keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Alcoholism as a choice

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821667/fibroblast-growth-factor-2-in-the-dorsomedial-striatum-is-a-novel-positive-regulator-of-alcohol-consumption
#1
Oren Even-Chen, Yossi Sadot-Sogrin, Ohad Shaham, Segev Barak
Repeated alcohol intake leads to mesostriatal neuroadaptations, resulting in drinking escalation and addiction phenotypes. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) has been shown to interact with the mesostriatal dopaminergic system, and has been implicated in the actions of psychostimulants in the brain, and in several psychiatric disorders. Here, we report on a positive regulatory feedback loop of alcohol and FGF2 in rodent models. Specifically, we found that acute alcohol exposure (2.5 g/kg, i.p.) increased the mRNA expression of Fgf2 in the dorsal hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818246/cancer-prevention-during-early-adulthood-highlights-from-a-meeting-of-experts
#2
Dawn M Holman, Mary C White, Meredith L Shoemaker, Greta M Massetti, Mary C Puckett, Claire D Brindis
Using a life course approach, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Cancer Prevention and Control and the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors co-hosted a 2-day meeting with 15 multidisciplinary experts to consider evidence linking factors in early adulthood to subsequent cancer risk and strategies for putting that evidence into practice to reduce cancer incidence. This paper provides an overview of key themes from those meeting discussions, drawing attention to the influence that early adulthood can have on lifetime cancer risk and potential strategies for intervention during this phase of life...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815629/impulsive-decision-making-in-young-adult-social-drinkers-and-detoxified-alcohol-dependent-patients-a-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-study
#3
Nadine Bernhardt, Stephan Nebe, Shakoor Pooseh, Miriam Sebold, Christian Sommer, Julian Birkenstock, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Andreas Heinz, Michael N Smolka
BACKGROUND: Impulsive decision making relates to problematic substance use. Specifically, altered delay discounting has been suggested as a behavioral marker for addiction, while other relevant facets of choice impulsivity such as probability discounting or loss aversion are clearly understudied. METHODS: Two studies were performed collecting behavioral data on choice impulsivity with a value-based decision-making battery providing estimates of delay discounting, probability discounting for gains and losses, and loss aversion...
August 17, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793802/resisting-temptation-alcohol-specific-self-efficacy-mediates-the-impacts-of-compensatory-health-beliefs-and-behaviours-on-alcohol-consumption
#4
Fiona A I Matley, Emma L Davies
Awareness of health risks linked with excessive alcohol consumption appears to have little influence on how much some people drink. Compensatory health beliefs (CHBs), in which the consequences of unhealthy behaviour are considered to be neutralised by additional healthy behaviours, are one way of justifying poor health choices. Currently, the role of CHBs within the context of drinking behaviour is not well understood. This research examined associations between alcohol specific compensatory health beliefs (ACH-Beliefs) and behaviours (ACH-Behaviours), alcohol consumption and alcohol specific self-efficacy (ASE), via an online survey completed by 249 participants, aged 18 + years (63...
