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Nature review immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335993/biomaterials-innovation-for-next-generation-ex%C3%A2-vivo-immune-tissue-engineering
#1
REVIEW
Ankur Singh
Primary and secondary lymphoid organs are tissues that facilitate differentiation of B and T cells, leading to the induction of adaptive immune responses. These organs are present in the body from birth and are also recognized as locations where self-reactive B and T cells can be eliminated during the natural selection process. Many insights into the mechanisms that control the process of immune cell development and maturation in response to infection come from the analysis of various gene-deficient mice that lack some or all hallmark features of lymphoid tissues...
March 15, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331999/the-acidic-microenvironment-as-a-possible-niche-of-dormant-tumor-cells
#2
REVIEW
Silvia Peppicelli, Elena Andreucci, Jessica Ruzzolini, Anna Laurenzana, Francesca Margheri, Gabriella Fibbi, Mario Del Rosso, Francesca Bianchini, Lido Calorini
Although surgical excision, chemo-, and radio-therapy are clearly advanced, tumors may relapse due to cells of the so-called "minimal residual disease". Indeed, small clusters of tumor cells persist in host tissues after treatment of the primary tumor elaborating strategies to survive and escape from immunological attacks before their relapse: this variable period of remission is known as "cancer dormancy". Therefore, it is crucial to understand and consider the major concepts addressing dormancy, to identify new targets and disclose potential clinical strategies...
March 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318556/natural-killer-cells-in-placentation-and-cancer-implications-for-hypertension-during-pregnancy
#3
Heather Yvonne Small, Denise C Cornelius, Tomasz J Guzik, Christian Delles
Hypertension during pregnancy is the most common medical condition encountered during gestation. Despite this, knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie the disease and the development of new therapies are limited. Hypertension during pregnancy and some forms of cancer confer an increased risk to the development of cardiovascular disease later in life; one mechanism which may link these conditions is the involvement of natural killer (NK) cells. Whilst immunology and immunotherapy are well-developed areas in oncology; the complex mechanisms of the immune system in health and disease at the maternal-fetal interface are less well-defined...
March 7, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287634/immune-microenvironment-of-gliomas
#4
Anna Gieryng, Dominika Pszczolkowska, Kacper A Walentynowicz, Wenson D Rajan, Bozena Kaminska
High-grade gliomas are rapidly progressing tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) with a very poor prognosis despite extensive resection combined with radiation and/or chemotherapy. Histopathological and flow cytometry analyses of human and rodent experimental gliomas revealed heterogeneity of a tumor and its niche, composed of reactive astrocytes, endothelial cells, and numerous immune cells. Infiltrating immune cells consist of CNS resident (microglia) and peripheral macrophages, granulocytes, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and T lymphocytes...
March 13, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283679/the-immunological-function-of-cd52-and-its-targeting-in-organ-transplantation
#5
REVIEW
Yang Zhao, Huiting Su, Xiaofei Shen, Junfeng Du, Xiaodong Zhang, Yong Zhao
INTRODUCTION: CD52 (Campath-1 antigen), a glycoprotein of 12 amino acids anchored to glycosylphosphatidylinositol, is widely expressed on the cell surface of immune cells, such as mature lymphocytes, natural killer cells (NK), eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs). The anti-CD52 mAb, alemtuzumab, was used widely in clinics for the treatment of patients such as organ transplantation. In the present manuscript, we will briefly summarize the immunological function of CD52 and discuss the application of anti-CD52 mAb in transplantation settings...
March 10, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271489/the-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-complex-and-related-assemblies-in-health-and-disease
#6
Olwyn Byron, John Gordon Lindsay
The family of 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes (2-OADC), typified by the pyruvate dehydrogenase multi-enzyme complex (PDC) as its most prominent member, are massive molecular machines (Mr, 4-10 million) controlling key steps in glucose homeostasis (PDC), citric acid cycle flux (OGDC, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) and the metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine and valine (BCOADC, branched-chain 2-OADC). These highly organised mitochondrial arrays, composed of multiple copies of three separate enzymes, have been widely studied as paradigms for the analysis of enzyme cooperativity, substrate channelling, protein-protein interactions and the regulation of activity by phosphorylation ...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261197/mycobacterial-dormancy-systems-and-host-responses-in-tuberculosis
#7
REVIEW
Vidyullatha Peddireddy, Sankara Narayana Doddam, Niyaz Ahmed
Tuberculosis (TB) caused by the intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), claims more than 1.5 million lives worldwide annually. Despite promulgation of multipronged strategies to prevent and control TB, there is no significant downfall occurring in the number of new cases, and adding to this is the relapse of the disease due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance and the ability of Mtb to remain dormant after primary infection. The pathology of Mtb is complex and largely attributed to immune-evading strategies that this pathogen adopts to establish primary infection, its persistence in the host, and reactivation of pathogenicity under favorable conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250806/cancer-a-disease-at-the-crossroads-of-trade-offs
#8
Camille Jacqueline, Peter A Biro, Christa Beckmann, Anders Pape Moller, François Renaud, Gabriele Sorci, Aurélie Tasiemski, Beata Ujvari, Frédéric Thomas
Central to evolutionary theory is the idea that living organisms face phenotypic and/or genetic trade-offs when allocating resources to competing life-history demands, such as growth, survival, and reproduction. These trade-offs are increasingly considered to be crucial to further our understanding of cancer. First, evidences suggest that neoplastic cells, as any living entities subject to natural selection, are governed by trade-offs such as between survival and proliferation. Second, selection might also have shaped trade-offs at the organismal level, especially regarding protective mechanisms against cancer...
