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Alcoholism as a choice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046262/effect-of-mri-on-breast-tissue-expanders-and-recommendations-for-safe-use
#1
Andrew A Marano, Peter W Henderson, Martin R Prince, Stephen M Dashnaw, Christine H Rohde
INTRODUCTION: Ferromagnetic port-containing breast tissue expanders are currently labeled MRI-unsafe because of the presumption that magnets should not enter the machine. However, designating these devices as MRI-unsafe can lead to unnecessary procedures or suboptimal imaging choices. This study provides an ex vivo analysis of how breast tissue expanders behave when subjected to strong magnetic fields to determine which variables might affect clinical risk. METHODS: Three different brands of tissue expanders were evaluated in three MRI environments...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024552/current-pharmacotherapies-for-obesity-a-practical-perspective
#2
Angela Golden
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To review the currently available pharmacotherapies for obesity management with a particular focus on the United States. METHODS: Narrative review based on literature searches and the latest prescribing information (up to July 2017). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity pharmacotherapies may assist those individuals who have obesity, or overweight with comorbidities, who have failed to maintain weight loss with lifestyle modifications alone (caloric restriction and increased physical activity)...
October 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021120/characteristics-of-pregnant-women-who-reported-alcohol-use-at-admission-to-substance-use-treatment
#3
Yukiko Washio, Caitlin E Martin, Neal D Goldstein, Mishka Terplan
OBJECTIVES: The current study analyzed the sociodemographic, treatment-related, and other substance use characteristics among pregnant women who reported alcohol use and were admitted to substance use treatment for the first time. METHODS: The Treatment Episode Data Set-Admission (TEDS-A) between 1992 and 2012 was used for conducting a cross-sectional study. RESULTS: Among pregnant women admitted to substance use treatment for the first time (N=166,863), 43...
November 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016708/testing-the-efficacy-of-alcohol-labels-with-standard-drink-information-and-national-drinking-guidelines-on-consumers-ability-to-estimate-alcohol-consumption
#4
Erin Hobin, Kate Vallance, Fei Zuo, Tim Stockwell, Laura Rosella, Alice Simniceanu, Christine White, David Hammond
Aims: Despite the introduction of national drinking guidelines in Canada, there is limited public knowledge of them and low understanding of 'standard drinks (SDs)' which limits the likelihood of guidelines affecting drinking behaviour. This study tests the efficacy of alcohol labels with SD information and Canada's Low-Risk Drinking Guidelines (LRDGs) as compared to %ABV labels on consumers' ability to estimate alcohol intake. It also examines the label size and format that best supports adults' ability to make informed drinking choices...
August 9, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989671/highly-efficient-enantioselective-liquid-liquid-extraction-of-1-2-amino-alcohols-using-spinol-based-phosphoric-acid-hosts
#5
Erik B Pinxterhuis, Jean-Baptiste Gualtierotti, Hero J Heeres, Johannes G de Vries, Ben L Feringa
Access to enantiopure compounds on large scale in an environmentally friendly and cost-efficient manner remains one of the greatest challenges in chemistry. Resolution of racemates using enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction has great potential to meet that challenge. However, a relatively feeble understanding of the chemical principles and physical properties behind this technique has hampered the development of hosts possessing sufficient resolving power for their application to large scale processes...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960146/non-alcoholic-beverage-cues-as-specific-comparison-images-to-alcohol-image-cues
#6
Jennifer C Veilleux, David E Lovett, Kayla D Skinner, Lindsay S Ham
BACKGROUND: Visual alcohol cues are often used to elicit craving (e.g., cue-reactivity), and selection of appropriate comparison cues is important to isolate the specific effect of craving for alcohol. OBJECTIVES: In the current study, via the development of a new set of non-alcoholic beverage cues, we examine measurement and methodological choices in testing alcohol images for cue-reactivity studies. METHODS: The current project combined two independent studies of hazardous (Study 1; n = 80) and recent drinkers (Study 2; n = 244) recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk...
