot, Søren Tolborg, Irantzu Sadaba Zubiri, Esben Taarning
The future role of biomass-derived chemicals relies on the formation of diverse functional monomers in high yields from carbohydrates. Recently, it has become clear that a series of α-hydroxy acids, esters and lactones can be formed from carbohydrates in alcohols and water using tin-containing catalysts such as Sn-Beta. These compounds are potential building blocks for polyesters with additional olefin and alcohol functionalities. We employ an NMR approach to identify, quantify and optimize the formation these building blocks in the chemocatalytic transformation of abundant carbohydrates by Sn-Beta...
June 19, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625335/provision-of-information-to-consumers-about-the-calorie-content-of-alcoholic-drinks-did-the-responsibility-deal-pledge-by-alcohol-retailers-and-producers-increase-the-availability-of-calorie-information
#4
M Petticrew, N Douglas, C Knai, N Maani Hessari, M A Durand, E Eastmure, N Mays
OBJECTIVES: Alcohol is a significant source of dietary calories and is a contributor to obesity. Industry pledges to provide calorie information to consumers have been cited as reasons for not introducing mandatory ingredient labelling. As part of the Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) in England, alcohol retailers and producers committed to providing consumers with information on the calorie content of alcoholic drinks. This study examines what was achieved following this commitment and considers the implications for current industry commitments to provide information on alcohol calories...
May 27, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622592/second-generation-h1-antihistamines-interaction-with-food-and-alcohol-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Paweł Paśko, Tomasz Rodacki, Renata Domagała-Rodacka, Krzysztof Palimonka, Monika Marcinkowska, Danuta Owczarek
Histamine is a mediator of many physiological processes. It plays an important role in modulating allergy reactions and immune system responses. H1 receptor is a therapeutic target for drugs applied in allergic diseases such as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, urticarial, or atopic dermatitis. H1-antihistamines display different chemical structures, pharmacokinetics and a potential for drug-drug and drug-food interactions. Drug-food interactions are known to reduce therapeutic effects of the medicine, as well as to induce a potent adverse drug reactions...
June 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622193/the-lifestyle-information-and-intervention-preferences-of-teenage-and-young-adult-cancer-survivors-a-qualitative-study
#6
Gemma Pugh, Rachael Hough, Helen Gravestock, Jessica B Haddrell, Rebecca J Beeken, Abigail Fisher
BACKGROUND: Little is currently known about how best to promote healthy lifestyle choices among teenage and young adult (TYA) cancer survivors. Such data gathered from a patient-centered perspective are instrumental for the development of health behavior change interventions for young people with cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the lifestyle information needs of TYA cancer survivors and their preferences regarding lifestyle information and intervention delivery...
June 15, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614398/5-aza-2-deoxycytidine-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-regulates-alcohol-related-behavior-and-ntf3-trkc-expression-in-rats
#7
Xiaomeng Qiao, Fangyuan Yin, Yuanyuan Ji, Yunxiao Li, Peng Yan, Jianghua Lai
Recent studies have indicated that DNA methylation plays an important role in the development of alcohol abuse. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dc), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, was FDA approved for myelodysplastic syndrome treatment. However, it is unclear whether 5-Aza-dc is involved in alcohol abuse. In this study, using a chronic alcohol exposure model in rats, 5-Aza-dc was injected into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Alcohol-drinking behavior and the anxiety related behavior were evaluated by two-bottle choice and open field test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614348/organic-compounds-in-fluid-inclusions-of-archean-quartz-analogues-of-prebiotic-chemistry-on-early-earth
#8
Ulrich Schreiber, Christian Mayer, Oliver J Schmitz, Pia Rosendahl, Amela Bronja, Markus Greule, Frank Keppler, Ines Mulder, Tobias Sattler, Heinz F Schöler
The origin of life is still an unsolved mystery in science. Hypothetically, prebiotic chemistry and the formation of protocells may have evolved in the hydrothermal environment of tectonic fault zones in the upper continental crust, an environment where sensitive molecules are protected against degradation induced e.g. by UV radiation. The composition of fluid inclusions in minerals such as quartz crystals which have grown in this environment during the Archean period might provide important information about the first organic molecules formed by hydrothermal synthesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602070/a-prognostic-evaluation-and-management-of-alcoholic-hepatitis
#9
Ramesh Rana, Sheng-Lan Wang, Jing Li, Lu Xia, Mei-Yi Song, Chang-Qing Yang
Alcoholic hepatitis is an acute and severe form of alcoholic liver disease associated with high morbidity and mortality of 30-50% worldwide, severity ranging from asymptomatic derangement of liver biochemistries to fulminant liver failure or death. Rapidly progressing jaundice and coagulopathy in prolonged excessive alcohol abusers with or without fever, malnutrition, and tender liver are the clinical hallmarks. The prognostic models (MELD, MDF, ABIC, GAHS, Lille's score) not only predict the short term mortality, but also guide the clinicians to choose appropriate specific therapy (corticosteroid or pentoxifylline) and as a stopping rule if there is no significant benefits of it...
