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Nature review immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685950/contribution-of-the-immune-response-to-phage-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Oleg Krut, Isabelle Bekeredjian-Ding
Therapeutic phages are being employed for vaccination and treatment of cancer and bacterial infections. Their natural immunogenicity triggers intertwined interactions with innate and adaptive immune cells that might influence therapy. Phage- and bactierial-derived pathogen-associated molecular patterns released after bacterial lysis have been proposed to stimulate local innate immune responses, which could promote antitumor immunity or bacterial clearance. Conversely, immunogenicity of phages induces phage-specific humoral memory, which can hamper therapeutic success...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680589/peanut-allergens
#2
Chiara Palladino, Heimo Breiteneder
Peanut allergens have the potential to negatively impact on the health and quality of life of millions of consumers worldwide. The seeds of the peanut plant Arachis hypogaea contain an array of allergens that are able to induce the production of specific IgE antibodies in predisposed individuals. A lot of effort has been focused on obtaining the sequences and structures of these allergens due to the high health risk they represent. At present, 16 proteins present in peanuts are officially recognized as allergens...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675022/immunoporosis-immunology-of-osteoporosis-role-of-t-cells
#3
REVIEW
Rupesh K Srivastava, Hamid Y Dar, Pradyumna K Mishra
The role of immune system in various bone pathologies, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis is now well established. This had led to the emergence of a modern field of systems biology called as osteoimmunology, an integrated research between fields of immunology and bone biology under one umbrella. Osteoporosis is one of the most common inflammatory bone loss condition with more than 200 million individuals affected worldwide. T helper (Th) cells along with various other immune cells are major players involved in bone homeostasis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664570/what-if-protective-immunity-is-antigen-driven-and-not-due-to-so-called-memory-b-and-t-cells
#4
REVIEW
Rolf M Zinkernagel
Vaccines or early childhood exposure to infection mediate immunity, that is, improved resistance against disease and death caused by a second infection with the same agent. This has been explained by and equaled to immunological memory, that is, an "altered immune system behavior" that is maintained in a presumably antigen-independent fashion. This review summarizes epidemiological and experimental data, that largely falsify this idea and that show that periodic re-exposure to antigen either, artificially as vaccines or naturally as low-level persisting antigens or infections, or immune complexes on follicular dendritic cells or endemic re-exposure is necessary for protection...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623581/clinical-presentation-of-cashew-nut-allergy-in-a-paediatric-cohort-attending-an-allergy-clinic-in-the-west-of-ireland
#5
Miranda Crealey, Salma Alamin, Vincent Tormey, Edina Moylett
BACKGROUND: Cashew nut (CN) allergy appears to be increasing. Reactions are variable and may include anaphylaxis. AIM: To describe the clinical features of CN allergy in a group of children attending an allergy clinic with suspected peanut allergy and confirmed sensitisation to CN. METHODS: Patients were identified retrospectively by reviewing the Immunology Database at University Hospital Galway over a 5-year period, Oct. 2010 to Sept. 2015...
April 5, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620631/pediatric-hyperimmunoglobulin-e-syndrome-a-case-series-of-4-children-in-china
#6
Huifeng Fan, Li Huang, Diyuan Yang, Yunting Lin, Gen Lu, Yaping Xie, Jialu Yu, Dongwei Zhang
Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndromes (HIES) are rare primary immunodeficiency diseases characterized by markedly elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E, recurrent pneumonia, and chronic eczema. To date, information about pediatric HIES is limited. We aimed to evaluate the spectrum of clinical and immunological features in pediatric patients with HIES in China.We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 4 pediatric patients with HIES followed at the Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center from May 2013 to September 2017...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611114/of-genes-and-microbes-solving-the-intricacies-in-host-genomes
#7
REVIEW
Jun Wang, Liang Chen, Na Zhao, Xizhan Xu, Yakun Xu, Baoli Zhu
Microbiome research is a quickly developing field in biomedical research, and we have witnessed its potential in understanding the physiology, metabolism and immunology, its critical role in understanding the health and disease of the host, and its vast capacity in disease prediction, intervention and treatment. However, many of the fundamental questions still need to be addressed, including the shaping forces of microbial diversity between individuals and across time. Microbiome research falls into the classical nature vs...