September 29, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951647/endovascular-management-of-traumatic-pseudoaneurysm-short-long-term-outcomes
#7
Bishav Mohan, Shekhar Singal, Akshdeep Singh Bawa, Pankaj Mahindra, Mohammad Yamin
BACKGROUND: Pseudoaneurysms as result of orthopaedic injuries are a known clinical entity. But with increase in operative interventions and use of implants, its incidence is bound to increase. It is important to detect this complication at the earliest to avoid any limb or life threatening problems. Selective angiography is a minimally invasive technique to pin point the diagnosis and at the same time allow for therapeutic embolization/stenting of the pseudo aneurysm. METHODS: A retrospective review of inpatients from January 2007 to January 2013 requiring transarterial embolization/stenting for pseudoaneurysm in the limbs...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934898/rethinking-hiv-prevention-for-school-going-young-people-based-on-current-behaviour-patterns
#8
Maretha Visser
The aim of the research was to gain increased knowledge regarding the sexual risk behaviour of school-going young people in South Africa after two decades of HIV-education in schools, to contribute to the development of improved HIV prevention strategies. In collaboration with the Department of Education, a sample of 5305 learners (between 10 and 18 years in Grades 5-12) from high-risk communities were identified. They completed a survey that assessed self-reported sexual risk behaviour and variables that potentially underlie sexual risk, such as attitudes towards preventive behaviour, perceived social norms and self-efficacy (based on the theory of planned behaviour [TPB]) and social factors like caregiver relationships and gender norms (based on the social ecological theory)...
December 2017: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933748/dietary-composition-independent-of-weight-loss-in-the-management-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
REVIEW
Tannaz Eslamparast, Puneeta Tandon, Maitreyi Raman
Poor dietary composition is an important factor in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The majority of NAFLD patients follow diets with overconsumption of simple carbohydrates, total and saturated fat, with reduced intake of dietary fiber and omega-3 rich foods. Although lifestyle modifications including weight loss and exercise remain the keystone of NAFLD management, modifying dietary composition with or without a calorie-restricted diet may also be a feasible and sustainable strategy for NAFLD treatment...
July 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927583/differences-in-decision-making-as-a-function-of-drug-of-choice
#10
REVIEW
Joshua L Gowin, Matthew E Sloan, Vijay A Ramchandani, Martin P Paulus, Scott D Lane
Poor decision-making is a central feature of all substance use disorders (SUD), but substances vary in the legal and health consequences associated with their use. For example, while the negative health consequences associated with cigarette smoking are often years away, the consequences of heroin abuse can be fatal in mere hours. It remains unclear if users of these substances show decision-making patterns that differ with the relative riskiness of their drug of choice. To address this question, we reviewed studies that compared decision-making of individuals using different substances...
September 18, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923057/postprandial-lipemia-factoring-in-lipemic-response-for-ranking-foods-for-their-healthiness
#11
REVIEW
Cintia Botelho Dias, Paul J Moughan, Lisa G Wood, Harjinder Singh, Manohar L Garg
One of the limitations for ranking foods and meals for healthiness on the basis of the glycaemic index (GI) is that the GI is subject to manipulation by addition of fat. Postprandial lipemia, defined as a rise in circulating triglyceride containing lipoproteins following consumption of a meal, has been recognised as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Many non-modifiable factors (pathological conditions, genetic background, age, sex and menopausal status) and life-style factors (physical activity, smoking, alcohol and medication use, dietary choices) may modulate postprandial lipemia...
September 18, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918389/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-for-the-management-of-obesity-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-novel-therapeutic-option
#12
REVIEW
Gauri Dhir, Kenneth Cusi
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and is associated with a cluster of metabolic factors that lead to poor cardiovascular outcomes. In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), liver fat (triglyceride) accumulation closely mirrors adipose tissue dysfunction and insulin resistance in obesity and T2DM. It is now recognized as the most common chronic liver disease in Westernized societies, often progressing to more severe forms of the disease such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), or cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903829/quantification-of-induced-hypothermia-from-aseptic-scrub-applications-during-rodent-surgery-preparation
#13
Anna M Skorupski, Jingyi Zhang, Danielle Ferguson, Frank Lawrence, F Claire Hankenson
Laboratory mice (Mus musculus) are prone to develop hypothermia during anesthesia for surgery, thus potentially impeding anesthetic recovery, wound healing, and future health. The core body temperatures of isoflurane-anesthetized mice are influenced by the choice of supplemental heat sources; however, the contribution of various surgical scrubs on the body temperatures of mice under gas anesthesia has not been assessed. We sought to quantify the effect of using alcohol (70% isopropyl alcohol [IPA]) compared with saline to rinse away surgical scrub on the progression of hypothermia in anesthetized mice (n = 47)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898879/comparison-of-clomethiazole-and-diazepam-in-the-treatment-of-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-in-clinical-practice
#14
Hannah Sychla, Gerhard Gründer, Sarah Edith Lammertz
BACKGROUND: The objective of this retrospective study was to compare the effectivity and tolerability of diazepam and clomethiazole in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in a large clinical sample. METHODS: The data of 566 patients admitted to an intensive care psychiatric unit in Germany (2010-2014) were evaluated. The course of withdrawal was analyzed on a matched sample (n = 152) consisting of a diazepam group (n = 76) and a clomethiazole group (n = 76)...
