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Alcoholism as a choice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724038/sexual-addiction-in-drug-addicts-the-impact-of-drug-of-choice-and-poly-addiction
#1
Nelson Antonio, Alessandra Diehl, Marcelo Niel, Sandra Pillon, Lilian Ratto, Maria Carolina Pinheiro, Dartiu Silveira, Thais Zelia Otani, Victor Otani, Quirino Cordeiro, Ricardo Ushida
Objective: To compare the risk of comorbid sexual addiction in a sample of individuals with a diagnosis of substance dependence, stratifying the sample by drug of choice as well as by mono versus polysubstance addiction. Method: All data were collected at Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brazil. The study sample comprised all alcohol or drug dependents admitted to the Addiction Treatment Unit between November 2013 and August 2014. A generalized linear model with a binomial distribution was performed to compare the odds of having a Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST) score greater than 6 points in the subgroups analyzed...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716049/comparison-of-dsm-iv-and-dsm-5-criteria-for-alcohol-use-disorders-in-va-primary-care-patients-with-frequent-heavy-drinking-enrolled-in-a-trial
#2
Traci Takahashi, Gwen Lapham, Laura J Chavez, Amy K Lee, Emily C Williams, Julie E Richards, Diane Greenberg, Anna Rubinsky, Douglas Berger, Eric J Hawkins, Joseph O Merrill, Katharine A Bradley
BACKGROUND: Criteria for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) were intended to result in a similar prevalence of AUD as DSM-IV. We evaluated the prevalence of AUD using DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria, and compared characteristics of patients who met criteria for: neither DSM-5 nor DSM-IV AUD, DSM-5 alone, DSM-IV alone, or both, among Veterans Administration (VA) outpatients in the Considering Healthier drinking Options In primary CarE (CHOICE) trial...
July 18, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715989/use-and-effectiveness-of-behavioural-economics-in-interventions-for-lifestyle-risk-factors-of-non-communicable-diseases-a-systematic-review-with-policy-implications
#3
Oana M Blaga, Livia Vasilescu, Razvan M Chereches
AIM: There is limited evidence on what behavioural economics strategies are effective and can be used to inform non-communicable diseases (NCDs) public health policies designed to reduce overeating, excessive drinking, smoking, and physical inactivity. The aim of the review is to examine the evidence on the use and effectiveness of behavioural economics insights on reducing NCDs lifestyle risk factors. METHODS: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and EconLit were searched for studies published between January 2002 and July 2016 and reporting empirical, non-pharmacological, interventional research focusing on reducing at least one NCDs lifestyle risk factor by employing a behavioural economics perspective...
July 1, 2017: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713629/abducent-nerve-palsy-after-microballoon-compression-of-the-trigeminal-ganglion-case-report
#4
Cassiano Marchi, Paulo Henrique Pires de Aguiar, Ana Maria Moura, Giovanna Matricardi, Carolina Utsunomya Muniz, Rogério Aires, Flávia Gehrke, Natally Santiago, Samuel Simis
BACKGROUND: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is the most common type of facial neuralgia with incidence of 26.8/100,000 person year. In general, this scenario is characterized by a lancinating, unilateral, paroxysmal pain in the area of the fifth cranial nerve. Several treatment methods, including the injection of ethyl alcohol or butyl alcohol into the ganglion, the glycerol injection into the trigeminal cistern, peripheral nerve divisions, the radiofrequency thermocoagulation of the preganglionic fibers, and radiosurgery has been used for TN...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700694/a-robust-and-efficient%C3%A2-method-for-the-extraction-of-plant-extracellular-surface-lipids-as-applied-to-the-analysis-of-silks-and-seedling-leaves-of-maize
#5
Derek M Loneman, Layton Peddicord, Amani Al-Rashid, Basil J Nikolau, Nick Lauter, Marna D Yandeau-Nelson
Aerial plant organs possess a diverse array of extracellular surface lipids, including both non-polar and amphipathic constituents that collectively provide a primary line of defense against environmental stressors. Extracellular surface lipids on the stigmatic silks of maize are composed primarily of saturated and unsaturated linear hydrocarbons, as well as fatty acids, and aldehydes. To efficiently extract lipids of differing polarities from maize silks, five solvent systems (hexanes; hexanes:diethyl ether (95:5); hexanes:diethyl ether (90:10); chloroform:hexanes (1:1) and chloroform) were tested by immersing fresh silks in solvent for different extraction times...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697384/schizosaccharomyces-pombe-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-yeasts-in-sequential-fermentations-effect-on-phenolic-acids-of-fermented-kei-apple-dovyalis-caffra-l-juice
#6
P P Minnaar, N P Jolly, V Paulsen, H W Du Plessis, M Van Der Rijst
Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra) is an evergreen tree indigenous to Southern Africa. The fruit contains high concentrations of l-malic acid, ascorbic acid, and phenolic acids. Kei-apple juice was sequentially inoculated with Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. A reference fermentation using only S. cerevisiae was included. The fermentation was monitored by recording mass loss. At the end of fermentation, twelve untrained judges conducted free choice aroma profiling on the fruit wines. The Kei-apple juice and wines were analysed for total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, pH, alcohol, l-malic acid, and phenolic acids...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695705/all-drinking-is-not-equal-how-a-social-practice-theory-lens-could-enhance-public-health-research-on-alcohol-and-other-health-behaviours
#7
Petra Sylvia Meier, Alan Warde, John Holmes
BACKGROUND: The social meanings, settings and habitual nature of health-related activities and their integration into our daily lives are often overlooked in quantitative public health research. This reflects an overly individualized approach to epidemiological surveillance and evaluations of public health interventions, based on models of behaviour that are rooted in social cognition and rational choice theories. This paper calls for a new approach to alcohol epidemiology and intervention research informed by theories of practice...
