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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075130/expression-and-characterization-of-levansucrase-from-clostridium-acetobutylicum
#1
Song Gao, Xianghui Qi, Darren J Hart, Herui Gao, Yingfeng An
The Clostridium acetobutylicum gene Ca-SacB encoding levansucrase was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Ca-SacB is composed of 1287 bp and encodes 428 amino acid residues, which could convert 150 mmol/L sucrose to levan with the liberation of glucose. The optimum pH and temperature of this enzyme for levan formation were pH 6 and 60℃, respectively. Levansucrase activity of Ca-SacB was completely abolished by 5 mmol/L Ag+ and Hg2+. The Km and Vmax values for levansucrase were calculated to be 64 mmol/L and 190 µmol/min/mg, respectively...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017156/sugar-based-biopolymers-in-nanomedicine-new-emerging-era-for-cancer-imaging-and-therapy
#2
Mehmet S Eroglu, Ebru Toksoy Oner, Esra Cansever Mutlu, Muge Sennaroglu Bostan
Since last decade, sugar based biopolymers are recognized in nanomedicine as promising materials for cancer imaging and therapy. Their durable, biocompatible and adhesive properties enable the fine tuning of their molecular weights (MW) and their miscellaneous nature makes the molecules acquire various conformations. These in turn provide effective endocytosis by cancer cell membranes that have already been programmed for internalization of different kinds of sugars. Therefore, biocompatible sugar based nanoparticles (SBNPs) are suitable for both cell-selective delivery of drugs and imaging through the human body...
December 21, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004643/electrically-driven-magnetic-antenna-based-on-multiferroic-composites
#3
Xi-Guang Wang, Alexander Sukhov, Levan L Chotorlishvili, Chenglong Jia, Guang-Hua Guo, Jamal Berakdar
We suggest and demonstrate via large scale numerical simulations an electrically operated spin- wave inducer based on composite multiferroic junctions. Specifcally, we consider an interfacially coupled ferromagnetic/ferroelectric structure that emits controllably spin waves in the ferromagnets if the ferroelectric polarization is poled by an external electric feld. The roles of geometry and material properties are discussed.
December 22, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987889/efficient-biosynthesis-of-levan-from-sucrose-by-a-novel-levansucrase-from-brenneria-goodwinii
#4
Qian Liu, Shuhuai Yu, Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Wanmeng Mu
Levan, a unique homopolysaccharide consisting of fructose residues linked by β-(2, 6) bonds, possess promising physiochemical and physiological properties with numerous potential applications. In this study, a novel levan-producing levansucrase was characterized from Brenneria goodwinii. The polysaccharide produced by the recombinant enzyme from sucrose was structurally determined to be levan-type fructan connected by β-(2, 6) linkages. The optimum pH was measured to be pH 6.0 for both sucrose hydrolysis and transfructosylation...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940337/immobilization-of-levan-xylanase-nanohybrid-on-an-alginate-bead-improves-xylanase-stability-at-wide-ph-and-temperature
#5
Preethi Jampala, M Preethi, Swathy Ramanujam, B S Harish, Kiran Babu Uppuluri, Veerappan Anbazhagan
Despite the sustainable availability, levan, a fructose based natural polysaccharide has not received significant attention in the development of enzyme immobilization technology. Herein, we prepared levan-xylanase (LXy) nanohybrid and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, particle size analyzer and zeta potential. To prevent the enzyme leakage from the nanohybrid, LXy was immobilized onto an alginate beads (NaAlg). Immobilization yield was optimized using a statistical method, central composite design...
