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Alcoholism as a choice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464310/different-strategies-for-multi-enzyme-cascade-reaction-for-chiral-vic-1-2-diol-production
#1
Ana Vrsalović Presečki, Lela Pintarić, Anera Švarc, Đurđa Vasić-Rački
The stereoselective three-enzyme cascade for the one-pot synthesis of (1S,2S)-1-phenylpropane-1,2-diol ((1S,2S)-1-PPD) from inexpensive starting substrates, benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde, was explored. By coupling stereoselective carboligation catalyzed by benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFD), L-selective reduction of a carbonyl group with alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis (ADHLb) as well as the coenzyme regeneration by formate dehydrogenase (FDH), enantiomerically pure diastereoselective 1,2-diol was produced...
February 20, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463327/past-trauma-and-future-choices-differences-in-discounting-in-low-income-urban-african-americans
#2
Carissa van den Berk-Clark, Joel Myerson, Leonard Green, Richard A Grucza
BACKGROUND: Exposure to traumatic events is surprisingly common, yet little is known about its effect on decision making beyond the fact that those with post-traumatic stress disorder are more likely to have substance-abuse problems. We examined the effects of exposure to severe trauma on decision making in low-income, urban African Americans, a group especially likely to have had such traumatic experiences. METHOD: Participants completed three decision-making tasks that assessed the subjective value of delayed monetary rewards and payments and of probabilistic rewards...
February 21, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450231/free-will-in-addictive-behaviors-a-matter-of-definition
#3
REVIEW
W Miles Cox, Eric Klinger, Javad Salehi Fadardi
Certain people are at risk for using alcohol or other drugs excessively and for developing problems with their use. Their susceptibility might arise from a variety of factors, including their genetic make-up, brain chemistry, family background, personality and other psychological variables, and environmental and sociocultural variables. Moreover, after substance use has become established, there are additional cognitive-motivational variables (e.g., substance-related attentional bias) that contribute to enacting behaviors consistent with the person's motivation to acquire and use the substance...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450230/do-addicts-have-free-will-an-empirical-approach-to-a-vexing-question
#4
Gene M Heyman
Introduction: This paper addresses two overlapping questions: Do addicts have the capacity to voluntarily quit drugs? And do individuals knowingly pursue courses of action that they realize are bad for them, such as excessive drug use? Methods: I propose two testable versions of free will. First, the observation that activities differ in the degree to which they are susceptible to the influence of their consequences (e.g., costs and benefits) has proven a useful criterion for classifying behavior as voluntary or involuntary...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447931/impulsive-mechanisms-influencing-relapse-in-alcohol-drinking
#5
Hugo E Reyes-Huerta, Cristiano Dos Santos, Kalina Martínez
Impulsivity has been related to different features of addictive behaviors. Growing data, generated in separated lines of research, suggest that different processes underlying impulsivity are associated to relapse in alcohol drinking. Considering the evidence, relapse can be understood as an impulsive choice or as an impulsive action. In the first case, the return to drinking behavior is a consequence of insensitive to delayed consequence, that is, to the discounting of delayed rewards. In the second case, relapse is a consequence of failures to inhibit prepotent responses...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446106/impact-of-controlled-attenuation-parameter-on-detecting-fibrosis-using-liver-stiffness-measurement
#6
T Karlas, D Petroff, M Sasso, J-G Fan, Y-Q Mi, V de Lédinghen, M Kumar, M Lupsor-Platon, K-H Han, A C Cardoso, G Ferraioli, W-K Chan, V W-S Wong, R P Myers, K Chayama, M Friedrich-Rust, M Beaugrand, F Shen, J-B Hiriart, S K Sarin, R Badea, H W Lee, P Marcellin, C Filice, S Mahadeva, G L-H Wong, P Crotty, K Masaki, J Bojunga, P Bedossa, V Keim, J Wiegand
BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is often accompanied by steatosis, particularly in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and its non-invasive characterisation is of utmost importance. Vibration-controlled transient elastography is the non-invasive method of choice; however, recent research suggests that steatosis may influence its diagnostic performance. Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP) added to transient elastography enables simultaneous assessment of steatosis and fibrosis...
February 15, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445521/a-method-for-co-creation-of-an-evidence-based-patient-workbook-to-address-alcohol-use-when-quitting-smoking-in-primary-care-a-case-study
#7
Nadia Minian, Aliya Noormohamed, Laurie Zawertailo, Dolly Baliunas, Norman Giesbrecht, Bernard Le Foll, Jürgen Rehm, Andriy Samokhvalov, Peter L Selby
Plain English summary: The purpose of this paper is to describe a patient engagement event designed to create an educational workbook with smokers who drink alcohol at harmful levels. The goal was to create a workbook that combined scientific evidence with patients' values, preferences, and needs. Fourteen adult smokers who drink alcohol were invited to the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) to take part in a four-hour event to help design the workbook with the CAMH research team...