June 9, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601731/methamphetamine-alcohol-interactions-in-murine-models-of-sequential-and-simultaneous-oral-drug-taking
#10
Elissa K Fultz, Douglas L Martin, Courtney N Hudson, Tod E Kippin, Karen K Szumlinski
BACKGROUND: A high degree of co-morbidity exists between methamphetamine (MA) addiction and alcohol use disorders and both sequential and simultaneous MA-alcohol mixing increases risk for co-abuse. As little preclinical work has focused on the biobehavioral interactions between MA and alcohol within the context of drug-taking behavior, we employed simple murine models of voluntary oral drug consumption to examine how prior histories of either MA- or alcohol-taking influence the intake of the other drug...
May 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599762/co-teaching-exploring-an-alternative-for-integrated-curriculum
#11
Sadhana Sharma, Ravikirti, Asgar Ali, Roshan Takhelmayum, Mala Mahto, Rathish Nair
PURPOSE: Currently, the curriculum of medical education is compartmentalized which makes achieving the expected outcome, a real challenge. Co-teaching, an existing concept in education, however, may be used in medical education for integrating the applied component while basic concepts are being taught. The hypothesis, "can co-teaching be an alternate for an integrated curriculum?" was explored in this study. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the outcomes of co-teaching with the existing teaching methodology owing to the absence of integrated curriculum...
July 2017: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599145/telomere-length-in-alcohol-dependence-a-role-for-impulsive-choice-and-childhood-maltreatment
#12
Jee In Kang, Syung Shick Hwang, Jong Rak Choi, Seung-Tae Lee, Jieun Kim, In Sik Hwang, Hae Won Kim, Chan-Hyung Kim, Se Joo Kim
Telomere shortening, a marker of cellular aging, has been considered to be linked with psychosocial stress as well as with chronic alcohol consumption, possibly mediated by oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Recent findings suggested that early life adversity on telomere dynamics may be related to impulsive choice. To further our understanding of the association of impulsive choice and childhood trauma on telomere length, we examined whether delayed discounting and childhood trauma or their interaction is related to leukocyte telomere length, while controlling for multiple potential confounding variables, in patients with alcohol dependence who are considered to have higher impulsive choice and shorter telomere length...
May 31, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578729/drivers-of-dietary-behaviours-in-women-living-in-urban-africa-a-systematic-mapping-review
#13
Stefanie C Gissing, Rebecca Pradeilles, Hibbah A Osei-Kwasi, Emmanuel Cohen, Michelle Holdsworth
OBJECTIVE: To (i) systematically review the literature to determine the factors influencing diet and dietary behaviour in women living in urban Africa; (ii) present these in a visual map; and (iii) utilize this to identify potentially important areas for future research. DESIGN: Systematic mapping review. The review protocol was registered at PROSPERO (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/; registration number CRD42015017749). Six databases were systematically searched, followed by reference and citation searching...
June 5, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574422/influence-of-freeze-concentration-technique-on-aromatic-and-phenolic-compounds-color-attributes-and-sensory-properties-of-cabernet-sauvignon-wine
#14
Yan-Yan Wu, Kai Xing, Xiao-Xu Zhang, Hui Wang, Yong Wang, Fang Wang, Jing-Ming Li
Red wines produced in the Xinjiang region of China possess poor color density, and lack fruity notes and elegance. The freeze concentration technique, as a well-established concentration method for liquid food systems, was applied to the Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) wine-making process, aiming to investigate its effect on wine quality improvement. Results showed that the freeze concentration treatment did not significantly alter the physicochemical properties of the wine, except for an increase of glycerol and alcoholic content...
