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Alcoholism as a choice

Jalie A Tucker, JeeWon Cheong, Susan D Chandler, Brice H Lambert, Brittney Pietrzak, Heather Kwok, Susan L Davies
BACKGROUND: As interventions have expanded beyond clinical treatment to include brief interventions for persons with less severe alcohol problems, predicting who can achieve stable moderation drinking has gained importance. Recent behavioral economic (BE) research on natural recovery has shown that active problem drinkers who allocate their monetary expenditures on alcohol and saving for the future over longer time horizons tend to have better subsequent recovery outcomes, including maintenance of stable moderation drinking...
October 24, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Habteab Habtom, Sandrine Demanèche, Lorna Dawson, Chen Azulay, Ofra Matan, Patrick Robe, Ron Gafny, Pascal Simonet, Edouard Jurkevitch, Zohar Pasternak
The ubiquity and transferability of soil makes it a resource for the forensic investigator, as it can provide a link between agents and scenes. However, the information contained in soils, such as chemical compounds, physical particles or biological entities, is seldom used in forensic investigations; due mainly to the associated costs, lack of available expertise, and the lack of soil databases. The microbial DNA in soil is relatively easy to access and analyse, having thus the potential to provide a powerful means for discriminating soil samples or linking them to a common origin...
October 6, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Elizabeth Welch, Karen Jones, James Caiels, Karen Windle, Rosalyn Bass
Personal health budgets (PHBs) in England have been viewed as a vehicle for developing a personalised patient-based strategy within the substance misuse care pathway. In 2009, the Department of Health announced a 3-year pilot programme of PHBs to explore opportunities offered by this new initiative across a number of long-term health conditions, and commissioned an independent evaluation to run alongside as well as a separate study involving two pilot sites that were implementing PHBs within the substance misuse service...
October 10, 2016: Health & Social Care in the Community
David Reubi
This article tells a different but equally important story about neoliberalism and global health than the narrative on structural adjustment policies usually found in the literature. Rather than focus on macroeconomic structural adjustment policies, this story draws our attention to microeconomic taxation policies on tobacco, alcohol and sugar now widely recognised as the best strategy to control the global non-communicable disease epidemic. Structural adjustment policies are the product of the shift from statist to market-based development models, which was brought about by neoliberal thinkers like Peter Blau and Deepak Lal...
October 19, 2016: Critical Public Health
Kyoko Wada, Barbra de Vrijer, Barbara F Hales, Jeff Nisker
BACKGROUND: There have long been minimal risk thresholds beneath which risks may not need to be discussed in clinical research. This threshold concept may be applied to clinical practice. Our research explored application of minimal risk standards in research regulations to providing information in prenatal and pre-conception care. METHODS: A case study approach applied minimal risk standards in research regulations to prenatal and pre-conception care with respect to the risks of excess alcohol consumption, folic acid insufficiency, exposure to phthalate plasticizers, and exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs)...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Timea Mariann Helter, Christian Ernst Heinrich Boehler
Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) become increasingly popular to value outcomes for health economic studies and gradually gain acceptance as an input into policy decisions. Developing attributes is a key aspect for the design of DCEs, as their results may misguide decision-makers if they are based on an inappropriate set of attributes. However, the area lacks guidance, and current health-related DCE studies vary considerably in their methods of attribute development, with the consequent danger of providing an unreliable input for policy decisions...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Substance Use
Emily C Williams, Jessica P Young, Carol E Achtmeyer, Christian S Hendershot
BACKGROUND: Efforts to identify genetic moderators of pharmacotherapy response have generated interest in clinical applications of pharmacogenetic tests in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment. To date, no research on providers' interest in using pharmacogenetic tests in the context of AUD treatment has been reported. We conducted qualitative interviews with primary care providers from 5 clinics in the Veterans Health Administration (VA) to assess their interest in using a hypothetical genetic test to inform treatment of AUD with pharmacotherapy...
