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Nature review immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923596/-review-of-the-novelties-from-the-2017-ectrims-congress-presented-at-the-10th-post-ectrims-meeting-i
#1
REVIEW
O Fernandez, M Tintore, A Saiz, M C Calles-Hernandez, M Comabella, Ll Ramio-Torrenta, A Oterino, G Izquierdo, N Tellez, J A Garcia-Merino, Ll Brieva, C Arnal-Garcia, Y Aladro, M M Mendibe-Bilbao, J E Meca-Lallana, L Romero-Pinel, R Ginestal, M L Martinez-Gines, R Arroyo, A Rodriguez-Antiguedad
The Post-ECTRIMS Meeting is an emblematic event in the field of multiple sclerosis in Spain. Its chief aim is bring together the country's leading specialist neurologists to analyse the main advances made in multiple sclerosis and to review the most important topics addressed at the ECTRIMS Congress. The tenth Post-ECTRIMS Meeting was held in November 2017. Over the years this event has firmly established itself as an important meeting point where experts from all over the country get together to foster communication, establish synergies and promote and enhance research ultimately aimed at improving the prognosis and quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis...
July 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922284/targeting-autophagy-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-new-challenges-and-opportunities-for-regulating-tumor-immunity
#2
REVIEW
Bassam Janji, Guy Berchem, Salem Chouaib
Cancer cells evolve in the tumor microenvironment, which is now well established as an integral part of the tumor and a determinant player in cancer cell adaptation and resistance to anti-cancer therapies. Despite the remarkable and fairly rapid progress over the past two decades regarding our understanding of the role of the tumor microenvironment in cancer development, its precise contribution to cancer resistance is still fragmented. This is mainly related to the complexity of the "tumor ecosystem" and the diversity of the stromal cell types that constitute the tumor microenvironment...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902670/the-widening-spectrum-of-immunological-memory
#3
REVIEW
Colleen M Lau, Joseph C Sun
Immunological memory is broadly understood as the underlying mechanism by which an organism remembers previous encounters with pathogens, aberrant cells, or self-antigens to produce a more rapid or robust secondary response upon re-encounter. This phenomenon is widely accepted as the hallmark feature of the adaptive immune system. However, work within the last decade has continuously challenged this viewpoint and opened up the idea that immunological memory extends beyond just conventional B cells and T cells...
June 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887149/vaccination-strategies
#4
Thomas Wisniewski, Fernando Goñi
Currently all prion diseases are without effective treatment and are universally fatal. It is increasingly being recognized that the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), includes "prion-like" properties. Hence, any effective therapeutic intervention for prion disease could have significant implications for other neurodegenerative diseases. Conversely, therapies that are effective in AD might also be therapeutically beneficial for prion disease. AD-like prion disease has no effective therapy...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879038/congenital-intestinal-atresias-with-multiple-episodes-of-sepsis-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#5
Natalia Mandiá, Alejandro Pérez-Muñuzuri, Olalla López-Suárez, Carolina López-Sanguos, Adolfo Bautista-Casanovas, Mariá-Luz Couce
INTRODUCTION: Hereditary multiple intestinal atresia associated with severe combined immunodeficiency (MIA-SCID) is a very rare disease caused by deleterious mutations in the tetratricopeptide repeat domain-containing protein 7A gene TTC7A. It is characterized by intestinal obstruction, sepsis, and a poor prognosis. Insights into phenotype-genotype correlations could help to guide genetic counseling and increase our knowledge of the natural history of this disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a newborn in which his fetal magnetic resonance imaging showed jejunal atresia and microcolon and an abdominal x-ray at birth confirmed intestinal obstruction...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866181/expected-advances-in-human-fertility-treatments-and-their-likely-translational-consequences
#6
REVIEW
Norbert Gleicher
BACKGROUND: Due to rapid research progress in reproductive biology and reproductive clinical endocrinology, many human infertility treatments are close to potential breakthroughs and translational applications. We here review current barriers, where such breakthroughs will likely come from, what they will entail, and their potential clinical applications. MAIN TEXT: The radical nature of change will primarily benefit older women, reduce fertility treatment costs and thereby expand access to treatment...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848644/melanin-based-coloration-and-host-parasite-interactions-under-global-change
#7
REVIEW
J Côte, A Boniface, S Blanchet, A P Hendry, J Gasparini, L Jacquin
The role of parasites in shaping melanin-based colour polymorphism, and the consequences of colour polymorphism for disease resistance, remain debated. Here we review recent evidence of the links between melanin-based coloration and the behavioural and immunological defences of vertebrates against their parasites. First we propose that (1) differences between colour morphs can result in variable exposure to parasites, either directly (certain colours might be more or less attractive to parasites) or indirectly (variations in behaviour and encounter probability)...