August 9, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791540/the-scent-chemistry-of-heliconius-wing-androconia
#5
Florian Mann, Sohini Vanjari, Neil Rosser, Sandra Mann, Kanchon K Dasmahapatra, Chris Corbin, Mauricio Linares, Carolina Pardo-Diaz, Camilo Salazar, Chris Jiggins, Stefan Schulz
Neotropical Heliconius butterflies are members of various mimicry rings characterized by diverse colour patterns. In the present study we investigated whether a similar diversity is observed in the chemistry of volatile compounds present in male wing androconia. Recent research has shown that these androconia are used during courting of females. Three to five wild-caught male Heliconius individuals of 17 species and subspecies were analyzed by GC/MS. Most of the identified compounds originate from common fatty acids precursors, including aldehydes, alcohols, acetates or esters preferentially with a C18 and C20 chain, together with some alkanes...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790900/maladaptive-decision-making-in-adults-with-a-history-of-adolescent-alcohol-use-in-a-preclinical-model-is-attributable-to-the-compromised-assignment-of-incentive-value-during-stimulus-reward-learning
#6
Lauren C Kruse, Abigail G Schindler, Rapheal G Williams, Sophia J Weber, Jeremy J Clark
According to recent WHO reports, alcohol remains the number one substance used and abused by adolescents, despite public health efforts to curb its use. Adolescence is a critical period of biological maturation where brain development, particularly the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, undergoes substantial remodeling. These circuits are implicated in complex decision making, incentive learning and reinforcement during substance use and abuse. An appealing theoretical approach has been to suggest that alcohol alters the normal development of these processes to promote deficits in reinforcement learning and decision making, which together make individuals vulnerable to developing substance use disorders in adulthood...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782779/nucleophile-dependent-formation-of-6-and-7-membered-n-heterocycles-by-platinum-catalysed-cyclisation-of-1-5-bisallenes
#7
María Teresa Quirós, César Hurtado-Rodrigo, María Paz Muñoz
An unprecedented Pt-catalysed cyclisation of N-tethered 1,5-bisallenes in the presence of oxygen nucleophiles is reported, where formation of 6- or 7-membered rings is driven by the choice of nucleophile and the mechanism dictated by the nucleophile and the electronic properties of the bisallene. The reaction in the presence of alcohols gives preferentially vinyltetrahydropyridines with an extra alkoxy group and Pt-H as the active species in the catalytic cycle, while formation of di- and tetrahydroazepines with an extra hydroxyl group is favoured when water is used as nucleophile, via nucleophilic attack/carbocyclization as the favoured pathway...
August 16, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782467/current-and-under-development-treatment-modalities-of-psoriasis-a-review
#8
Abdul Albaghdadi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Psoriasis is a chronic and complex autoimmune inflammatory skin disease that affects over 125 million people worldwide. It can exhibit at any age, in spite of the fact that children are less normally influenced than adults. It is characterized by distinct erythematous plaques shielded with conspicuous silvery scales that shows up in different areas of the skin. Knowledge of pathophysiology, especially the pathogenesis of psoriasis, has significantly progressed in the recent decade...
August 4, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776055/a-bis-pyridyl-n-alkylamine-cu-i-catalyst-system-for-aerobic-alcohol-oxidation
#9
Lindie Marais, Jordi Burés, Johan H L Jordaan, Selwyn Mapolie, Andrew J Swarts
Herein a bis(pyridyl)-N-alkylamine/Cu(I)/TEMPO/NMI catalyst system is reported for aerobic oxidation of a variety of primary alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes using readily available reagents, at room temperature and ambient air as the oxidant. ESI-MS analysis of the reaction showed the formation of a [(L1)(NMI)Cu(II)-OOH](+) species, which is a key intermediate in the alcohol oxidation reaction. Evaluation of the effect of reaction parameters on the initial rate of the reaction allowed us to obtain the optimum conditions for catalytic activity...
August 4, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773128/study-of-superbase-based-deep-eutectic-solvents-as-the-catalyst-in-the-chemical-fixation-of-co%C3%A2-into-cyclic-carbonates-under-mild-conditions
#10
Sara García-Argüelles, Maria Luisa Ferrer, Marta Iglesias, Francisco Del Monte, María Concepción Gutiérrez
Superbases have shown high performance as catalysts in the chemical fixation of CO₂ to epoxides. The proposed reaction mechanism typically assumes the formation of a superbase, the CO₂ adduct as the intermediate, most likely because of the well-known affinity between superbases and CO₂, i.e., superbases have actually proven quite effective for CO₂ absorption. In this latter use, concerns about the chemical stability upon successive absorption-desorption cycles also merits attention when using superbases as catalysts...