November 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Emmanuel Darcq, Nadege Morisot, Khanhky Phamluong, Vincent Warnault, Jerome Jeanblanc, Frank M Longo, Stephen M Massa, Dorit Ron
UNLABELLED: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) keeps alcohol intake in moderation. For example, activation of the BDNF receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) in the DLS reduces intake in rats that consume moderate amounts of alcohol. Here, we tested whether long-term excessive consumption of alcohol produces neuroadaptations in BDNF signaling in the rat DLS. We found that BDNF was no longer able to gate alcohol self-administration after a history of repeated cycles of binge alcohol drinking and withdrawal...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Babak Basiri, Hilde van Hattum, William D van Dongen, Mandi M Murph, Michael G Bartlett
Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) has been widely used as an acidic modifier for mobile phases for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of oligonucleotides ever since the first report of its use for this purpose. This is not surprising, considering the exceptional performance of HFIP compared with carboxylic acids, which cause significant MS signal suppression in electrospray ionization. However, we have found that other fluorinated alcohols can also be utilized for mobile phase preparation and the choice of optimal fluorinated alcohol is determined by the ion-pairing (IP) agent...
September 19, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Nhat Huynh, Natalie Arabian, Anna Naito, Stan Louie, Michael W Jakowec, Liana Asatryan, Daryl L Davies
Current pharmacotherapies for alcohol used disorder (AUD) are few and relatively ineffective illustrating the need for the development of new, effective medications. Using a translational approach, our laboratory reported that ivermectin, an FDA-approved, human and animal anti-parasitic agent, can significantly reduce ethanol intake in male and female mice across different drinking paradigms. Extending this line of investigation, the current paper investigated the utility of moxidectin (MOX), an analogue of ivermectin, to reduce ethanol intake...
September 15, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Michaela Hiebler-Ragger, Human-Friedrich Unterrainer, Anita Rinner, Hans-Peter Kapfhammer
BACKGROUND: Previous research has linked insecure attachment styles and borderline personality organization to substance use disorder (SUD). However, it still remains unclear whether those impairments apply to different kinds of SUDs to the same extent. Therefore, in this study we sought to investigate potential differences regarding attachment deficits and borderline personality organization in two different SUD inpatient groups and furthermore in comparison to healthy controls. SAMPLING AND METHODS: A total of 66 (24 female) inpatients diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (AUD), 57 (10 female) inpatients diagnosed with polydrug use disorder (PUD), and 114 (51 female) healthy controls completed the Borderline Personality Inventory and the Attachment Style Questionnaire...
September 16, 2016: Psychopathology
Julien Chapleau, Frédéric Balg, Edward J Harvey, Jérémie Ménard, Frédéric Vauclair, G-Yves Laflamme, Jonah Hebert-Davies, Dominique M Rouleau
PURPOSE: The Proximal Ulna Dorsal Angulation (PUDA) is part of the proximal ulna's normal anatomy. The importance of restoring ulnar anatomy characteristics precisely after olecranon fracture is not known, however, failure to recreate the PUDA after surgery may result in poorer functional outcomes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of minimal proximal ulna malunion on elbow ROM and function at least one year after olecranon ORIF. METHOD: A retrospective comparative cohort study took place in three level-1 trauma centers...
August 30, 2016: Injury
Judith McCool, Cecilia Wong-Cornall, Becky Freeman
INTRODUCTION: In 2012, British American Tobacco New Zealand (BATNZ) launched a mass media campaign branded "Agree/ Disagree" as a response to the New Zealand government's plans to introduce plain packaging. We examined young adult's views about the campaign to assist tobacco control policymakers in planning future interventions. METHODS: Interviews with young adults living in the Auckland area were conducted. Interviews covered existing knowledge about plain packaging of tobacco, knowledge about the tobacco industry, and perceptions of specific advertisements included in the campaign...
