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Nature review immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454785/lymphoid-tissue-inducer-a-divergent-member-of-the-ilc-family
#1
REVIEW
Chao Zhong, Mingzhu Zheng, Jinfang Zhu
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that are capable of producing effector cytokines reminiscent of CD4+ T helper (Th) cells during infections and tissue inflammations have drawn much attention in the immunology field in recent years. Within the ILCs, the lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells that play a critical role in lymphoid organogenesis were identified long before the establishment of the ILC concept. LTi cells, developed and functioning mainly at the fetal stage, and LTi-like cells, presumably generated during the adulthood, are regarded as a subset of type 3 ILCs (ILC3s) because they express the ILC3 lineage-defining transcription factor RORγt, and like other ILC3s, can produce an ILC3 signature cytokine IL-22 and initiate protective immune responses against extracellular bacteria...
February 13, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439476/virus-like-vaccines-against-hiv
#2
REVIEW
Anne-Marie C Andersson, Melanie Schwerdtfeger, Peter J Holst
Protection against chronic infections has necessitated the development of ever-more potent vaccination tools. HIV seems to be the most challenging foe, with a remarkable, poorly immunogenic and fragile surface glycoprotein and the ability to overpower the cell immune system. Virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccines have emerged as potent inducers of antibody and helper T cell responses, while replication-deficient viral vectors have yielded potent cytotoxic T cell responses. Here, we review the emerging concept of merging these two technologies into virus-like-vaccines (VLVs) for the targeting of HIV...
February 11, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436184/systems-biology-based-platforms-to-accelerate-research-of-emerging-infectious-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Soo Jin Oh, Young Ki Choi, Ok Sarah Shin
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose a major threat to public health and security. Given the dynamic nature and significant impact of EIDs, the most effective way to prevent and protect against them is to develop vaccines in advance. Systems biology approaches provide an integrative way to understand the complex immune response to pathogens. They can lead to a greater understanding of EID pathogenesis and facilitate the evaluation of newly developed vaccine-induced immunity in a timely manner. In recent years, advances in high throughput technologies have enabled researchers to successfully apply systems biology methods to analyze immune responses to a variety of pathogens and vaccines...
March 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414871/mudskippers-and-their-genetic-adaptations-to-an-amphibious-lifestyle
#4
REVIEW
Xinxin You, Min Sun, Jia Li, Chao Bian, Jieming Chen, Yunhai Yi, Hui Yu, Qiong Shi
Mudskippers are the largest group of amphibious teleost fish that are uniquely adapted to live on mudflats. During their successful transition from aqueous life to terrestrial living, these fish have evolved morphological and physiological modifications of aerial vision and olfaction, higher ammonia tolerance, aerial respiration, improved immunological defense against terrestrial pathogens, and terrestrial locomotion using protruded pectoral fins. Comparative genomic and transcriptomic data have been accumulated and analyzed for understanding molecular mechanisms of the terrestrial adaptations...
February 7, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400704/functions-of-nkg2d-in-cd8-t-cells-an-opportunity-for-immunotherapy
#5
REVIEW
Kushal Prajapati, Cynthia Perez, Lourdes Beatriz Plaza Rojas, Brianna Burke, Jose A Guevara-Patino
Natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) is a type II transmembrane receptor. NKG2D is present on NK cells in both mice and humans, whereas it is constitutively expressed on CD8+ T cells in humans but only expressed upon T-cell activation in mice. NKG2D is a promiscuous receptor that recognizes stress-induced surface ligands. In NK cells, NKG2D signaling is sufficient to unleash the killing response; in CD8+ T cells, this requires concurrent activation of the T-cell receptor (TCR). In this case, the function of NKG2D is to authenticate the recognition of a stressed target and enhance TCR signaling...
February 5, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397425/native-tissue-based-strategies-for-meniscus-repair-and-regeneration
#6
REVIEW
Zengzeng Zhang, Weimin Guo, Shuang Gao, Mingxue Chen, Xu Li, Xueliang Zhang, Xiaoguang Jing, Mingjie Wang, Yu Zhang, Shi Shen, Zehao Wang, Baichuan Sun, Ying Chai, Chengfu Zhou, Shuyun Liu, Quanyi Guo
Meniscus injuries appear to be becoming increasingly common and pose a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. However, there is no curative approach for dealing with defects in the inner meniscus region due to its avascular nature. Numerous strategies have been applied to regenerate and repair meniscus defects and native tissue-based strategies have received much attention. Native tissue usually has good biocompatibility, excellent mechanical properties and a suitable microenvironment for cellular growth, adhesion, redifferentiation, extracellular matrix deposition and remodeling...