2018: Research involvement and engagement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427080/amphetamine-primes-enhanced-motivation-toward-uncertain-choices-in-rats-with-genetic-alcohol-preference
#8
Ville Oinio, Mikko Sundström, Pia Bäckström, Johanna Uhari-Väänänen, Kalervo Kiianmaa, Atso Raasmaja, Petteri Piepponen
RATIONALE: Comorbidity with gambling disorder (GD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) is well documented. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to examine the influence of genetic alcohol drinking tendency on reward-guided decision making behavior of rats and the impact of dopamine releaser D-amphetamine on this behavior. METHODS: In this study, Alko alcohol (AA) and Wistar rats went through long periods of operant lever pressing training where the task was to choose the profitable of two options...
February 9, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422263/aldehyde-induced-dna-and-protein-adducts-as-biomarker-tools-for-alcohol-use-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Helen M Heymann, Adriana M Gardner, Eric R Gross
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) screening frequently involves questionnaires complemented by laboratory work to monitor alcohol use and/or evaluate AUD-associated complications. Here we suggest that measuring aldehyde-induced DNA and protein adducts produced during alcohol metabolism may lead to earlier detection of AUD and AUD-associated complications compared with existing biomarkers. Use of aldehyde-induced adducts to monitor AUD may also be important when considering that approximately 540 million people bear a genetic variant of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) predisposing this population to aldehyde-induced toxicity with alcohol use...
February 5, 2018: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405495/to-brand-or-not-to-brand-a-product-placement-evidence-from-a-field-study-of-two-influence-mechanisms-of-positive-portrayals-of-alcohol-in-film
#10
Ignacio Redondo, Cristel A Russell, Jorge Bernal
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: We propose that branded and non-branded product placements in movies are interpreted differently and that a movie with unbranded alcohol portrayals influences audiences' alcohol-related beliefs and choices indirectly, through the process of narrative transportation, whereas a movie with branded alcohol placements impacts audiences' alcohol beliefs and choices via a more basic social-cognitive process of influence. DESIGN AND METHODS: Ordinary moviegoers (N = 758) attended a showing of The Snows of Kilimanjaro (2011) in a popular theatre in Tacna, Peru...
February 6, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397646/scientific-evidence-for-the-addictiveness-of-tobacco-and-smoking-cessation-in-tobacco-litigation
#11
Sungwon Roh
Smokers keep smoking despite knowing that tobacco claims many lives, including their own and others'. What makes it hard for them to quit smoking nonetheless? Tobacco companies insist that smokers choose to smoke, according to their right to self-determination. Moreover, they insist that with motivation and willpower to quit smoking, smokers can easily stop smoking. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to discuss the addictive disease called tobacco use disorder, with an assessment of the addictiveness of tobacco and the reasons why smoking cessation is challenging, based on neuroscientific research...
January 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395778/minocycline-blocks-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-alcohol-consumption-and-nucleus-accumbens-inflammation-in-adolescent-male-mice
#12
Kate Karelina, Samuel Nicholson, Zachary M Weil
Alcohol use is a well characterized risk factor for traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, emerging clinical and experimental research suggests that TBI may also be an independent risk factor for the development of alcohol use disorders. In particular, TBIs incurred early in life predict the development of problem alcohol use and increase vulnerability to neuroinflammation as a consequence of alcohol use. Critically, the neuroinflammatory response to alcohol, mediated in large part by microglia, may also function as a driver of further alcohol use...
January 27, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391395/genome-wide-analysis-of-self-reported-risk-taking-behaviour-and-cross-disorder-genetic-correlations-in-the-uk-biobank-cohort
#13
Rona J Strawbridge, Joey Ward, Breda Cullen, Elizabeth M Tunbridge, Sarah Hartz, Laura Bierut, Amy Horton, Mark E S Bailey, Nicholas Graham, Amy Ferguson, Donald M Lyall, Daniel Mackay, Laura M Pidgeon, Jonathan Cavanagh, Jill P Pell, Michael O'Donovan, Valentina Escott-Price, Paul J Harrison, Daniel J Smith
Risk-taking behaviour is a key component of several psychiatric disorders and could influence lifestyle choices such as smoking, alcohol use, and diet. As a phenotype, risk-taking behaviour therefore fits within a Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) approach, whereby identifying genetic determinants of this trait has the potential to improve our understanding across different psychiatric disorders. Here we report a genome-wide association study in 116,255 UK Biobank participants who responded yes/no to the question "Would you consider yourself a risk taker?" Risk takers (compared with controls) were more likely to be men, smokers, and have a history of psychiatric disorder...