July 7, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773026/biosynthesis-and-characterization-of-agnps-silk-pva-film-for-potential-packaging-application
#11
Gang Tao, Rui Cai, Yejing Wang, Kai Song, Pengchao Guo, Ping Zhao, Hua Zuo, Huawei He
Bionanocomposite packaging materials have a bright future for a broad range of applications in the food and biomedical industries. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the bionanocomposite packaging materials. Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) is one of the most attractive antimicrobial agents for its broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against microorganisms. However, the traditional method of preparing AgNPs-functionalized packaging material is cumbersome and not environmentally friendly. To develop an efficient and convenient biosynthesis method to prepare AgNPs-modified bionanocomposite material for packaging applications, we synthesized AgNPs in situ in a silk fibroin solution via the reduction of Ag⁺ by the tyrosine residue of fibroin, and then prepared AgNPs-silk/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite film by blending with PVA...
June 17, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763064/strong-seduction-impulsivity-and-the-impact-of-contextual-cues-on-instrumental-behavior-in-alcohol-dependence
#12
C Sommer, M Garbusow, E Jünger, S Pooseh, N Bernhardt, J Birkenstock, D J Schad, B Jabs, T Glöckler, Q M Huys, A Heinz, M N Smolka, U S Zimmermann
Alcohol-related cues acquire incentive salience through Pavlovian conditioning and then can markedly affect instrumental behavior of alcohol-dependent patients to promote relapse. However, it is unclear whether similar effects occur with alcohol-unrelated cues. We tested 116 early-abstinent alcohol-dependent patients and 91 healthy controls who completed a delay discounting task to assess choice impulsivity, and a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm employing both alcohol-unrelated and alcohol-related stimuli...
August 1, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758260/vapomechanically-responsive-motion-of-microchannel-programmed-actuators
#13
Lidong Zhang, Pancˇe Naumov, Xuemin Du, Zhigao Hu, Juan Wang
Materials that respond rapidly and reversibly to external stimuli currently stand among the top choices as actuators for real-world applications. Here, a series of programmable actuators fabricated as single- or bilayer elements is described that can reversibly respond to minute concentrations of acetone vapors. By using templates, microchannel structures are replicated onto the surface of two highly elastic polymers, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyvinyl alcohol, to induce chiral coiling upon exposure to acetone vapors...
July 31, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745013/moving-alcohol-prevention-research-forward-part-ii-new-directions-grounded-in-community-based-system-dynamics-modeling
#14
Yorghos Apostolopoulos, Michael K Lemke, Adam E Barry, Kristen Hassmiller Lich
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: Given the complexity of factors contributing to alcohol misuse, appropriate epistemologies and methodologies are needed to understand and intervene meaningfully. We aimed to (1) provide an overview of computational modeling methodologies, with an emphasis on system dynamics modeling; (2) explain how community-based system dynamics modeling can forge new directions in alcohol prevention research; and (3) present a primer on how to build alcohol misuse simulation models using system dynamics modeling, with an emphasis on stakeholder involvement, data sources, and model validation...
July 25, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732370/silibinin-an-old-drug-for-hematological-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Hai Zou, Xing-Xing Zhu, Guo-Bing Zhang, Yuan Ma, Yi Wu, Dong-Sheng Huang
Silibinin (silybin), a non-toxic natural polyphenolic flavonoid, is the principal and the most biologically active component of silymarin. It is efficient in the treatment of acute and chronic liver disorders caused by toxins, drug, alcohol, hepatitis, and gall bladder disorders. Further, in our previous studies, we explored the anti-cancer efficacy in common cancers, such as lung, prostatic, colon, breast, bladder, as well as, hepatocellular carcinoma. Interestingly, silibinin is still not solely limited to the treatment of these diseases...
