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Nature review immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430618/t-2-mycotoxin-toxicological-effects-and-decontamination-strategies
#1
REVIEW
Manish Adhikari, Bhawana Negi, Neha Kaushik, Anupriya Adhikari, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy, Nagendra Kumar Kaushik, Eun Ha Choi
Mycotoxins are highly diverse secondary metabolites produced in nature by a wide variety of fungus which causes food contamination, resulting in mycotoxicosis in animals and humans. In particular, trichothecenes mycotoxin produced by genus fusarium is agriculturally more important worldwide due to the potential health hazards they pose. It is mainly metabolized and eliminated after ingestion, yielding more than 20 metabolites with the hydroxy trichothecenes-2 toxin being the major metabolite. Trichothecene is hazardously intoxicating due to their additional potential to be topically absorbed, and their metabolites affect the gastrointestinal tract, skin, kidney, liver, and immune and hematopoietic progenitor cellular systems...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422787/how-hiv-1-entry-mechanism-and-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-guide-structure-based-vaccine-design
#2
Marie Pancera, Anita Changela, Peter D Kwong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An HIV-1 vaccine that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) remains to be developed. Here, we review how knowledge of bNAbs and HIV-1 entry mechanism is guiding the structure-based design of vaccine immunogens and immunization regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: Isolation of bNAbs from HIV-1-infected donors has led to an unprecedented understanding of the sites of vulnerability that these antibodies target on the HIV-1 envelope (Env) as well as of the immunological pathways that these antibody lineages follow to develop broad and potent neutralization...
May 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422058/melatonin-a-review-of-its-potential-functions-and-effects-on-dental-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Maria Permuy, Mónica López-Peña, Antonio González-Cantalapiedra, Fernando Muñoz
Melatonin is a hormone synthesised and secreted by the pineal gland and other organs. Its secretion, controlled by an endogenous circadian cycle, has been proven to exert immunological, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects that can be beneficial in the treatment of certain dental diseases. This article is aimed at carrying out a review of the literature published about the use of melatonin in the dental field and summarising its potential effects. In this review article, an extensive search in different databases of scientific journals was performed with the objective of summarising all of the information published on melatonin use in dental diseases, focussing on periodontal diseases and dental implantology...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416952/asthma-and-the-risk-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-an-insight-into-the-heterogeneity-and-phenotypes-of-asthma
#4
REVIEW
Mary Claire Rolfes, Young Jun Juhn, Chung-Il Wi, Youn Ho Sheen
Asthma is traditionally regarded as a chronic airway disease, and recent literature proves its heterogeneity, based on distinctive clusters or phenotypes of asthma. In defining such asthma clusters, the nature of comorbidity among patients with asthma is poorly understood, by assuming no causal relationship between asthma and other comorbid conditions, including both communicable and noncommunicable diseases. However, emerging evidence suggests that the status of asthma significantly affects the increased susceptibility of the patient to both communicable and noncommunicable diseases...
April 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416448/immunological-memory-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells
#5
REVIEW
Itziar Martinez-Gonzalez, Laura Mathä, Catherine A Steer, Fumio Takei
Immunological memory has long been described as a property of the adaptive immune system that results in potent responses on exposure to an antigen encountered previously. While this definition appears to exclude cells that do not express antigen receptors, recent studies have shown that innate immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages, and, more recently, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) can record previous activations and respond more vigorously on reactivation. Here we review the similarities and differences between these forms of memory and the underlying mechanisms...
April 14, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413021/regulation-of-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-by-tgf%C3%AE
#6
REVIEW
Aoife Kelly, Stephanie A Houston, Eleanor Sherwood, Joshua Casulli, Mark A Travis
Immune regulation by cytokines is crucial in maintaining immune homeostasis, promoting responses to infection, resolving inflammation, and promoting immunological memory. Additionally, cytokine responses drive pathology in immune-mediated disease. A crucial cytokine in the regulation of all aspects of an immune response is transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ). Although best known as a crucial regulator of T cell responses, TGFβ plays a vital role in regulating responses mediated by virtually every innate and adaptive immune cell, including dendritic cells, B cells, NK cells, innate lymphoid cells, and granulocytes...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411943/immunomodulatory-properties-of-human-placental-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells
#7
M H Abumaree, F M Abomaray, M A Alshabibi, A S AlAskar, B Kalionis
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are isolated from various fetal and adult tissues such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, cord blood and placenta. Placental MSCs (pMSCs), the main focus of this review, are relatively new MSC types that are not as intensively studied compared with bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs). MSCs modulate the immune functions of important immune cells involved in alloantigen recognition and elimination, including antigen presenting cells (APCs), T cells, B cells and natural killer (NK) cells...
