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Nature review immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644756/immunological-effects-of-hypomethylating-agents
#1
Katherine E Lindblad, Meghali Goswami, Christopher S Hourigan, Karolyn A Oetjen
Epigenetic changes resulting from aberrant methylation patterns are a recurrent observation in hematologic malignancies. Hypomethylating agents have a well-established role in the management of patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia. In addition to the direct effects of hypomethylating agents on cancer cells, there are several lines of evidence indicating a role for immune-mediated anti-tumor benefits from hypomethylating therapy. Areas Covered: We reviewed the clinical and basic science literature for the effects of hypomethylating agents, including the most commonly utilized therapeutics azacitidine and decitabine, on immune cell subsets...
June 23, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637681/two-tales-of-cytauxzoon-felis-infections-in-domestic-cats
#2
REVIEW
Jin-Lei Wang, Ting-Ting Li, Guo-Hua Liu, Xing-Quan Zhu, Chaoqun Yao
Cytauxzoonosis is an emerging infectious disease that affects wild felids as well as the domestic cat; it is caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Cytauxzoon. Cytauxzoonfelis is the species of major concern, whose transmission occurs via the bite of an infected tick. Cytauxzoonosis of the domestic cat has historically been considered uniformly fatal, with a short course of illness, and most domestic cats die within 9 to 15 days postinfection. However, increasing evidence of domestic cats surviving C...
October 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629381/the-era-of-bioengineering-how-will-this-affect-the-next-generation-of-cancer-immunotherapy
#3
REVIEW
Michele Graciotti, Cristiana Berti, Harm-Anton Klok, Lana Kandalaft
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy consists of activating the patient's immune system to fight cancer and has the great potential of preventing future relapses thanks to immunological memory. A great variety of strategies have emerged to harness the immune system against tumors, from the administration of immunomodulatory agents that activate immune cells, to therapeutic vaccines or infusion of previously activated cancer-specific T cells. However, despite great recent progress many difficulties still remain, which prevent the widespread use of immunotherapy...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619429/vitamin-d-and-multiple-sclerosis-an-update
#4
REVIEW
Charles Pierrot-Deseilligny, Jean-Claude Souberbielle
The most recent findings linking exposure to sun and vitamin D insufficiency to multiple sclerosis (MS) are reviewed. Due to insufficient sunshine and changing lifestyles, hypovitaminosis D is widespread in temperate countries. Numerous epidemiological studies have strongly suggested that sunshine and vitamin D insufficiency contributes to MS risk in these countries. Moreover, several large genetic studies in MS patients have recently stated unequivocally that diverse abnormalities involving vitamin D metabolism are related to the risk of the disease...
May 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612839/citrobacter-rodentium-a-model-enteropathogen-for-understanding-the-interplay-of-innate-and-adaptive-components-of-type-3-immunity
#5
REVIEW
D J Silberger, C L Zindl, C T Weaver
Citrobacter rodentium is a natural murine intestinal pathogen that shares a core set of virulence factors with the related human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). C. rodentium is now the most widely used small animal model for studying the molecular underpinnings of EPEC and EHEC infections in vivo, including: enterocyte attachment; virulence; colonization resistance; and mucosal immunity. In this review, we discuss type 3 immunity in the context of C. rodentium infection and discuss recent publications that use this model to understand how the innate and adaptive components of immunity intersect to mediate host protection against enteric pathogens and maintain homeostasis with the microbiota...
June 14, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602429/unusual-presentation-of-foreign-body-granuloma-of-the-foot-after-sharp-injury-mimicking-a-malignant-lesion-a-case-report
#6
Narendran Pushpasekaran, Manoharan Muthulingam, Chandrasekaran Marimuthu, Rajan Babu, Naveen Kumar Rajapalani Kumar
Foot foreign body granulomas can mimic malignancies, especially when the history and unusual location pose a diagnostic dilemma. We report the case of a 33-year-old male with delayed-onset progressive swelling over the foot dorsum after a sharp injury through the plantar aspect of the foot. The unusual presentation and radiolucency warranted further radiologic evaluation, which revealed a benign foot swelling. An excision biopsy and histopathologic examination revealed a rubber body granuloma. No recurrence of the granuloma was noted during the 11-month follow-up period after removal of the offending agent...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584368/pathophysiology-of-autoimmune-bullous-diseases-nature-versus-nurture
#7
Forum Patel, Reason Wilken, Falin B Patel, Hawa Sultani, Itzel Bustos, Christopher Duong, John J Zone, Siba P Raychaudhuri, Emanual Maverakis
Pemphigus and pemphigoid are the prototypical immunobullous diseases. Although it has been well established that they are caused by deposition of autoreactive antibodies directed against adherence proteins within the skin, the specific genetic and environmental factors leading to development of these diseases continue to be an area of investigation. Herein, we discuss several of the potential environmental triggers that may induce patients to develop immunobullous diseases including medications, viral infections, UV exposure or other radiation injury and dietary factors...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578595/thymic-hyperplasia-associated-with-graves-disease-pathophysiology-and-proposed-management-algorithm
#8
Uzma Haider, Patrick Richards, Andrew Gianoukakis
BACKGROUND: The association between Graves' disease (GD) and thymic hyperplasia was first described in 1912 and has been reported numerous times thereafter. Thymic hyperplasia associated with GD presents as an incidental mediastinal mass on chest X- ray or Computerized tomography (CT). The pathogenesis of thymic hyperplasia in the setting of GD is unclear but seems to involve a complex interplay of hormonal and immunological mechanisms. SUMMARY: Here we have reviewed the effect that thyroid hormones and autoimmunity have on thymic growth and size...