July 19, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Heba AbdelKader Aminou, Yosra Hussein Alam-Eldin, Hanan Ahmed Hashem
Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan that is the aetiological agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Currently, the compound of choice for the treatment of T. vaginalis infections is metronidazole, however, it has many side effects and an increase in metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis has been observed. Medicinal plants could be a source of new antiprotozoal drugs with high activity, low toxicity and lower price. The present work was carried out to investigate the therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa alcoholic extract and oil, as well as Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) lectin and their in vitro activity on the ultrastructure of T...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
L G Kolik, T A Gudasheva, V A Martyanov, S B Seredenin
The specific features of alcohol behavior were studied in MR and MNRA rats that exhibit an opposite reaction to emotional stress. We evaluated the effect of a dipeptide anxiolytic GB-115 (N-phenyl-hexanoyl-glycyl-L-tryptophan amide, neuropeptide cholecystokinin-4 analogue with antagonistic activity) on alcohol motivation in rats, which was formed over 12 months. High-emotionality MR rats were more sensitive to the anxiolytic effect of ethanol in the conflict situation test than low-emotionality MNRA rats. MNRA rats consumed a greater amount of ethanol under a free-choice condition with 15% ethanol solution and water (as in comparison with MR rats)...
August 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Sandra Sanchez-Roige, David N Stephens, Theodora Duka
BACKGROUND: Youths with family history (FH) of alcoholism are at greater risk of developing alcohol use disorder (AUD); heightened impulsive behavior may underlie such increased vulnerability. Here, we studied waiting impulsivity (previously suggested to predispose to alcohol drinking) in young moderate-to-heavy social drinkers (18 to 33 years old) characterized as family history positive (FHP) and negative (FHN) following an alcoholic or nonalcoholic (placebo) drink. METHODS: Two groups of young male and female social drinkers (n = 64) were administered an acute dose of alcohol (0...
October 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Stephanie Walker, Suzanne Higgs, Philip Terry
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that college students are often unclear about how much alcohol is present in different drinks. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the abilities of students to estimate the alcohol contents of drinks, both in relative and absolute terms, and to examine how alcohol strength informs behavior. METHODS: For 10 popular drinks that varied by alcohol content, beverage and volume, 209 UK university students rank-ordered the drinks according to total alcohol content and then estimated, for each drink, the number of UK "units" of alcohol contained and its percentage alcohol-by-volume (% ABV)...
November 9, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
A P Greenfield, S Banerjee, A DePasquale, N Weiss, J Sirey
OBJECTIVES: This study used the Evans model of public health determinants to identify factors associated with nutritional risk in older adults. DESIGN: The Evans model domains (physical and mental well-being, social/environmental statuses, individual choice, and economic security) were measured in a sample of homebound older adults. Regularized logistic regression analysis with LASSO penalty function was used to determine the strongest domain of the Evans model...
2016: Journal of Frailty & Aging
Anju Chadha, Sowmyalakshmi Venkataraman, Radhakrishnan Preetha, Santosh Kumar Padhi
This review highlights the importance of the biocatalyst, Candida parapsilosis for oxidation and reduction reactions of organic compounds and establishes its versatility to generate a variety of chiral synthons. Appropriately designed reactions using C. parapsilosis effect efficient catalysis of organic transformations such as deracemization, enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones, imines, and kinetic resolution of racemic alcohols via selective oxidation. This review includes the details of these biotransformations, catalyzed by whole cells (wild type and recombinant strains), purified enzymes (oxidoreductases) and immobilized whole cells of C...
October 2016: Bioorganic Chemistry
Georgina Díaz Napal, María C Carpinella, Sara M Palacios
Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham. (Bignoniaceae) led to the isolation of a natural wax with anti-insect activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Noctuidae) and Epilachna paenulata (Coleptera). The compound was identified spectroscopically as an ester of a C27 fatty acid and a C25 alcohol, pentacosyl heptacosanoate (1). The effective doses of 1 for 50% feeding inhibition (ED50) of S. frugiperda and E. paenulata were 0.82 and 8.53 µg/cm², respectively, in a choice test, while azadirachtin showed ED50 of 0...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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