May 30, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848257/immunomodulatory-therapies-for-renal-cell-carcinoma
#8
Min Liu, Huizi Wu, Dangang Shangguan, Yueping Jiang, Xiangping Li, Shao Liu, Boting Zhou, Tao Yin, Zhicheng Gong
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common tumor originating from the kidneys. In comparison to other solid tumors, RCC is poorly sensitive to conventional therapeutic modalities. As such, metastatic RCC (mRCC) continues to be associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Targeted agents have shown remarkable progress in RCC management with improved patients' outcomes, but rarely induce complete response and patients develop resistance to therapy eventually. However, it is well known that RCC represents one of the most immunogenic cancers and is able to evoke immune response naturally, thus prompted the emergence of several immunotherapeutic strategies in the management of RCC with variable degrees of success...
May 30, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784994/designing-natural-and-synthetic-immune-tissues
#9
REVIEW
Emily A Gosselin, Haleigh B Eppler, Jonathan S Bromberg, Christopher M Jewell
Vaccines and immunotherapies have provided enormous improvements for public health, but there are fundamental disconnects between where most studies are performed-in cell culture and animal models-and the ultimate application in humans. Engineering immune tissues and organs, such as bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes and spleen, could be instrumental in overcoming these hurdles. Fundamentally, designed immune tissues could serve as in vitro tools to more accurately study human immune function and disease, while immune tissues engineered for implantation as next-generation vaccines or immunotherapies could enable direct, on-demand control over generation and regulation of immune function...
May 21, 2018: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778490/the-molecular-allergology-of-subtropical-grass-pollen
#10
Thina Kailaivasan, Janet M Davies
Grass pollens are amongst the most important aeroallergen sources world-wide triggering allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma in sensitised patients. Much of what we know about the allergen components of grasses is informed by research on pollen of temperate (Pooideae) species that are abundant in the temperate climate zones. However, climate changes are altering the biogeographical distribution as well as timing and allergenicity of grass pollens. This provides an impetus for better understanding of the contribution of subtropical subfamilies of grasses to pollen allergy globally...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775468/conflicts-of-interest-of-editors-of-medical-journals
#11
Waqas Haque, Abu Minhajuddin, Arjun Gupta, Deepak Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Almost all medical journals now require authors to publicly disclose conflicts of interests (COI). The same standard and scrutiny is rarely employed for the editors of the journals although COI may affect editorial decisions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study to determine the prevalence and magnitude of financial relationships among editors of 60 influential US medical journals (10 each for internal medicine and five subspecialties: cardiology, gastroenterology, neurology, dermatology and allergy & immunology)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747820/gangliosides-and-autoimmune-peripheral-nerve-diseases
#12
John A Goodfellow, Hugh J Willison
A wide range of neuroimmunological diseases, referred to as autoimmune neuropathies, affect the peripheral nervous systems (PNS). The PNS is structurally diverse with complex anatomical compartments enriched in many different myelin and neuronal glycolipids, notably gangliosides. Autoimmune neuropathies are a proportion of autoimmune neuropathies mediated by autoimmune attack due to antibodies reactive with these compartmentally localized gangliosides. Antiganglioside antibodies are principally associated with the acute paralytic disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and are also found in several chronic autoimmune neuropathy syndromes...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729581/immune-prophets-of-lung-cancer-the-prognostic-and-predictive-landscape-of-cellular-and-molecular-immune-markers
#13
REVIEW
Ivana Catacchio, Anna Scattone, Nicola Silvestris, Anita Mangia
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths throughout the world. The majority of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic disease when surgery, the best curative option, is no longer feasible. Thus, the prognosis of lung cancer remains poor and heterogeneous and new biomarkers are needed. As the immune system plays a pivotal role in cancer, the study of tumor microenvironment, with regard to the immune component, may provide valuable information for a better comprehension of the pathogenesis and progression of the disease...