June 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545664/a-phenolic-glycoside-from-flacourtia-indica-induces-heme-mediated-oxidative-stress-in-plasmodium-falciparum-and-attenuates-malaria-pathogenesis-in-mice
#15
Shiv Vardan Singh, Ashan Manhas, Suriya P Singh, Sonali Mishra, Nimisha Tiwari, Parmanand Kumar, Karuna Shanker, Kumkum Srivastava, Koneni V Sashidhara, Anirban Pal
BACKGROUND: Flacourtia indica is especially popular among the various communities of many African countries where it is being used traditionally for the treatment of malaria. In our previous report, we have identified some phenolic glycosides from the aerial parts of F. indica as promising antiplasmodial agents under in vitro conditions. PURPOSE: Antimalarial bioprospection of F. indica derived phenolic glycoside in Swiss mice (in vivo) with special emphasis on its mode of action...
July 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535708/perceived-determinants-to-alcohol-consumption-and-misuse-a-survey-of-university-students
#16
Nicholas Muli, Briege M Lagan
AIM: Before an attempt is made to develop any population-specific behavioural change programme, it is important to know what the factors that influence behaviours are. The aim of this study was to identify what are the perceived determinants that attribute to young people's choices to both consume and misuse alcohol. METHOD: Using a descriptive survey design, a web-based questionnaire based on the Theory of Triadic Influence was administered to students aged 18-29 years at one university in Northern Ireland...
May 1, 2017: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514963/patient-centered-primary-care-for-adults-at-high-risk-for-auds-the-choosing-healthier-drinking-options-in-primary-care-choice-trial
#17
Katharine A Bradley, Evette Joy Ludman, Laura J Chavez, Jennifer F Bobb, Susan J Ruedebusch, Carol E Achtmeyer, Joseph O Merrill, Andrew J Saxon, Ryan M Caldeiro, Diane M Greenberg, Amy K Lee, Julie E Richards, Rachel M Thomas, Theresa E Matson, Emily C Williams, Eric Hawkins, Gwen Lapham, Daniel R Kivlahan
BACKGROUND: Most patients with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) never receive alcohol treatment, and experts have recommended management of AUDs in primary care. The Choosing Healthier Drinking Options In primary CarE (CHOICE) trial was a randomized controlled effectiveness trial of a novel intervention for primary care patients at high risk for AUDs. This report describes the conceptual and scientific foundation of the CHOICE model of care, critical elements of the CHOICE trial design consistent with the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR), results of recruitment, and baseline characteristics of the enrolled sample...
May 17, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504515/the-catalytically-lignan-activation-based-approach-for-the-synthesis-of-epi-podophyllotoxin-derivatives
#18
Jun-Hao Wan, Yang Hu, Hui Liu, Yuan-Hong Tu, Zhong-Yi He, Jian-Song Sun
Under the effect of a catalytic amount of Au(I) complex, 4-O-(2-cyclopropylethynyl)benzoyl-(epi)-podophyllotoxins, easily prepared via dehydrative condensation between (epi)-podophyllotoxin and ortho-cyclopropylethynylbenzoic acid, could efficiently couple with a variety of nucleophiles including alcohol, phenol, aniline, and carbon nucleophiles, all to provide (epi)-podophyllotoxin derivatives. Thus, the first catalytic and lignan-activation-based approach for (epi)-podophyllotoxin derivatization was established...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503557/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#19
REVIEW
Amar Gupta, Elijah Dixon
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a rare entity with a distinct clinical course and epidemiology from hilar and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. ICC makes up 8-10% of cholangiocarcinomas and 10-20% of all primary liver tumors. There remains a considerable amount of geographic variation in the incidence of ICC worldwide; however, the overall incidence of this malignancy appears to be rising. Several risk factors have been identified, such as infectious causes (liver flukes, viral hepatitis), biliary tract disease [primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), hepaticolithiasis, biliary cystic diseases], metabolic syndrome, lifestyle choices (alcohol abuse, tobacco use), and cirrhosis...
April 2017: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485905/-shifting-from-heroin-to-alcohol-addiction-descriptive-survey
#20
Sergio Borsetti, Johnny Acquaro, Emanuele Bignamini
INTRODUCTION: Addiction is a disease which affects the relation between the person and the object of his addiction. One of the major risks for people addicted to heroin treated with Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) is to develop addiction from another substance, particularly alcohol, while treating heroin addiction, "shifting" this way from heroin addic- tion to alcoholism. OBJECTIVE: describing such "shifting" process within the population taken into considera- tion for this study...
January 2017: Professioni Infermieristiche
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