February 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906857/obesity-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-recent-knowledge-and-future-directions
#6
Corrine Hanson, Tricia LeVan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has been shown to have a significant impact on lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this review is to discuss the most recent findings regarding the association between obesity, COPD, and COPD-related outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence indicates that obese patients with COPD may compose a unique disease phenotype who are more susceptible than their lean counterparts to environmental exposures...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885938/genomic-analysis-of-bacillus-subtilis-lytic-bacteriophage-%C3%AF-nit1-capable-of-obstructing-natto-fermentation-carrying-genes-for-the-capsule-lytic-soluble-enzymes-poly-%C3%AE-glutamate-hydrolase-and-levanase
#7
Tatsuro Ozaki, Naoki Abe, Keitarou Kimura, Atsuto Suzuki, Jun Kaneko
Bacillus subtilis strains including the fermented soybean (natto) starter produce capsular polymers consisting of poly-γ-glutamate and levan. Capsular polymers may protect the cells from phage infection. However, bacteriophage ϕNIT1 carries a γ-PGA hydrolase gene (pghP) that help it to counteract the host cell's protection strategy. ϕNIT had a linear double stranded DNA genome of 155,631-bp with a terminal redundancy of 5,103-bp, containing a gene encoding an active levan hydrolase. These capsule-lytic enzyme genes were located in the possible foreign gene cluster regions between central core and terminal redundant regions, and were expressed at the late phase of the phage lytic cycle...
January 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845256/prospective-motion-correction-in-functional-mri
#8
Maxim Zaitsev, Burak Akin, Pierre LeVan, Benjamin R Knowles
Due to the intrinsic low sensitivity of BOLD-fMRI long scanning is required. Subject motion during fMRI scans reduces statistical significance of the activation maps and increases the prevalence of false activations. Motion correction is therefore an essential tool for a successful fMRI data analysis. Retrospective motion correction techniques are now commonplace and are incorporated into a wide range of fMRI analysis toolboxes. These techniques are advantageous due to robustness, sequence independence and have minimal impact on the fMRI study setup...
November 11, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779890/positive-negative-birefringence-in-multiferroic-layered-metasurfaces
#9
R Khomeriki, L Chotorlishvili, I Tralle, J Berakdar
We uncover and identify the regime for a magnetically and ferroelectrically controllable negative refraction of a light-traversing multiferroic, oxide-based metastructure consisting of alternating nanoscopic ferroelectric (SrTiO3) and ferromagnetic (Y3Fe2(FeO4)3, YIG) layers. We perform analytical and numerical simulations based on discretized, coupled equations for the self-consistent Maxwell/ferroelectric/ferromagnetic dynamics and obtain a biquadratic relation for the refractive index. Various scenarios of ordinary and negative refraction in different frequency ranges are analyzed and quantified by simple analytical formula that are confirmed by full-fledge numerical simulations...
November 9, 2016: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765635/molecular-analysis-of-hybrid-neurofibroma-schwannoma-identifies-common-monosomy-22-and-%C3%AE-t-catenin-ctnna3-as-a-novel-candidate-tumor-suppressor
#10
Verena Stahn, Inga Nagel, Susan Fischer-Huchzermeyer, Florian Oyen, Reinhard Schneppenheim, Stefan Gesk, Axel Bohring, Levan Chikobava, Peter Young, Burkhard Gess, Mathias Werner, Volker Senner, Anja Harder
Neurofibromas and schwannomas are benign Schwann cell-derived peripheral nerve sheath tumors arising sporadically and within neurofibromatoses. Multiple tumors are a hallmark of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and type 2 (NF2) and schwannomatosis. Neurofibromas in NF1 and schwannomas in NF2 or schwannomatosis are defined by distinctive molecular hits. Among these, multiple hybrid neurofibromas/schwannomas may also appear, not yet being defined by a molecular background. We therefore performed molecular analysis of 22 hybrid neurofibromas/schwannomas using array comparative genomic hybridization, immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR, and functional analyses of cultured Schwann cells...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763619/an-overview-of-laboratory-animal-science-in-the-nation-of-georgia