April 7, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410877/chronic-fatigue-syndrome-and-the-immune-system-where-are-we-now
#8
REVIEW
Fane Kojo Fosu Mensah, Amolak Singh Bansal, Brian Ford, Geraldine Cambridge
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is characterised by multiple symptoms including fatigue, headaches and cognitive impairment, which have a significantly adverse effect on the normal functioning and well-being of the individual. These symptoms are often triggered or worsened following physical or mental exertion. ME/CFS has long been thought of as having a significant immunological component, but reports describing changes in immune function are often inconsistent between study groups...
April 11, 2017: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402942/mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-their-therapeutic-applications-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
REVIEW
Fei Mao, Qiang Tu, Li Wang, Fuliang Chu, Xia Li, Haiyan S Li, Wenrong Xu
Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) are non-hematopoietic stem cells that facilitate tissue regeneration through mechanisms involving self-renewal and differentiation, supporting angiogenesis and tissue cell survival, and limiting inflammation. MSCs were originally identified and expanded in long-term cultures of cells from bone marrow and other organs; and their native identity was recently confined into pericytes and adventitial cells in vascularized tissue. The multipotency, as well as the trophic and immunosuppressive effects, of MSCs have prompted the rapid development of clinical applications for many diseases involving tissue inflammation and immune disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease...
March 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369954/the-role-of-ilc2-in-hookworm-infection
#10
Kara Filbey, Tiffany Bouchery, Graham Le Gros
Hookworm is a major public health concern, with around 500 million people affected worldwide (1). Still, relatively little is known about the immunological responses involved in human infection. Animal studies are mainly confined to using the natural rodent helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, as this has been proposed as the most accurate model of hookworm infection in the mouse, with both its lifecycle, and the immune responses it invokes having been extremely well characterized. In this review, the roles of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) in the control of and host tolerance to hookworm infection, particularly N...
March 31, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335993/biomaterials-innovation-for-next-generation-ex%C3%A2-vivo-immune-tissue-engineering
#11
REVIEW
Ankur Singh
Primary and secondary lymphoid organs are tissues that facilitate differentiation of B and T cells, leading to the induction of adaptive immune responses. These organs are present in the body from birth and are also recognized as locations where self-reactive B and T cells can be eliminated during the natural selection process. Many insights into the mechanisms that control the process of immune cell development and maturation in response to infection come from the analysis of various gene-deficient mice that lack some or all hallmark features of lymphoid tissues...
June 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331999/the-acidic-microenvironment-as-a-possible-niche-of-dormant-tumor-cells
#12
REVIEW
Silvia Peppicelli, Elena Andreucci, Jessica Ruzzolini, Anna Laurenzana, Francesca Margheri, Gabriella Fibbi, Mario Del Rosso, Francesca Bianchini, Lido Calorini
Although surgical excision, chemo-, and radio-therapy are clearly advanced, tumors may relapse due to cells of the so-called "minimal residual disease". Indeed, small clusters of tumor cells persist in host tissues after treatment of the primary tumor elaborating strategies to survive and escape from immunological attacks before their relapse: this variable period of remission is known as "cancer dormancy". Therefore, it is crucial to understand and consider the major concepts addressing dormancy, to identify new targets and disclose potential clinical strategies...
March 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318556/natural-killer-cells-in-placentation-and-cancer-implications-for-hypertension-during-pregnancy
#13
Heather Yvonne Small, Denise C Cornelius, Tomasz J Guzik, Christian Delles
Hypertension during pregnancy is the most common medical condition encountered during gestation. Despite this, knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie the disease and the development of new therapies are limited. Hypertension during pregnancy and some forms of cancer confer an increased risk to the development of cardiovascular disease later in life; one mechanism which may link these conditions is the involvement of natural killer (NK) cells. Whilst immunology and immunotherapy are well-developed areas in oncology; the complex mechanisms of the immune system in health and disease at the maternal-fetal interface are less well-defined...
March 7, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287634/immune-microenvironment-of-gliomas
#14
Anna Gieryng, Dominika Pszczolkowska, Kacper A Walentynowicz, Wenson D Rajan, Bozena Kaminska
High-grade gliomas are rapidly progressing tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) with a very poor prognosis despite extensive resection combined with radiation and/or chemotherapy. Histopathological and flow cytometry analyses of human and rodent experimental gliomas revealed heterogeneity of a tumor and its niche, composed of reactive astrocytes, endothelial cells, and numerous immune cells. Infiltrating immune cells consist of CNS resident (microglia) and peripheral macrophages, granulocytes, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and T lymphocytes...