2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892997/quantification-of-liver-fat-with-mdixon-magnetic-resonance-imaging-comparison-with-the-computed-tomography-and-the-biopsy
#15
Venkatraman Bhat, Sundararaman Velandai, Vikram Belliappa, Jeyeram Illayraja, Karthik Gadabana Halli, Gayathri Gopalakrishnan
INTRODUCTION: Accurate, non-invasive method of fat estimation is a valuable test for evaluation of diseases with abnormal hepatic fat. AIM: To determine the accuracy of mDixon MR technique in assessment of liver fat over CT and to correlate the CT and MRI findings with biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted at Imaging Services of Narayana Multispeciality Hospital between March 2011- December 2012. Thirty patients who attended the clinic for non-hepatic complaints were included in the study...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878111/reasons-for-inconsistent-condom-use-found-as-answers-to-a-multiple-response-question-a-national-survey-of-iranian-adults-2013
#16
Moghaddameh Mirzaee, Yunes Jahani, Hamid Sharifi
BACKGROUND: The use of condoms is important for preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). However, the prevalence of condom use is not satisfactory. The aim of this study was to assess the reasons for inconsistent condom use in Iranian adults. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Data were gathered through multi-stage sampling. Participants were enrolled from 13 provinces in Iran aged between 19 and 29 years. They had ever-extramarital sex and did not use condoms regularly in their sexual contacts, asked the reasons for inconsistent condom use...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876555/an-overview-of-risk-factors-for-recurrent-breast-cancer
#17
A Mannell
The multidisciplinary management of Breast Cancer (BC) has evolved over the past 50 years: the patient is offered a choice of surgical procedures with or without radiation therapy, cytotoxics and treatments targeting the nuclei of the cancer cells. This has resulted in a reduction of disease recurrence and a significant increase in 5-year survival. But these good results deteriorate over time and almost 20% women with early stage, oestrogen-receptor (ER) positive BC will suffer recurrent cancer at 10 years...
March 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856020/can-ultrasound-be-helpful-in-selecting-optimal-management-methods-for-pregnancies-complicated-by-placental-non-trophpblastic-tumors
#18
REVIEW
Nabil Abdalla, Robert Piórkowski, Paweł Stanirowski, Monika Pazura, Krzysztof Cendrowski, Włodzimierz Sawicki
Placental chorioangioma is the most common subtype of non-trophoblastic placental tumors. Other subtypes are very rare and usually associated with an uneventful course of pregnancy. Most chorioangiomas are small and of no clinical significance. Giant chorioangiomas may be associated with serious fetal and maternal complications. So far, no established ultrasound guidelines are available for the management of placental non-trophoblastic tumors. This may be attributed to the rarity of the disease entity and its different clinical features and complications...
June 2017: Journal of Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853392/pilot-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-sertraline-versus-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-anxiety-symptoms-in-people-with-generalised-anxiety-disorder-who-have-failed-to-respond-to-low-intensity-psychological-treatments
#19
Marta Buszewicz, John Cape, Marc Serfaty, Roz Shafran, Thomas Kabir, Peter Tyrer, Caroline S Clarke, Irwin Nazareth
BACKGROUND: Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) is common, causing unpleasant symptoms and impaired functioning. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines have established good evidence for low-intensity psychological interventions, but a significant number of patients will not respond and require more intensive step 3 interventions, recommended as either high-intensity cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or a pharmacological treatment such as sertraline. However, there are no head-to-head comparisons evaluating which is more clinically effective and cost-effective, and current guidelines suggest that treatment choice at step 3 is based mainly on patient preference...
August 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840822/association-between-food-distress-and-smoking-among-racially-and-ethnically-diverse-adults-schenectady-new-york-2013-2014
#20
Akiko S Hosler, Isaac H Michaels
INTRODUCTION: Smoking and poor nutrition are 2 leading preventable causes of death. This study investigated associations between smoking and indicators of individual- and neighborhood-level food distress among racially and ethnically diverse urban adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from a health interview survey and a food environment assessment collected in 2013 and 2014 in Schenectady, New York. We constructed logistic regression models for current smoking with 6 indicators of food distress as exposure variables and sociodemographic characteristics, depression, anxiety, perceived stress, alcohol binge drinking, and disability as covariates...
August 24, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
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