February 3, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394121/genetics-of-natural-killer-cells-in-human-health-disease-and-survival
#7
Peter Parham, Lisbeth A Guethlein
Natural killer (NK) cells have vital functions in human immunity and reproduction. In the innate and adaptive immune responses to infection, particularly by viruses, NK cells respond by secreting inflammatory cytokines and killing infected cells. In reproduction, NK cells are critical for genesis of the placenta, the organ that controls the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus. Controlling NK cell functions are interactions of HLA class I with inhibitory NK cell receptors. First evolved was the conserved interaction of HLA-E with CD94:NKG2A; later established were diverse interactions of HLA-A, -B, -C with killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors...
February 2, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375121/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-transverse-myelitis-and-infectious-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Yhojan Rodríguez, Manuel Rojas, Yovana Pacheco, Yeny Acosta-Ampudia, Carolina Ramírez-Santana, Diana M Monsalve, M Eric Gershwin, Juan-Manuel Anaya
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and transverse myelitis (TM) both represent immunologically mediated polyneuropathies of major clinical importance. Both are thought to have a genetic predisposition, but as of yet no specific genetic risk loci have been clearly defined. Both are considered autoimmune, but again the etiologies remain enigmatic. Both may be induced via molecular mimicry, particularly from infectious agents and vaccines, but clearly host factor and co-founding host responses will modulate disease susceptibility and natural history...
January 29, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373086/influenza-virus-dealing-with-a-drifting-and-shifting-pathogen
#9
Hyunsuh Kim, Robert G Webster, Richard J Webby
Numerous modern technological and scientific advances have changed the vaccine industry. However, nearly 70 years of influenza vaccine usage have passed without substantial changes in the underlying principles of the vaccine. The challenge of vaccinating against influenza lies in the constantly changing nature of the virus itself. Influenza viruses undergo antigenic evolution through antigenic drift and shift in their surface glycoproteins. This has forced frequent updates of vaccine antigens to ensure that the somewhat narrowly focused vaccine-induced immune responses defend against circulating strains...
January 26, 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371603/functional-and-structural-damage-of-neurons-by-innate-immune-mechanisms-during-neurodegeneration
#10
REVIEW
Christina Ising, Michael T Heneka
Over the past decades, our view on neurodegenerative diseases has been mainly centered around neurons and their networks. Only recently it became evident that immunological processes arise alongside degenerating neurons, raising the question whether these represent just meaningless bystander reactions or in turn, contribute to pathogenesis and disease symptoms. When considering any effect of inflammatory events on the CNS one has to consider the site, duration and nature of immune activation. Likewise, one has to distinguish between mechanisms which directly impact the neuronal compartment and indirect mechanisms, which affect cells that are important for neuronal functioning and survival...
January 25, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357016/new-developments-in-the-diagnosis-therapy-and-monitoring-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#11
REVIEW
Ronak Vashi Patel, Ikuo Hirano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has transformed over the past two decades from a little-known entity to a significant cause of morbidity in the adult and pediatric population. We reviewed the most recent advancements in the diagnosis, therapy, and long-term monitoring of EoE. RECENT FINDINGS: Based on clinical, endoscopic, histologic, immunologic, and genetic similarities, there is growing consensus to move away from distinguishing proton pump inhibitor responsive esophageal eosinophilia as an entity distinct from EoE...
January 22, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355919/origins-of-natural-killer-cell-memory-special-creation-or-adaptive-evolution
#12
REVIEW
Kayla A Holder, Emilie M Comeau, Michael D Grant
The few initial formative studies describing non-specific and apparently spontaneous activity of natural killer (NK) cells have since multiplied into thousands of scientific reports defining their unique capacities and means of regulation. Characterization of the array of receptors that govern NK cell education and activation revealed an unexpected relationship with the major histocompatibility molecules that NK cells originally became well known for ignoring. Proceeding true to form, NK cells continue to upend archetypal understanding of their ever expanding capabilities...
January 21, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353100/vitamin-d-and-juvenile-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-lights-shadows-and-still-unresolved-issues
#13
REVIEW
Stefano Stagi, Donato Rigante
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and juvenile SLE (jSLE) are autoimmune disorders naturally associated with several genetic, environmental, hormonal, and immunological contributing factors. It has been assumed that vitamin D deficiency may have a role in the immune activation of patients with SLE and play an active part in many comorbidities and even complications. A host of clinical studies suggested that vitamin D exerts inhibitory effects on many immunological abnormalities associated with SLE, also in children and adolescents, while different reports have hypothesized that vitamin D may be associated with accelerated cardiovascular disease in SLE...