#11
Brett J Taylor, Karen Mulkijanyan, Levan Chitiashvili, Marika Ramishvili, Kakha Mchedlishvili
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759919/a-synthesis-of-radial-growth-patterns-preceding-tree-mortality
#12
Maxime Cailleret, Steven Jansen, Elisabeth M R Robert, Lucía Desoto, Tuomas Aakala, Joseph A Antos, Barbara Beikircher, Christof Bigler, Harald Bugmann, Marco Caccianiga, Vojtěch Čada, J Julio Camarero, Paolo Cherubini, Hervé Cochard, Marie R Coyea, Katarina Čufar, Adrian J Das, Hendrik Davi, Sylvain Delzon, Michael Dorman, Guillermo Gea-Izquierdo, Sten Gillner, Laurel J Haavik, Henrik Hartmann, Ana-Maria Hereş, Kevin R Hultine, Pavel Janda, Jeffrey M Kane, Vyacheslav I Kharuk, Thomas Kitzberger, Tamir Klein, Koen Kramer, Frederic Lens, Tom Levanic, Juan Carlos Linares Calderon, Francisco Lloret, Raquel Lobo-Do-Vale, Fabio Lombardi, Rosana López Rodríguez, Harri Mäkinen, Stefan Mayr, Ilona Mészáros, Juha M Metsaranta, Francesco Minunno, Walter Oberhuber, Andreas Papadopoulos, Mikko Peltoniemi, Any Mary Petritan, Brigitte Rohner, Gabriel Sangüesa-Barreda, Dimitrios Sarris, Jeremy M Smith, Amanda B Stan, Frank Sterck, Dejan B Stojanović, Maria Laura Suarez, Miroslav Svoboda, Roberto Tognetti, José M Torres-Ruiz, Volodymyr Trotsiuk, Ricardo Villalba, Floor Vodde, Alana R Westwood, Peter H Wyckoff, Nikolay Zafirov, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta
Tree mortality is a key factor influencing forest functions and dynamics, but our understanding of the mechanisms leading to mortality and the associated changes in tree growth rates are still limited. We compiled a new pan-continental tree-ring width database from sites where both dead and living trees were sampled (2,970 dead and 4,224 living trees from 190 sites, including 36 species), and compared early and recent growth rates between trees that died and those that survived a given mortality event. We observed a decrease in radial growth before death in ca...
October 19, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753193/cellulose-production-activated-by-cyclic-di-gmp-through-bcsa-and-bcsz-is-a-virulence-factor-and-an-essential-determinant-of-the-three-dimensional-architectures-of-biofilms-formed-by-erwinia-amylovora-ea1189
#13
Luisa F Castiblanco, George W Sundin
Bacterial biofilms are multicellular aggregates encased in an extracellular matrix mainly composed of exopolysaccharides (EPSs), protein and nucleic acids, which determines the architecture of the biofilm. Erwinia amylovora Ea1189 forms a biofilm inside the xylem of its host, which results in vessel plugging and water transport impairment. The production of the EPSs amylovoran and levan is critical for the formation of a mature biofilm. In addition, cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) has been reported to positively regulate amylovoran biosynthesis and biofilm formation in E...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734288/optimization-of-levan-production-by-cold-active-bacillus-licheniformis-ant-179-and-fructooligosaccharide-synthesis-by-its-levansucrase
#14
Janifer Raj Xavier, Karna Venkata Ramana
Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and levan attract much attention due to a wide range of applications in food technology and pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Bacillus licheniformis ANT 179, isolated from Antarctica soil, produced levansucrase and levan in a medium containing sucrose as carbon substrate. In this study, characterization of levansucrase and production of short-chain FOS and levan were investigated. Temperature and pH optimum of the enzyme were found to be 60 °C and pH 6.0, respectively. The optimization of fermentation conditions for levan production using sugarcane juice by response surface methodology (RSM) was carried out...