May 2, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692778/new-players-in-immunity-to-tuberculosis-the-host-microbiome-lung-epithelium-and-innate-immune-cells
#14
REVIEW
Nancy Gupta, Rakesh Kumar, Babita Agrawal
Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly contagious infection and devastating chronic disease, causing 10.4 million new infections and 1.8 million deaths every year globally. Efforts to control and eradicate TB are hampered by the rapid emergence of drug resistance and limited efficacy of the only available vaccine, BCG. Immunological events in the airways and lungs are of major importance in determining whether exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) results in successful infection or protective immunity. Several studies have demonstrated that the host microbiota is in constant contact with the immune system, and thus continually directs the nature of immune responses occurring during new infections...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692668/immune-modulation-of-i-v-immunoglobulin-in-women-with-reproductive-failure
#15
REVIEW
Ae R Han, Sung K Lee
Background: The mechanism of maternal immune tolerance of the semi-allogenic fetus has been explored extensively. The immune reaction to defend from invasion by pathogenic microorganisms should be maintained during pregnancy. An imbalance between the immune tolerance to the fetus and immune activation to the pathogenic organisms is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. This emphasizes that the immune mechanism of successful reproduction is not just immune suppression, but adequate immune modulation...
April 2018: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685950/contribution-of-the-immune-response-to-phage-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Oleg Krut, Isabelle Bekeredjian-Ding
Therapeutic phages are being employed for vaccination and treatment of cancer and bacterial infections. Their natural immunogenicity triggers intertwined interactions with innate and adaptive immune cells that might influence therapy. Phage- and bactierial-derived pathogen-associated molecular patterns released after bacterial lysis have been proposed to stimulate local innate immune responses, which could promote antitumor immunity or bacterial clearance. Conversely, immunogenicity of phages induces phage-specific humoral memory, which can hamper therapeutic success...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680589/peanut-allergens
#17
Chiara Palladino, Heimo Breiteneder
Peanut allergens have the potential to negatively impact on the health and quality of life of millions of consumers worldwide. The seeds of the peanut plant Arachis hypogaea contain an array of allergens that are able to induce the production of specific IgE antibodies in predisposed individuals. A lot of effort has been focused on obtaining the sequences and structures of these allergens due to the high health risk they represent. At present, 16 proteins present in peanuts are officially recognized as allergens...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675022/immunoporosis-immunology-of-osteoporosis-role-of-t-cells
#18
REVIEW
Rupesh K Srivastava, Hamid Y Dar, Pradyumna K Mishra
The role of immune system in various bone pathologies, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis is now well established. This had led to the emergence of a modern field of systems biology called as osteoimmunology, an integrated research between fields of immunology and bone biology under one umbrella. Osteoporosis is one of the most common inflammatory bone loss condition with more than 200 million individuals affected worldwide. T helper (Th) cells along with various other immune cells are major players involved in bone homeostasis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664570/what-if-protective-immunity-is-antigen-driven-and-not-due-to-so-called-memory-b-and-t-cells
#19
REVIEW
Rolf M Zinkernagel
Vaccines or early childhood exposure to infection mediate immunity, that is, improved resistance against disease and death caused by a second infection with the same agent. This has been explained by and equaled to immunological memory, that is, an "altered immune system behavior" that is maintained in a presumably antigen-independent fashion. This review summarizes epidemiological and experimental data, that largely falsify this idea and that show that periodic re-exposure to antigen either, artificially as vaccines or naturally as low-level persisting antigens or infections, or immune complexes on follicular dendritic cells or endemic re-exposure is necessary for protection...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623581/clinical-presentation-of-cashew-nut-allergy-in-a-paediatric-cohort-attending-an-allergy-clinic-in-the-west-of-ireland
#20
Miranda Crealey, Salma Alamin, Vincent Tormey, Edina Moylett
BACKGROUND: Cashew nut (CN) allergy appears to be increasing. Reactions are variable and may include anaphylaxis. AIM: To describe the clinical features of CN allergy in a group of children attending an allergy clinic with suspected peanut allergy and confirmed sensitisation to CN. METHODS: Patients were identified retrospectively by reviewing the Immunology Database at University Hospital Galway over a 5-year period, Oct. 2010 to Sept. 2015...
April 5, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
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