March 13, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283679/the-immunological-function-of-cd52-and-its-targeting-in-organ-transplantation
#15
REVIEW
Yang Zhao, Huiting Su, Xiaofei Shen, Junfeng Du, Xiaodong Zhang, Yong Zhao
INTRODUCTION: CD52 (Campath-1 antigen), a glycoprotein of 12 amino acids anchored to glycosylphosphatidylinositol, is widely expressed on the cell surface of immune cells, such as mature lymphocytes, natural killer cells (NK), eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs). The anti-CD52 mAb, alemtuzumab, was used widely in clinics for the treatment of patients such as organ transplantation. In the present manuscript, we will briefly summarize the immunological function of CD52 and discuss the application of anti-CD52 mAb in transplantation settings...
March 10, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271489/the-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-complex-and-related-assemblies-in-health-and-disease
#16
Olwyn Byron, John Gordon Lindsay
The family of 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes (2-OADC), typified by the pyruvate dehydrogenase multi-enzyme complex (PDC) as its most prominent member, are massive molecular machines (Mr, 4-10 million) controlling key steps in glucose homeostasis (PDC), citric acid cycle flux (OGDC, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) and the metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine and valine (BCOADC, branched-chain 2-OADC). These highly organised mitochondrial arrays, composed of multiple copies of three separate enzymes, have been widely studied as paradigms for the analysis of enzyme cooperativity, substrate channelling, protein-protein interactions and the regulation of activity by phosphorylation ...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261197/mycobacterial-dormancy-systems-and-host-responses-in-tuberculosis
#17
REVIEW
Vidyullatha Peddireddy, Sankara Narayana Doddam, Niyaz Ahmed
Tuberculosis (TB) caused by the intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), claims more than 1.5 million lives worldwide annually. Despite promulgation of multipronged strategies to prevent and control TB, there is no significant downfall occurring in the number of new cases, and adding to this is the relapse of the disease due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance and the ability of Mtb to remain dormant after primary infection. The pathology of Mtb is complex and largely attributed to immune-evading strategies that this pathogen adopts to establish primary infection, its persistence in the host, and reactivation of pathogenicity under favorable conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250806/cancer-a-disease-at-the-crossroads-of-trade-offs
#18
Camille Jacqueline, Peter A Biro, Christa Beckmann, Anders Pape Moller, François Renaud, Gabriele Sorci, Aurélie Tasiemski, Beata Ujvari, Frédéric Thomas
Central to evolutionary theory is the idea that living organisms face phenotypic and/or genetic trade-offs when allocating resources to competing life-history demands, such as growth, survival, and reproduction. These trade-offs are increasingly considered to be crucial to further our understanding of cancer. First, evidences suggest that neoplastic cells, as any living entities subject to natural selection, are governed by trade-offs such as between survival and proliferation. Second, selection might also have shaped trade-offs at the organismal level, especially regarding protective mechanisms against cancer...
March 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245768/therapeutic-targeting-of-nlrp3-inflammasomes-by-natural-products-and-pharmaceuticals-a-novel-mechanistic-approach-for-inflammatory-diseases
#19
Sadaf Jahan, Dipak Kumar, Swati Chaturvedi, Mamunur Rashid, Muhammad Wahajuddin, Yasir Akhtar Khan, Sameer N Goyal, C R Patil, Rajesh Mohanraj, Sandeep Subramanya, Shreesh Ojha
Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes having nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat consisting members along with pyrin and HIN domain family. An inflammasome mainly consists of cytoplasmic sensor molecule such as NLRP3, the adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing caspase recruitment domain) protein along with effector procaspase-1. The inflammasome regulates caspase-1 activation, resulting in secretion of interleukin-1β and interleukin-18. The inflammasome activation is linked with infection, stress, or other immunological signals involved in inflammation...
February 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243106/ruxolitinib-in-myelofibrosis-to-be-or-not-to-be-an-immune-disruptor
#20
Palma Manduzio
Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm classified according to the 2016 revision of World Health Organization Classification of Tumors and Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissue. Ruxolitinib is an oral inhibitor of Janus kinase approved in the USA for the treatment of intermediate or high-risk PMF and approved in Europe for the treatment of splenomegaly and constitutional symptoms of the disease. More recently, case reports described serious opportunistic infections in this neoplasm treated with ruxolitinib...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
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