February 2, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384923/emergency-transcatheter-arterial-embolization-for-massive-gastrointestinal-arterial-hemorrhage
#14
Zhong Xing Shi, Jing Yang, Hong Wei Liang, Zhen Hua Cai, Bin Bai
To evaluate the different arteriographic manifestations of acute arterial massive hemorrhage of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the efficacy of emergency transcatheter arterial embolization (ETAE).A total of 88 patients with acute massive GI bleeding who experienced failure of initial endoscopy and/or conservative treatment were referred to our interventional department for acute GI arteriography from January 2007 to June 2015. After locating the source of bleeding, appropriate embolic agents, such as spring coil, hydroxyl methyl acrylic acid gelatin microspheres, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles, etc...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364764/adverse-childhood-experiences-and-early-initiation-of-marijuana-and-alcohol-use-the-potential-moderating-effects-of-internal-assets
#15
Debanjana Chatterjee, Barbara McMorris, Amy L Gower, Myriam Forster, Iris Wagman Borowsky, Marla E Eisenberg
INTRODUCTION: Early adolescence is a critical risk period for initiation of substance use. Internal assets (IAs), which are individual qualities guiding positive choices, and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are important protective and risk factors, respectively, against substance use. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether IAs modify associations between ACEs and early initiation of alcohol and marijuana use. METHOD: Data were from 9th and 11th graders who completed the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (n = 79,339)...
January 24, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363613/effect-of-increasing-the-price-of-sugar-sweetened-beverages-on-alcoholic-beverage-purchases-an-economic-analysis-of-sales-data
#16
Diana Quirmbach, Laura Cornelsen, Susan A Jebb, Theresa Marteau, Richard Smith
BACKGROUND: Taxing soft-drinks may reduce their purchase, but assessing the impact on health demands wider consideration on alternative beverage choices. Effects on alcoholic drinks are of particular concern, as many contain similar or greater amounts of sugar than soft-drinks and have additional health harms. Changes in consumption of alcoholic drinks may reinforce or negate the intended effect of price changes for soft-drinks. METHODS: A partial demand model, adapted from the Almost Ideal Demand System, was applied to Kantar Worldpanel data from 31 919 households from January 2012 to December 2013, covering drink purchases for home consumption, providing ~6 million purchases aggregated into 11 groups, including three levels of soft-drink, three of other non-alcoholic drinks and five of alcoholic drinks...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362861/ethanol-potentiates-the-genotoxicity-of-the-food-derived-mammary-carcinogen-phip-in-human-estrogen-receptor-positive-mammary-cells-mechanistic-support-for-lifestyle-factors-cooked-red-meat-and-ethanol-associated-with-mammary-cancer
#17
Durr-E-Shahwar Malik, Rhiannon M David, Nigel J Gooderham
Consumption of cooked/processed meat and ethanol are lifestyle risk factors in the aetiology of breast cancer. Cooking meat generates heterocyclic amines such as 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Epidemiology, mechanistic and animal studies indicate that PhIP is a mammary carcinogen that could be causally linked to breast cancer incidence; PhIP is DNA damaging, mutagenic and oestrogenic. PhIP toxicity involves cytochrome P450 (CYP1 family)-mediated metabolic activation to DNA-damaging species, and transcriptional responses through Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and estrogen-receptor-α (ER-α)...
January 23, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330163/affective-stimuli-in-behavioural-interventions-soliciting-for-health-check-up-services-and-the-service-users-socioeconomic-statuses-a-study-at-japanese-pachinko-parlours
#18
Naoki Kondo, Yoshiki Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomically vulnerable people are likely to have more health risks because of inadequate behaviour choices related to chronic social stresses. Brain science suggests that stress causes cognitively biased automatic decision making, preferring instant stress relief and pleasure (eg, smoking, alcohol use and drug abuse) as opposed to reflectively seeking health-maintenance services (eg, health check-ups). As such, hedonic stimuli that nudge people towards preventive actions could reduce health behaviour disparities...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325587/human-echinostomiasis-a-case-report
#19
Ranjit Sah, Shusila Khadka, Rabin Hamal, Sagar Poudyal
BACKGROUND: Echinostomiasis is a food-borne infection caused by an intestinal trematodes belonging to the family Echinostomatidae. They infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Patients are usually asymptomatic. However, with heavy infections, the worms can produce catarrhal inflammation with mild ulceration and the patient may experience abdominal pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and weight loss. Infection are associated with common sociocultural practices of eating raw or insufficiently cooked mollusks and fish...
January 11, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324774/activated-carbon-n-acetylcysteine-microcapsule-protects-against-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-young-rats-via-activating-telomerase-and-inhibiting-apoptosis
#20
Tingting Shi, Xingxin Yang, Hongping Zhou, Jianjun Xi, Jingjing Sun, Yunling Ke, Jiankang Zhang, Yidan Shao, Xiaojie Jiang, Xuwang Pan, Shourong Liu, Rangxiao Zhuang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming one of the world's most common chronic liver diseases in childhood, yet no therapy is available that has been approved by the food and drug administration (FDA). Previous studies have reported that telomere and telomerase are involved the development and progression of NAFLD. This study was designed to investigate the potential beneficial effects of activated carbon N-acetylcysteine (ACNAC) microcapsules on the development of NAFLD in young rats as well as the underlying mechanism(s) involved...
2018: PloS One
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