January 15, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329080/intrauterine-inflammatory-activation-functional-progesterone-withdrawal-and-the-timing-of-term-and-preterm-birth
#14
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Keelan
The central role of inflammatory processes in labour and delivery is now well-recognised. However, the biomolecular, immunological and endocrine mechanisms involved in the labour process, and the clinical manifestations of inflammation in pregnancy, are complex, variable and modulated by factors such as aetiology, ethnicity and gestational age. In this review, evidence is presented of the pivotal relationship between progesterone and inflammation in pregnancy in terms of determining the timing of labour and delivery...
February 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327186/environmental-pollutants-pathogens-and-immune-system-in-earthworms
#15
Shyamasree Ghosh
Earthworms also known as farmer's friends are natural tillers of soil. They belong to Phylum Annelida and class Oligochaeta. Acid soils with organic matter and surface humus maintain the largest fauna of worms and earthworms. Due to their habitat in soil, they are constantly exposed to microbes and pollution generated by anthropogenic sources. Studies have revealed that damage of the immune system of earthworms can lead to alterations of both morphological and cellular characteristics of worms, activation of signalling pathways and can strongly influence their survival...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325038/the-crispr-cas-system-in-enterobacteriaceae
#16
Liliana Medina-Aparicio, Sonia Dávila, Javier E Rebollar-Flores, Edmundo Calva, Ismael Hernández-Lucas
In nature, microorganisms are constantly exposed to multiple viral infections and thus have developed many strategies to survive phage attack and invasion by foreign DNA. One of such strategies is the CRISPR-Cas bacterial immunological system. This defense mechanism is widespread in prokaryotes including several families such as Enterobacteriaceae. Much knowledge about the CRISPR-Cas system has been generated, including its biological functions, transcriptional regulation, distribution, utility as a molecular marker, and as a tool for specific genome editing...
January 9, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319049/mechanisms-of-resistance-to-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#17
REVIEW
Russell W Jenkins, David A Barbie, Keith T Flaherty
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) targeting CTLA-4 and the PD-1/PD-L1 axis have shown unprecedented clinical activity in several types of cancer and are rapidly transforming the practice of medical oncology. Whereas cytotoxic chemotherapy and small molecule inhibitors ('targeted therapies') largely act on cancer cells directly, immune checkpoint inhibitors reinvigorate anti-tumour immune responses by disrupting co-inhibitory T-cell signalling. While resistance routinely develops in patients treated with conventional cancer therapies and targeted therapies, durable responses suggestive of long-lasting immunologic memory are commonly seen in large subsets of patients treated with ICI...
January 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300166/a-systematic-review-of-zika-virus-hurdles-toward-vaccine-development-and-the-way-forward
#18
Azizul Haque, Faruk Berat Akçeşme, Anudeep B Pant
The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has recently emerged as public health threat due to its teratogenic nature and association with the serious neurological condition Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). To date, no approved antiviral therapeutics or vaccines are available to confront ZIKV. In order to develop effective anti-ZIKV vaccines, improved animal models and a better understanding of immunological correlates of protection against ZIKV are required. In this paper, we discuss the recent progress in developing vaccines against ZIKV and the hurdles to overcome in making efficacious anti-Zika vaccines...
January 4, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296724/the-incidence-and-natural-history-of-dasatinib-complications-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#19
Lucy C Fox, Katherine D Cummins, Ben Costello, David Yeung, Rebecca Cleary, Cecily Forsyth, Maciek Tatarczuch, Kate Burbury, Olga Motorna, Jake Shortt, Shaun Fleming, Andrew McQuillan, Anthony Schwarer, Rosemary Harrup, Amy Holmes, Sumita Ratnasingam, Kah-Lok Chan, Wei-Hsun Hsu, Asma Ashraf, Faye Putt, Andrew Grigg
Dasatinib has shown superiority over imatinib in achieving molecular responses (MRs) in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia but with a different toxicity profile, which may impact its overall benefit. Reported toxicities include pleural effusions and pulmonary hypertension, and although the incidence of these events is well described, response to therapy and impact of dose modifications on toxicity has not been comprehensively characterized in a real-world setting. We retrospectively reviewed the incidence of dasatinib adverse events in 212 chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients at 17 Australian institutions...
May 23, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258786/genetic-and-immune-determinants-of-immune-activation-in-hiv-exposed-seronegative-individuals-and-their-role-in-protection-against-hiv-infection
#20
Claudio Fenizia, Jean-François Rossignol, Mario Clerici, Mara Biasin
Soon thereafter infection is established, hosts strive for an efficient eradication of microorganisms, with as limited tissue damage as possible, and durable immunological protection against re-infection. On the other hand, pathogens have developed countermeasures to escape host surveillance and to warrant diffusion to other hosts. In this molecular arms race the final results relies on multiple variables, including the genetic and immunologic e correlates of protection available for the host. In the field of HIV-infection, natural protection has been repeatedly associated to the presence of an immune activation state, at least in some cohorts of HESN (HIV-exposed seronegative)...
December 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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