March 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245768/therapeutic-targeting-of-nlrp3-inflammasomes-by-natural-products-and-pharmaceuticals-a-novel-mechanistic-approach-for-inflammatory-diseases
#9
Sadaf Jahan, Dipak Kumar, Swati Chaturvedi, Mamunur Rashid, Muhammad Wahajuddin, Yasir Akhtar Khan, Sameer N Goyal, C R Patil, Rajesh Mohanraj, Sandeep Subramanya, Shreesh Ojha
Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes having nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat consisting members along with pyrin and HIN domain family. An inflammasome mainly consists of cytoplasmic sensor molecule such as NLRP3, the adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing caspase recruitment domain) protein along with effector procaspase-1. The inflammasome regulates caspase-1 activation, resulting in secretion of interleukin-1β and interleukin-18. The inflammasome activation is linked with infection, stress, or other immunological signals involved in inflammation...
February 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243106/ruxolitinib-in-myelofibrosis-to-be-or-not-to-be-an-immune-disruptor
#10
Palma Manduzio
Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm classified according to the 2016 revision of World Health Organization Classification of Tumors and Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissue. Ruxolitinib is an oral inhibitor of Janus kinase approved in the USA for the treatment of intermediate or high-risk PMF and approved in Europe for the treatment of splenomegaly and constitutional symptoms of the disease. More recently, case reports described serious opportunistic infections in this neoplasm treated with ruxolitinib...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240761/hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-cxcr3-chemokines-a-narrative-review
#11
E Giusy, F Poupak
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) results from several factors like viral hepatitis infection [hepatitis B, or C (25%)] or occupational exposure. T-helper (Th)1 inflammatory cells, characterized by interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 secretion, predominate in the liver during chronic HCV infection, and chemokines attracting these cells are particularly important in disease progression. Among C-X-C chemokines, the non-ELR group [as IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG) and IFN-inducible T-cell-alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)], attracts Th1-cells interacting with chemokine C-X-C receptor (CXCR3)...
January 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235552/t-helper-cells-in-leprosy-an-update
#12
REVIEW
Chaman Saini, Mohd Tarique, Reeta Rai, Anisuddin Siddiqui, Neena Khanna, Alpana Sharma
Leprosy is an ancient disease caused by gram positive, rod shaped bacilli called Mycobacterium leprae. Patients present with varied clinico-pathological disease depending on the host immune response to Mycobacterium leprae. Thus tuberculoid (TT) and lepromatous (LL) patients represent two ends of a spectrum where the former shows limited disease, high T cell mediate immune (CMI) response and low antibody (HI) levels in serum. In contrast the latter has low T cell and high humoral immune response i.e antibody levels...
February 21, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230336/the-endothelial-border-to-health-mechanistic-evidence-of-the-hyperglycemic-culprit-of-inflammatory-disease-acceleration
#13
REVIEW
Nina Waerling Hansen, Anker Jon Hansen, Anette Sams
The endothelial cell (EC) layer constitutes a barrier that controls movements of fluid, solutes and cells between blood and tissue. Further, the endothelial layer regulates vascular tone and directs local humoral and cellular inflammatory processes. The strategic position makes it an important player for maintenance of health and for development of a number of diseases. Endothelial dysfunction is known to be an important component of type 2 diabetes, but is also assumed to be involved in many other diseases, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and cardiovascular diseases...