July 11, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692946/victimization-as-a-mediator-of-alcohol-use-disparities-between-sexual-minority-subgroups-and-sexual-majority-youth-using-the-2015-national-youth-risk-behavior-survey
#8
Gregory Phillips, Blair Turner, Paul Salamanca, Michelle Birkett, Mark L Hatzenbuehler, Michael E Newcomb, Rachel Marro, Brian Mustanski
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use among underage youth is a significant public health concern. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, alcohol is the "drug of choice" among adolescents, meaning more youth use and abuse alcohol than any other substance. Prevalence of alcohol use is disproportionately higher among sexual minority youth (SMY) than among their heterosexual peers. We examined sexual identity and sexual behavior disparities in alcohol use, and the mediational role of bullying in a sample of high school students...
June 29, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681511/a-new-generation-of-mtorc1-inhibitor-attenuates-alcohol-intake-and-reward-in-mice
#9
Nadege Morisot, Christopher J Novotny, Kevan M Shokat, Dorit Ron
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic condition associated with devastating socioeconomic consequences. Yet, pharmacotherapies to treat behavioral phenotypes such as uncontrolled heavy drinking are limited. Studies in rodents suggest that the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays an important role in mechanisms underlying alcohol drinking behaviors as well as alcohol seeking and relapse. These preclinical evidence suggest that mTORC1 may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of AUD. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potential use of newly developed mTORC1 inhibitors, RapaLink-1 and MLN0128, in preclinical mouse models of AUD...
July 6, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664829/quantification-of-induced-hypothermia-from-aseptic-scrub-applications-during-rodent-surgery-preparation
#10
Anna M Skorupski, Jingyi Zhang, Danielle Ferguson, Frank Lawrence, F Claire Hankenson
Laboratory mice (Mus musculus) are prone to develop hypothermia during anesthesia for surgery, thus potentially impedinganesthetic recovery, wound healing, and future health. The core body temperatures of isoflurane-anesthetized mice areinfluenced by the choice of supplemental heat sources; however, the contribution of various surgical scrubs on the bodytemperatures of mice under gas anesthesia has not been assessed. We sought to quantify the effect of using alcohol (70%isopropyl alcohol [IPA]) compared with saline to rinse away surgical scrub on the progression of hypothermia in anesthetizedmice (n = 47)...
June 29, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663112/defining-the-place-of-habit-in-substance-use-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Youna Vandaele, Patricia H Janak
It has long been suggested that alcohol or substance use disorders could emerge from the progressive development and dominance of drug habits. Like habits, drug-related behaviors are often triggered by drug-associated cues. Like habits, addictive behaviors are strong, rigid and "hard to break". Like habits, these behaviors are insensitive to their outcome and persist despite negative consequences. "Pathological habit" thus appears as a good candidate to explain the transition to compulsive drug use. However, drug use could also be considered as a goal-directed choice, driven by the expectation of drug outcomes...
June 27, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659754/nadph-oxidase-isoform-2-nox2-is-involved-in-drug-addiction-vulnerability-in-progeny-developmentally-exposed-to-ethanol
#12
Marcela L Contreras, Erwin de la Fuente-Ortega, Sofía Vargas-Roberts, Daniela C Muñoz, Carolina A Goic, Paola A Haeger
Ethanol exposure increases oxidative stress in developing organs, including the brain. Antioxidant treatment during maternal ethanol ingestion improves behavioral deficits in rodent models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, the impact of general antioxidant treatment in their adult offspring and the Specific Reactive Species (ROS)-dependent mechanism, are not fully understood. We hypothesized that pre and early postnatal ethanol exposure (PEE) modifies redox homeostasis, in particular NOX2 function during reward signaling in the mesocorticolimbic pathway, which reinforces the effects of alcohol...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646523/does-clinical-placement-in-a-community-alcohol-and-other-drugs-rehabilitation-centre-influence-students-career-intention
#13
Yenna Salamonson, Lucie M Ramjan, Amy R Villarosa, Brahm Marjadi
Due to an ageing workforce, there is a growing need for greater numbers of nurses to work in areas, such as mental health and alcohol and other drugs (AOD) rehabilitation. These practitioners need to approach their work as 'recovery-oriented practitioners'. Positive experiences and preceptorship during clinical placement in AOD rehabilitation settings might influence students' later career choices and address some of the workforce shortage issues. The aim of the present concurrent, mixed-methods study was to explore students' perceptions of their clinical placement experience in a community-based AOD rehabilitation setting, and to examine attitude, career intention, and satisfaction with the placement...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639261/the-effects-of-ethanol-on-diverse-components-of-choice-in-the-rat-reward-discrimination-preference-and-relative-valuation
#14
Justin J McGraw, Luke C Zona, Howard C Cromwell
Alcohol consumption impairs judgment and choice. How alcohol alters these crucial processes is primarily unknown. Choice can be fractionated into different components including reward discrimination, preference and relative valuation that can function together or in isolation depending upon diverse factors including choice context. We examined the diverse components and contextual effects by analyzing the effects of alcohol drinking on choice behavior in a task with a reduced level of temporal and spatial constraints...