June 3, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569563/impact-of-early-enteral-nutrition-on-nutritional-and-immunological-outcomes-of-gastric-cancer-patients-undergoing-gastrostomy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Zeinab Nikniaz, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Shahnaz Nagashi, Leila Nikniaz
OBJECTIVES: The present systematic review and meta-analysis study evaluated the impact of early enteral nutrition (EN) on postoperative nutritional and immunological outcomes of gastric cancer (GC) patients. METHOD: The databases of PubMed, Embase, Springer, and Cochrane library were searched till September 2016 to identify studies which evaluated the effects of EN compared with parenteral nutrition (PN) on postoperative immunological and nutritional status and hospitalization time in GC patients...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543438/humanized-mice-a-brief-overview-on-their-diverse-applications-in-biomedical-research
#10
REVIEW
Shigeyoshi Fujiwara
Model animals naturally differ from humans in various respects and results from the former are not directly translatable to the latter. One approach to address this issue is humanized mice that are defined as mice engrafted with functional human cells or tissues. In humanized mice, we can investigate the development and function of human cells or tissues (including their products encoded by human genes) in the in vivo context of a small animal. As such, humanized mouse models have played important roles that cannot be substituted by other animal models in various areas of biomedical research...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538014/precision-medicine-in-pediatric-rheumatology
#11
Joo Guan Yeo, Chin Teck Ng, Salvatore Albani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Precision medicine is the tailoring of medical care to subcategories of disease. In pediatric rheumatology, these subcategories must first be defined by their specific molecular immunological profiles, and then the effects of growth and puberty, developmental immunological changes, and differences in treatment options and adherence considered when designing therapeutic strategies. In the present review, we summarize the unmet needs in pediatric rheumatology before such precision medical care can be effectively delivered to affected patients...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526946/evolutionary-ecology-of-multitrophic-interactions-between-plants-insect-herbivores-and-entomopathogens
#12
Ikkei Shikano
Plants play an important role in the interactions between insect herbivores and their pathogens. Since the seminal review by Cory and Hoover (2006) on plant-mediated effects on insect-pathogen interactions, considerable progress has been made in understanding the complexity of these tritrophic interactions. Increasing interest in the areas of nutritional and ecological immunology over the last decade have revealed that plant primary and secondary metabolites can influence the outcomes of insect-pathogen interactions by altering insect immune functioning and physical barriers to pathogen entry...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526427/atypical-presentations-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Camilla Barros Meireles, Laís Chaves Maia, Gustavo Coelho Soares, Ilara Parente Pinheiro Teodoro, Maria do Socorro Vieira Gadelha, Cláudio Gleidiston Lima da Silva, Marcos Antonio Pereira de Lima
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in 88 countries, showing relevant prevalences. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review on atypical lesions of CL around the world, addressing clinico-epidemiological, immunological and therapeutic aspects. A search of the literature was conducted via electronic databases Scopus and PubMed for articles published between 2010 and 2015. The search terms browsed were "cutaneous leishmaniasis", "atypical" and "unusual". Based on the eligibility criteria, 34 out of 122 articles were included in the final sample...
August 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523877/mother-nature-in-eczema-maternal-factors-influencing-atopic-dermatitis
#14
REVIEW
Alexandra R Vaughn, Paige Tannhauser, Raja K Sivamani, Vivian Y Shi
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a highly prevalent chronic inflammatory skin disease. Current knowledge about the etiology of AD suggests that it is multifactorial and involves the interaction of several factors, including environmental triggers, genetics, immunologic factors, and skin barrier dysfunction. The prenatal environment has a significant influence on fetal development, including the maturation of skin barrier function. This review summarizes maternal factors that have been reported to influence the development of AD in offspring, including maternal genetics, nutrition, breastfeeding, environment, and behaviors...