October 12, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716345/dissection-of-exopolysaccharide-biosynthesis-in-kozakia-baliensis
#15
Julia U Brandt, Frank Jakob, Jürgen Behr, Andreas J Geissler, Rudi F Vogel
BACKGROUND: Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are well known producers of commercially used exopolysaccharides, such as cellulose and levan. Kozakia (K.) baliensis is a relatively new member of AAB, which produces ultra-high molecular weight levan from sucrose. Throughout cultivation of two K. baliensis strains (DSM 14400, NBRC 16680) on sucrose-deficient media, we found that both strains still produce high amounts of mucous, water-soluble substances from mannitol and glycerol as (main) carbon sources...
October 4, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696603/enhanced-subject-specific-resting-state-network-detection-and-extraction-with-fast-fmri
#16
Burak Akin, Hsu-Lei Lee, Jürgen Hennig, Pierre LeVan
Resting-state networks have become an important tool for the study of brain function. An ultra-fast imaging technique that allows to measure brain function, called Magnetic Resonance Encephalography (MREG), achieves an order of magnitude higher temporal resolution than standard echo-planar imaging (EPI). This new sequence helps to correct physiological artifacts and improves the sensitivity of the fMRI analysis. In this study, EPI is compared with MREG in terms of capability to extract resting-state networks...
October 3, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682901/investigating-uranium-concentrations-in-groundwaters-in-the-state-of-idaho-using-kinetic-phosphorescence-analysis-and-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry
#17
Levan Tkavadze, Roy E Dunker, Richard R Brey, John Dudgeon
The determination of uranium concentrations in natural water samples is of great interest due to the environmental consequences of this radionuclide. In this study, 380 groundwater samples from various locations within the state of Idaho were analyzed using two different techniques. The first method was Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA), which gives the total uranium concentrations in water samples. The second analysis method was inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP- MS). This method determines the total uranium concentration as well as the separate isotope concentrations of uranium...
November 2016: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670726/structural-analysis-of-macromolecular-levan-produced-by-bacillus-megaterium-gjt321-based-on-enzymatic-method
#18
Xiaomeng Yu, Liyan Li, Jingliang Zhang, Zhaopeng Shen, Changliang Zhu, Peng Wang, Xiaolu Jiang
Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) produced by Bacillus megaterium GJT321 was isolated from fermentation broth and further purified by gel filtration chromatography. The molecular weight of EPS was estimated as 1946kDa by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), so this EPS was determined as macromolecular polysaccharide. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) showed that the kind of heterocyclic compound composing EPS was furanose. The structural characteristics of EPS were investigated by means of enzymatic method, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and NMR spectra analysis...
December 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670679/tuberculous-spondylitis-diagnosed-through-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-urine-a-case-report
#19
George Sikalengo, Adria Ramirez, Diana Faini, Kim Mwamelo, Manuel Battegay, Levan Jugheli, Christoph Hatz, Klaus Reither, Emilio Letang
BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of EPTB is challenging in resource-limited settings due to difficulties in obtaining samples, as well as the paucibacillarity of the specimens. Skeletal tuberculosis accounts for 10-35 % of EPTB cases, with vertebral osteomyelitis (Pott's disease) representing 50 % of the cases. We present two cases of suspected Pott's disease, diagnosed through GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay in urine at a rural Tanzanian hospital...
September 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664099/the-bacteriophage-derived-transcriptional-regulator-lscr-activates-the-expression-of-levansucrase-genes-in-pseudomonas-syringae
#20
Khaled Abdallah, Katharina Hartman, Daniel Pletzer, Daria Zhurina, Matthias S Ullrich
Synthesis of the exopolysaccharide levan occurs in the bacterial blight pathogen of soybean, Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea PG4180, when this bacterium encounters moderate to high concentrations of sucrose inside its host plant. The process is mediated by the temperature-dependent expression and secretion of two levansucrases, LscB and LscC. Previous studies showed the importance of a prophage-associated promoter element in driving the expression of levansucrase genes. Herein, heterologous screening for transcriptional activators revealed that the prophage-borne transcriptional regulator, LscR, from P...
December 2016: Molecular Microbiology
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