June 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632074/isopropyl-alcohol-swabs-as-a-preferred-substance-of-abuse
#15
Aditi Sharma, Jonathan D Morrow
The authors describe the treatment of a 36-year-old woman who presented with excessive consumption of antiseptic alcohol swabs. Her behavior was diagnosed as a severe substance use disorder with isopropyl alcohol as the primary drug of choice. Diagnostic and treatment challenges involved in the case are discussed in detail, with particular focus on the differential diagnosis for this unusual presentation, including obsessive compulsive disorder, pica, and intentional self-injurious behavior. A brief review of the literature on non-ethanol ingestion for the purposes of intoxication is included, as well as clinical information about the potential dangers posed by isopropyl alcohol consumption...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627762/quantitative-nmr-approach-to-optimize-the-formation-of-chemical-building-blocks-from-abundant-carbohydrates
#16
Sebastian Meier, Samuel Elliot, Søren Tolborg, Irantzu Sadaba Zubiri, Esben Taarning
The future role of biomass-derived chemicals relies on the formation of diverse functional monomers in high yields from carbohydrates. Recently, it has become clear that a series of α-hydroxy acids, esters and lactones can be formed from carbohydrates in alcohols and water using tin-containing catalysts such as Sn-Beta. These compounds are potential building blocks for polyesters with additional olefin and alcohol functionalities. We employ an NMR approach to identify, quantify and optimize the formation these building blocks in the chemocatalytic transformation of abundant carbohydrates by Sn-Beta...
June 19, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625335/provision-of-information-to-consumers-about-the-calorie-content-of-alcoholic-drinks-did-the-responsibility-deal-pledge-by-alcohol-retailers-and-producers-increase-the-availability-of-calorie-information
#17
M Petticrew, N Douglas, C Knai, N Maani Hessari, M A Durand, E Eastmure, N Mays
OBJECTIVES: Alcohol is a significant source of dietary calories and is a contributor to obesity. Industry pledges to provide calorie information to consumers have been cited as reasons for not introducing mandatory ingredient labelling. As part of the Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) in England, alcohol retailers and producers committed to providing consumers with information on the calorie content of alcoholic drinks. This study examines what was achieved following this commitment and considers the implications for current industry commitments to provide information on alcohol calories...
May 27, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622592/second-generation-h1-antihistamines-interaction-with-food-and-alcohol-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Paweł Paśko, Tomasz Rodacki, Renata Domagała-Rodacka, Krzysztof Palimonka, Monika Marcinkowska, Danuta Owczarek
Histamine is a mediator of many physiological processes. It plays an important role in modulating allergy reactions and immune system responses. H1 receptor is a therapeutic target for drugs applied in allergic diseases such as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, urticarial, or atopic dermatitis. H1-antihistamines display different chemical structures, pharmacokinetics and a potential for drug-drug and drug-food interactions. Drug-food interactions are known to reduce therapeutic effects of the medicine, as well as to induce a potent adverse drug reactions...
June 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622193/the-lifestyle-information-and-intervention-preferences-of-teenage-and-young-adult-cancer-survivors-a-qualitative-study
#19
Gemma Pugh, Rachael Hough, Helen Gravestock, Jessica B Haddrell, Rebecca J Beeken, Abigail Fisher
BACKGROUND: Little is currently known about how best to promote healthy lifestyle choices among teenage and young adult (TYA) cancer survivors. Such data gathered from a patient-centered perspective are instrumental for the development of health behavior change interventions for young people with cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the lifestyle information needs of TYA cancer survivors and their preferences regarding lifestyle information and intervention delivery...
June 15, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614398/5-aza-2-deoxycytidine-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-regulates-alcohol-related-behavior-and-ntf3-trkc-expression-in-rats
#20
Xiaomeng Qiao, Fangyuan Yin, Yuanyuan Ji, Yunxiao Li, Peng Yan, Jianghua Lai
Recent studies have indicated that DNA methylation plays an important role in the development of alcohol abuse. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dc), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, was FDA approved for myelodysplastic syndrome treatment. However, it is unclear whether 5-Aza-dc is involved in alcohol abuse. In this study, using a chronic alcohol exposure model in rats, 5-Aza-dc was injected into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Alcohol-drinking behavior and the anxiety related behavior were evaluated by two-bottle choice and open field test...
2017: PloS One
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