April 2, 2018: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593721/vitamin-d-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-influence-on-immunity-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
María Ángeles Jiménez-Sousa, Isidoro Martínez, Luz María Medrano, Amanda Fernández-Rodríguez, Salvador Resino
People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection typically have hypovitaminosis D, which is linked to a large number of pathologies, including immune disorders and infectious diseases. Vitamin D (VitD) is a key regulator of host defense against infections by activating genes and pathways that enhance innate and adaptive immunity. VitD mediates its biological effects by binding to the Vitamin D receptor (VDR), and activating and regulating multiple cellular pathways. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes from those pathways have been associated with protection from HIV-1 infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589966/vaccine-candidates-against-leishmania-under-current-research
#9
Salvador Iborra, José Carlos Solana, José María Requena, Manuel Soto
The search for vaccines to prevent human leishmaniasis is an active field of investigation aimed to prevent the devastating effects of this family of diseases on human health. The design and commercialization of several vaccines against canine leishmaniasis is a hopeful advance toward the achievement of a human vaccine. Areas covered: This review includes a summary of the most relevant immunological aspects accompanying leishmaniasis in natural hosts as well as a description of the latest advances in the multiple strategies that are being followed to develop leishmanial prophylactic vaccines...
March 28, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576631/active-immunisation-with-partner-lymphocytes-in-female-patients-who-want-to-become-pregnant-current-status
#10
Veronika Günther, Ibrahim Alkatout, Wiebe Junkers, Nicolai Maass, Malte Ziemann, Siegfried Görg, Sören von Otte
Around 1 - 3% of all couples who try to have a child are affected by recurrent miscarriage. According to the WHO, recurrent miscarriage is defined as the occurrence of three or more consecutive miscarriages up to the 20th week of pregnancy. There are various causes of recurrent miscarriage; in many cases, the causes remain unclear, with the result that immunological factors are one of the possible causes discussed. For the mother's immune system, the embryo represents a semi-allogeneic transplant, as half of the embryo's genes are of paternal origin...
March 2018: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556897/plant-derived-polysaccharides-activate-dendritic-cell-based-anti-cancer-immunity
#11
REVIEW
Siambi Kikete, Li Luo, Beitian Jia, Li Wang, Gregory Ondieki, Yuhong Bian
Today, cancers pose a major public health burden. Although a myriad of cancer treatments are available, only a few have achieved clinical efficacy. This is partly attributed to cancers capability to evade host immunity by converting dendritic cells (DCs) from potent stimulators to negative modulators of immunity. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy attempts to resolve this problem by manipulating the functional characteristics of DCs. Plant-derived polysaccharides (PDPs) can stimulate the maturation of DCs conferring on them the capacity to present internalised tumorigenic antigens to naïve T cells and subsequently priming T cells to eliminate tumours...
March 19, 2018: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545806/purinergic-regulation-of-neutrophil-function
#12
REVIEW
Xu Wang, Deyu Chen
Purinergic signaling, which utilizes nucleotides (particularly ATP) and adenosine as transmitter molecules, plays an essential role in immune system. In the extracellular compartment, ATP predominantly functions as a pro-inflammatory molecule through activation of P2 receptors, whereas adenosine mostly functions as an anti-inflammatory molecule through activation of P1 receptors. Neutrophils are the most abundant immune cells in circulation and have emerged as an important component in orchestrating a complex series of events during inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545802/potential-beneficial-effects-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-after-transplantation
#13
REVIEW
Nicolle H R Litjens, Lotte van der Wagen, Jurgen Kuball, Jaap Kwekkeboom
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can cause significant complications after transplantation, but recent emerging data suggest that CMV may paradoxically also exert beneficial effects in two specific allogeneic transplant settings. These potential benefits have been underappreciated and are therefore highlighted in this review. First, after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using T-cell and natural killer (NK) cell-replete grafts, CMV reactivation is associated with protection from leukemic relapse...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535770/placenta-and-placental-derivatives-in-regenerative-therapies-experimental-studies-history-and-prospects
#14
REVIEW
Olena Pogozhykh, Volodymyr Prokopyuk, Constança Figueiredo, Denys Pogozhykh
