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Ultra trail running

Catherine A Hambleton, Jake A Deckert, Philip M Gallagher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Maristella Gussoni, Sarah Moretti, Lorenza Pratali, Guido Giardini, Philippe Tacchini, Cinzia Dellanoce, Alessandro Tonacci, Francesca Mastorci, Andrea Borghini, Michela Montorsi, Alessandra Vezzoli
PURPOSE: Aiming to gain a detailed insight into the physiological mechanisms involved under extreme conditions, a group of experienced ultra-marathon runners, performing the mountain Tor des Géants® ultra-marathon: 330 km trail-run in Valle d'Aosta, 24000 m of positive and negative elevation changes, was monitored. ROS production rate, antioxidant capacity, oxidative damage and inflammation markers were assessed, adopting micro-invasive analytic techniques. METHODS: Forty-six male athletes (45...
2015: PloS One
Rémy Hurdiel, Thierry Pezé, Johanna Daugherty, Julien Girard, Mathias Poussel, Laurence Poletti, Patrick Basset, Denis Theunynck
This study investigated the effects of combined sleep deprivation and strenuous exercise on cognitive and neurobehavioral performance among long-distance runners completing one of the most difficult ultramarathons in the world. Seventeen runners participated. Each had a wrist-worn actigraph throughout the race to record their sleep time. In addition, each individual's performance in 10-min response-time tests before and after the race was recorded and a questionnaire enabled participants to report any difficulties they experienced during the competition...
2015: Journal of Sports Sciences
John Temesi, Pierrick J Arnal, Thomas Rupp, Léonard Féasson, Régine Cartier, Laurent Gergelé, Samuel Verges, Vincent Martin, Guillaume Y Millet
PURPOSE: Despite interest in the possibility of females outperforming males in ultraendurance sporting events, little is known about the sex differences in fatigue during prolonged locomotor exercise. This study investigated possible sex differences in central and peripheral fatigue in the knee extensors and plantar flexors resulting from a 110-km ultra-trail-running race. METHODS: Neuromuscular function of the knee extensors and plantar flexors was evaluated via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electrical nerve stimulation before and after an ultra-trail-running race in 20 experienced ultraendurance trail runners (10 females and 10 males matched by percent of the winning time by sex) during maximal and submaximal voluntary contractions and in relaxed muscle...
July 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Thomas U Wüthrich, Julia Marty, Hugo Kerherve, Guillaume Y Millet, Samuel Verges, Christina M Spengler
PURPOSE: Ultramarathon running offers a unique possibility to investigate the mechanisms contributing to the limitation of endurance performance. Investigations of locomotor muscle fatigue show that central fatigue is a major contributor to the loss of strength in the lower limbs after an ultramarathon. In addition, respiratory muscle fatigue is known to limit exercise performance, but only limited data are available on changes in respiratory muscle function after ultramarathon running and it is not known whether the observed impairment is caused by peripheral and/or central fatigue...
March 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Francis Degache, Jérôme Van Zaen, Lukas Oehen, Kenny Guex, Pietro Trabucchi, Grégoire Millet, Gégoire Millet
We investigated postural control (PC) effects of a mountain ultra-marathon (MUM): a 330-km trail run with 24000 m of positive and negative change in elevation. PC was assessed prior to (PRE), during (MID) and after (POST) the MUM in experienced ultra-marathon runners (n = 18; finish time = 126 ± 16 h) and in a control group (n = 8) with a similar level of sleep deprivation. Subjects were instructed to stand upright on a posturographic platform over a period of 51.2 seconds using a double-leg stance under two test conditions: eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC)...
2014: PloS One
Brian R Kupchak, Brittanie M Volk, Laura J Kunces, William J Kraemer, Martin D Hoffman, Stephen D Phinney, Jeff S Volek
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine coagulatory and fibrinolytic responses to the Western States Endurance Run (WSER, June 23 to 24, 2012). The WSER is a 161-km (100 mile) trail foot race through the Sierra Nevada Mountains that involves 6,030 m of climb and 7,001 m of descent. METHODS: We examined 12 men and 4 women [mean (95 % CI), age 44.6 years (38.7-50.6)] who completed the race (24.64 h; range 16.89-29.46). Blood samples were collected the morning before the race, immediately post-race, and 1 (D1) and 2 (D2) days post-race (corresponding to 51-54 h and 75-78 h from the start of the race, respectively)...
November 2013: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Jonas Saugy, Nicolas Place, Guillaume Y Millet, Francis Degache, Federico Schena, Grégoire P Millet
We investigated the physiological consequences of the most challenging mountain ultra-marathon (MUM) in the world: a 330-km trail run with 24000 m of positive and negative elevation change. Neuromuscular fatigue (NMF) was assessed before (Pre-), during (Mid-) and after (Post-) the MUM in experienced ultra-marathon runners (n = 15; finish time  = 122.43 hours ±17.21 hours) and in Pre- and Post- in a control group with a similar level of sleep deprivation (n = 8). Blood markers of muscle inflammation and damage were analyzed at Pre- and Post-...
2013: PloS One
Romuald Lepers, Beat Knechtle, Paul J Stapley
The influences of sex and age upon endurance performance have previously been documented for both running and swimming. A number of recent studies have investigated how sex and age influence triathlon performance, a sport that combines three disciplines (swimming, cycling and running), with competitions commonly lasting between 2 (short distance: 1.5-km swim, 40-km cycle and 10-km run) and 8 h (Ironman distance: 3.8-km swim,180-km cycle and 42-km run) for elite triathletes. Age and sex influences upon performance have also been investigated for ultra-triathlons, with distances corresponding to several Ironman distances and lasting several days, and for off-road triathlons combining swimming, mountain biking and trail running...
September 2013: Sports Medicine
Francis Degache, Kenny Guex, François Fourchet, Jean Benoit Morin, Grégoire P Millet, Katja Tomazin, Guillaume Y Millet
The aim of this study was to investigate changes in running mechanics and spring-mass behaviour with fatigue induced by 5-hour hilly running (5HHR). Running mechanics were measured pre- and post-5HHR at 10, 12 and 14 km · h(-1) on an instrumented treadmill in eight ultramarathon runners, and sampled at 1000 Hz for 10 consecutive steps. Contact (t(c) ) and aerial (t(a) ) times were determined from ground reaction force (GRF) signals and used to compute step frequency (f). Maximal GRF, loading rate, downward displacement of the centre of mass (Δz), and leg length change (ΔL) during the support phase were determined and used to compute both vertical (K(vert) ) and leg (K(leg) ) stiffness...
2013: Journal of Sports Sciences
J F Burr, S S D Bredin, A Phillips, H Foulds, A Cote, S Charlesworth, A C Ivey, T C Drury, R Fougere, D E R Warburton
There is a growing interest in training for and competing in race distances that exceed the marathon; however, little is known regarding the vascular effects of participation in such prolonged events, which last multiple consecutive hours. There exists some evidence that cardiovascular function may be impaired following extreme prolonged exercise, but at present, only cardiac function has been specifically examined following exposure to this nature of exercise. The primary purpose of this study was to characterize the acute effects of participation in an ultra-marathon on resting systemic arterial compliance...
March 2012: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Bernd Volker Scheer, Andrew Murray
OBJECTIVE: To record the injuries and health problems suffered by ultramarathon runners during a 219-km, 5-day stage race and to help race organizers plan medical provision for these events. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Al Andalus Ultra Trail 2010, in southern Spain. PARTICIPANTS: All 69 ultramarathon runners. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total numbers and percentages of each clinical encounter with a health professional and their respective health problems...
September 2011: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
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