July 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728905/perceptions-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-among-infection-control-professionals-in-taiwan
#16
Yuan-Pin Hung, Jen-Chieh Lee, Hsiao-Ju Lin, Chun-Wei Chiu, Jia-Ling Wu, Hsiao-Chieh Liu, I-Hsiu Huang, Pei-Jane Tsai, Wen-Chien Ko
BACKGROUND: High Clostridium difficile colonization and infection rates among hospitalized patients had been noted in Taiwan. Nevertheless, the cognition about clinical diagnosis and management of CDI among infection control professionals in Taiwan is not clear. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 24-item survey questionnaire about the diagnosis, therapy, or infection control policies toward CDI was distributed in the annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of Taiwan (IDST) in October 2015 and Infectious Control Society of Taiwan (ICST) in April 2016...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725285/free-will-black-swans-and-addiction
#17
Ted Fenton, Reinout W Wiers
The current dominant perspective on addiction as a brain disease has been challenged recently by Marc Lewis, who argued that the brain-changes related to addiction are similar to everyday changes of the brain. From this alternative perspective, addictions are bad habits that can be broken, provided that people are motivated to change. In that case, autonomous choice or "free will" can overcome bad influences from genes and or environments and brain-changes related to addiction. Even though we concur with Lewis that there are issues with the brain disease perspective, we also argue that pointing to black swans can be important, that is: there can be severe cases where addiction indeed tips over into the category of brain disease, but obviously that does not prove that every case of addiction falls into the disease category, that all swans are black...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724038/sexual-addiction-in-drug-addicts-the-impact-of-drug-of-choice-and-poly-addiction
#18
Nelson Antonio, Alessandra Diehl, Marcelo Niel, Sandra Pillon, Lilian Ratto, Maria Carolina Pinheiro, Dartiu Silveira, Thais Zelia Otani, Victor Otani, Quirino Cordeiro, Ricardo Ushida
Objective: To compare the risk of comorbid sexual addiction in a sample of individuals with a diagnosis of substance dependence, stratifying the sample by drug of choice as well as by mono versus polysubstance addiction. Method: All data were collected at Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brazil. The study sample comprised all alcohol or drug dependents admitted to the Addiction Treatment Unit between November 2013 and August 2014. A generalized linear model with a binomial distribution was performed to compare the odds of having a Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST) score greater than 6 points in the subgroups analyzed...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716049/comparison-of-dsm-iv-and-dsm-5-criteria-for-alcohol-use-disorders-in-va-primary-care-patients-with-frequent-heavy-drinking-enrolled-in-a-trial
#19
Traci Takahashi, Gwen Lapham, Laura J Chavez, Amy K Lee, Emily C Williams, Julie E Richards, Diane Greenberg, Anna Rubinsky, Douglas Berger, Eric J Hawkins, Joseph O Merrill, Katharine A Bradley
BACKGROUND: Criteria for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) were intended to result in a similar prevalence of AUD as DSM-IV. We evaluated the prevalence of AUD using DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria, and compared characteristics of patients who met criteria for: neither DSM-5 nor DSM-IV AUD, DSM-5 alone, DSM-IV alone, or both, among Veterans Administration (VA) outpatients in the Considering Healthier drinking Options In primary CarE (CHOICE) trial...
July 18, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715989/use-and-effectiveness-of-behavioural-economics-in-interventions-for-lifestyle-risk-factors-of-non-communicable-diseases-a-systematic-review-with-policy-implications
#20
Oana M Blaga, Livia Vasilescu, Razvan M Chereches
AIM: There is limited evidence on what behavioural economics strategies are effective and can be used to inform non-communicable diseases (NCDs) public health policies designed to reduce overeating, excessive drinking, smoking, and physical inactivity. The aim of the review is to examine the evidence on the use and effectiveness of behavioural economics insights on reducing NCDs lifestyle risk factors. METHODS: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and EconLit were searched for studies published between January 2002 and July 2016 and reporting empirical, non-pharmacological, interventional research focusing on reducing at least one NCDs lifestyle risk factor by employing a behavioural economics perspective...
July 1, 2017: Perspectives in Public Health
keyword
keyword
8833
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"