May 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523429/kir-lilrb-and-their-ligands-genes-as-potential-biomarkers-in-recurrent-implantation-failure
#15
REVIEW
Izabela Nowak, Karolina Wilczyńska, Jacek R Wilczyński, Andrzej Malinowski, Paweł Radwan, Michał Radwan, Piotr Kuśnierczyk
Reproductive failure in humans is a very important social and economic problem, because nowadays women decide to conceive later in life and delay motherhood. Unfortunately, with increasing age they have less chance for natural fertilization and maintenance of pregnancy. Many of them need assisted reproductive technology. Approximately 10% of women after in vitro fertilization-embryo transfers experience recurrent implantation failure (RIF). Multiple factors may contribute to RIF, including oocyte and sperm quality, parental chromosomal anomalies, genetic or metabolic abnormalities of the embryo, poor uterine receptivity, immunological disturbances in the implantation site, and some gynecologic pathologies such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, hydrosalpinx and endometrial polyps...
May 18, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511419/nasal-nk-t-cell-lymphoma-presenting-with-perforation-of-palate-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#16
Shreyas N Shah, Priyank R Mistry, Girish R Chauhan, Vishal Chauhan, Jayshankar Pillai
Nasal Natural Killer (NK)/T cell lymphoma, commonly mentioned in the literature as Lethal Midline Granuloma (LMG) is an unusual pathology of the oro-maxillo-facial region characterized by aggressive and progressive destruction of the face, nose, palate and pharynx. This disease is now classified as a T-cell lymphoma based on modern cytogenetics, immunologic and molecular studies. However, it is mentioned in various literatures by various names. Here, we present one such clinically diagnosed, histopathologically and immunologically confirmed case of LMG, designated as NK/T cell lymphoma in a 56-year-old male...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501128/immunochemotherapy-benefits-in-gastric-cancer-patients-stratified-by-programmed-death-1-ligand-1
#17
Jun-Te Hsu, Chih-Sin Hsu, Puo-Hsien Le, Tse-Ching Chen, Wen-Chi Chou, Chun-Yen Lin, Ta-Sen Yeh
BACKGROUND: Effectiveness of protein-bound polysaccharide K (PSK) during adjuvant chemotherapy in gastric cancer patients expressing programmed death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) has not been investigated. Investigating this might help in triaging candidates eligible to immunochemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 918 patients with stages II and III gastric cancer, undergoing curative gastrectomy, and receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled in a prospective database, and the patients were retrospectively reviewed...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494747/new-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-aspects-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#18
Harald Mangge, Tobias Niedrist, Wilfried Renner, Stefan Lyer, Christoph Alexiou, Johannes Haybaeck
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is devastating. Because of its silent nature, the disease is often only diagnosed once it has reached an advanced, frequently inoperable stage. To date, we have no biomarkers that facilitate earlier diagnosis, leaving sufficient time for curative therapy that effectively lowers the very high mortality rate of this cancer entity. Because of this, the life expectancy of patients with PDAC is low (i.e. < 6% five-year survival rates). New data, including particular genetic signatures and features of the stromal architecture of PDAC tumors, may better explain their aggressiveness, their relatively long-lasting painless expansion, and why chemotherapy so frequently fails...
May 10, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492465/mitigation-of-patulin-in-fresh-and-processed-foods-and-beverages
#19
REVIEW
J David Ioi, Ting Zhou, Rong Tsao, Massimo F Marcone
Patulin is a mycotoxin of food safety concern. It is produced by numerous species of fungi growing on fruits and vegetables. Exposure to the toxin is connected to issues neurological, immunological, and gastrointestinal in nature. Regulatory agencies worldwide have established maximum allowable levels of 50 µg/kg in foods. Despite regulations, surveys continue to find patulin in commercial food and beverage products, in some cases, to exceed the maximum limits. Patulin content in food can be mitigated throughout the food processing chain...
May 11, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488245/chimeric-antigen-receptor-car-modified-natural-killer-cell-based-immunotherapy-and-immunological-synapse-formation-in-cancer-and-hiv
#20
REVIEW
Dongfang Liu, Shuo Tian, Kai Zhang, Wei Xiong, Ndongala Michel Lubaki, Zhiying Chen, Weidong Han
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the body's immune defenses. Current chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cell immunotherapy shows strong promise for treating various cancers and infectious diseases. Although CAR-modified NK cell immunotherapy is rapidly gaining attention, its clinical applications are mainly focused on preclinical investigations using the NK92 cell line. Despite recent advances in CAR-modified T cell immunotherapy, cost and severe toxicity have hindered its widespread use...
May 9, 2017: Protein & Cell
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