March 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229252/pain-in-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer-prevalence-mechanisms-management-and-future-developments
#14
REVIEW
Andreas I Koulouris, Paul Banim, Andrew R Hart
Pain affects approximately 80% of patients with pancreatic cancer, with half requiring strong opioid analgesia, namely: morphine-based drugs on step three of the WHO analgesic ladder (as opposed to the weak opioids: codeine and tramadol). The presence of pain is associated with reduced survival. This article reviews the literature regarding pain: prevalence, mechanisms, pharmacological, and endoscopic treatments and identifies areas for research to develop individualized patient pain management pathways. The online literature review was conducted through: PubMed, Clinical Key, Uptodate, and NICE Evidence...
April 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224021/mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-potential-therapeutic-approaches-in-celiac-disease
#15
REVIEW
Ali Moheb-Alian, Flora Forouzesh, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Kamran Rostami
As a chronic immune complication, celiac disease has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and gluten ingestion as an external trigger will induce the onset of this disease in genetically predisposed individuals. Because of the complex nature of celiac disease and various cascades of immunological pathways, therapies which are tend to target a single pathway or factor, often have unsatisfactory results. Thus, it should be considered that the new emerging area of cellular therapy by targeting multiple pathways may hold the key for treating celiac affected patients with complicated forms of this disease...
December 2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207490/how-hiv-1-entry-mechanism-and-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-guide-structure-based-vaccine-design
#16
Marie Pancera, Anita Changela, Peter D Kwong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An HIV-1 vaccine that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) remains to be developed. Here, we review how knowledge of bNAbs and HIV-1 entry mechanism is guiding the structure-based design of vaccine immunogens and immunization regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: Isolation of bNAbs from HIV-1-infected donors has led to an unprecedented understanding of the sites of vulnerability that these antibodies target on the HIV-1 envelope (Env) as well as of the immunological pathways that these antibody lineages follow to develop broad and potent neutralization...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137237/model-systems-for-pulmonary-infectious-diseases-paradigms-of-anthrax-and-tuberculosis
#17
Gunjan Arora, Richa Misra, Andaleeb Sajid
Robert Koch utilized animal model systems to put forward his postulates while discovering the etiological agents of anthrax and tuberculosis, Bacillus anthracis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively. After more than 130 years, we have achieved limited success towards understanding these two pestilences, which have propagated as scourge against humans. B. anthracis and M. tuberculosis are diverse organisms, which share a common evolutionary path in tropics. They adapt unique strategies to overcome unfavorable conditions and surpass the host defense mechanisms...
January 30, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133800/polyvalent-vaccine-approaches-to-combat-hiv-1-diversity
#18
REVIEW
Bette Korber, Peter Hraber, Kshitij Wagh, Beatrice H Hahn
A key unresolved challenge for developing an effective HIV-1 vaccine is the discovery of strategies to elicit immune responses that are able to cross-protect against a significant fraction of the diverse viruses that are circulating worldwide. Here, we summarize some of the immunological implications of HIV-1 diversity, and outline the rationale behind several polyvalent vaccine design strategies that are currently under evaluation. Vaccine-elicited T-cell responses, which contribute to the control of HIV-1 in natural infections, are currently being considered in both prevention and treatment settings...
January 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128711/foreskin-as-a-source-of-immunotherapeutic-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#19
Mehdi Najar, Laurence Lagneaux
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have well-characterized properties and thus represent an attractive cell population for use in several therapeutic applications. Due to the limitations and inconveniences associated with classical sources of MSCs, the identification and characterization of alternative sources are required for safe and efficient cell therapy. The skin tissue is currently referred to as a reservoir of cells with therapeutically relevant functions. Historically considered biological waste, foreskin (FSK) is increasingly used to provide immunotherapeutic MSCs for medicinal products...
January 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118528/clinical-and-serological-features-distinguish-patients-with-incomplete-lupus-classification-from-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-and-controls
#20
Teresa Aberle, Rebecka L Bourn, Melissa E Munroe, Hua Chen, Virginia C Roberts, Joel M Guthridge, Krista Bean, Julie M Robertson, Kathy L Sivils, Astrid Rasmussen, Meghan Liles, Joan T Merrill, John B Harley, Nancy J Olsen, David R Karp, Judith A James
OBJECTIVE: Incomplete lupus erythematosus (ILE) involves clinical and/or serologic manifestations consistent with but insufficient for SLE classification. Because the nature of ILE is poorly understood and no treatment recommendations exist, we examined clinical manifestations, medication history, and immunologic features in a diverse collection of ILE and SLE patients. METHODS: Medical records of subjects enrolled to the Lupus Family Registry and Repository were reviewed for medication history and American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria to identify ILE patients (3 ACR criteria; n=440) and SLE patients (≥4 ACR criteria; n=3,397)...
January 24, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
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