Placental structures, capable to persist in a genetically foreign organism, are a natural model of allogeneic engraftment carrying a number of distinctive properties. In this review, the main features of the placenta and its derivatives such as structure, cellular composition, immunological and endocrine aspects, and the ability to invasion and deportation are discussed. These features are considered from a perspective that determines the placental material as a unique source for regenerative cell therapies and a lesson for immunological tolerance...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534011/immunology-guides-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#15
REVIEW
F Andrea Sass, Michael Fuchs, Matthias Pumberger, Sven Geissler, Georg N Duda, Carsten Perka, Katharina Schmidt-Bleek
Soft tissue trauma of skeletal muscle is one of the most common side effects in surgery. Muscle injuries are not only caused by accident-related injuries but can also be of an iatrogenic nature as they occur during surgical interventions when the anatomical region of interest is exposed. If the extent of trauma surpasses the intrinsic regenerative capacities, signs of fatty degeneration and formation of fibrotic scar tissue can occur, and, consequentially, muscle function deteriorates or is diminished. Despite research efforts to investigate the physiological healing cascade following trauma, our understanding of the early onset of healing and how it potentially determines success or failure is still only fragmentary...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527301/update-on-regulation-and-effector-functions-of-th17-cells
#16
REVIEW
Ivy Sandquist, Jay Kolls
T-helper cells that produce IL-17 are recognized as a significant subset within cell-mediated adaptive immunity. These cells are implicated in both the pathology of inflammatory disorders as well as the clearance of extracellular infections and the maintenance of the microbiota. However, the dynamic nature of this cell type has created controversy in understanding Th17 induction as well as Th17 phenotyping, since these cells may switch from Th17 to Treg or Th17 to Th1 cytokine profiles under certain conditions...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522475/natural-variation-in-resistance-to-virus-infection-in-dipteran-insects
#17
REVIEW
William H Palmer, Finny S Varghese, Ronald P van Rij
The power and ease of Drosophila genetics and the medical relevance of mosquito-transmitted viruses have made dipterans important model organisms in antiviral immunology. Studies of virus-host interactions at the molecular and population levels have illuminated determinants of resistance to virus infection. Here, we review the sources and nature of variation in antiviral immunity and virus susceptibility in model dipteran insects, specifically the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and vector mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex ...
March 9, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495598/potential-health-benefits-of-olive-oil-and-plant-polyphenols
#18
REVIEW
Monika Gorzynik-Debicka, Paulina Przychodzen, Francesco Cappello, Alicja Kuban-Jankowska, Antonella Marino Gammazza, Narcyz Knap, Michal Wozniak, Magdalena Gorska-Ponikowska
Beneficial effects of natural plant polyphenols on the human body have been evaluated in a number of scientific research projects. Bioactive polyphenols are natural compounds of various chemical structures. Their sources are mostly fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, roots, bark, leaves of different plants, herbs, whole grain products, processed foods (dark chocolate), as well as tea, coffee, and red wine. Polyphenols are believed to reduce morbidity and/or slow down the development of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases as well as cancer...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490164/regulation-of-the-cell-biology-of-antigen-cross-presentation
#19
J Magarian Blander
Antigen cross-presentation is an adaptation of the cellular process of loading MHC-I molecules with endogenous peptides during their biosynthesis within the endoplasmic reticulum. Cross-presented peptides derive from internalized proteins, microbial pathogens, and transformed or dying cells. The physical separation of internalized cargo from the endoplasmic reticulum, where the machinery for assembling peptide-MHC-I complexes resides, poses a challenge. To solve this problem, deliberate rewiring of organelle communication within cells is necessary to prepare for cross-presentation, and different endocytic receptors and vesicular traffic patterns customize the emergent cross-presentation compartment to the nature of the peptide source...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474707/immune-relevant-models-for-ocular-inflammatory-diseases
#20
Brian C Gilger
Ocular inflammatory diseases, such as dry eye and uveitis, are common, painful, difficult to treat, and may result in vision loss or blindness. Ocular side effects from the use of antiinflammatory drugs (such as corticosteroids or nonsteroidal antiinflammatories) to treat ocular inflammation have prompted development of more specific and safer medications to treat inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases of the eye. To assess the efficacy and safety of these new therapeutics, appropriate immune-relevant animal models of ocular inflammation are needed...
February 21, 2018: ILAR Journal
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