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Nature review immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903713/-trained-immunity-consequences-for-lymphoid-malignancies
#1
REVIEW
Wendy B C Stevens, Mihai G Netea, Arnon P Kater, Walter J F M van der Velden
In hematological malignancies complex interactions exist between the immune system, microorganisms and malignant cells. On one hand, microorganisms can induce cancer, as illustrated by specific infection-induced lymphoproliferative diseases such as Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. On the other hand, malignant cells create an immunosuppressive environment for their own benefit, but this also results in an increased risk of infections. Disrupted innate immunity contributes to the neoplastic transformation of blood cells by several mechanisms, including the uncontrolled clearance of microbial and autoantigens resulting in chronic immune stimulation and proliferation, chronic inflammation, and defective immune surveillance and anti-cancer immunity...
December 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891129/immunological-and-translational-aspects-of-nk-cell-based-antitumor-immunotherapies
#2
REVIEW
Maxim Shevtsov, Gabriele Multhoff
Natural killer (NK) cells play a pivotal role in the first line of defense against cancer. NK cells that are deficient in CD3 and a clonal T cell receptor (TCR) can be subdivided into two major subtypes, CD56(dim)CD16(+) cytotoxic and CD56(bright)CD16(-) immunoregulatory NK cells. Cytotoxic NK cells not only directly kill tumor cells without previous stimulation by cytotoxic effector molecules, such as perforin and granzymes or via death receptor interactions, but also act as regulatory cells for the immune system by secreting cytokines and chemokines...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888331/the-origin-of-dcs-and-capacity-for-immunologic-tolerance-in-central-and-peripheral-tissues
#3
REVIEW
K Sanjana P Devi, Niroshana Anandasabapathy
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized immune sentinels that play key role in maintaining immune homeostasis by efficiently regulating the delicate balance between protective immunity and tolerance to self. Although DCs respond to maturation signals present in the surrounding milieu, multiple layers of suppression also co-exist that reduce the infringement of tolerance against self-antigens. These tolerance inducing properties of DCs are governed by their origin and a range of other factors including distribution, cytokines, growth factors, and transcriptional programing, that collectively impart suppressive functions to these cells...
November 25, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886804/sarcoidosis-rheumatology-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Arthur M F Yee
Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory granulomatous disease for which rheumatologists are uniquely trained and qualified to treat. Historically, sarcoidosis has been managed within silos of medical subspecialties, but with increased appreciation of the systemic nature of this disorder and the availability of more therapeutic options, it is clear that a multidisciplinary approach, with the rheumatologist as a key component, can offer more optimal care. This manuscript reviews clinically relevant immunology and pathophysiology, diagnostic issues, management decision-making, and therapeutics in the care of patients with sarcoidosis...
April 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873264/current-trends-and-alternative-scenarios-in-ebv-research
#5
Janos Minarovits, Hans Helmut Niller
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with several distinct hematological and epithelial malignancies, e.g., Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, and others. The association with several malignant tumors of local and worldwide distribution makes EBV one of the most important tumor viruses. Furthermore, because EBV can cause posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease, transplant medicine has to deal with EBV as a major pathogenic virus second only to cytomegalovirus...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870665/near-fatal-asthma-a-heterogeneous-clinical-entity
#6
José Serrano-Pariente, Vicente Plaza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aims of the present review were to describe the heterogeneous nature of near-fatal asthma (NFA) and to summarize the distinctive phenotypes identified in this subtype of asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical, physiological, and histological studies have shown a large number of triggers, pathological mechanisms, and risk factors associated with NFA. Based on the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, the circumstances surrounding the asthma exacerbation and some distinctive features of the disease, several clinical profiles of asthma patients with NFA have been described...
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862411/natural-and-artificial-hyperimmune-solutions-impact-on-health-in-puppies
#7
H Mila, A Grellet, C Mariani, A Feugier, B Guard, J Suchodolski, J Steiner, S Chastant-Maillard
Colostrum and milk are complex mammary secretions providing the puppy with many nutritional and immunological factors, which play a crucial role for its correct development and survival. In the case of colostrum and/or milk intake deficiency, puppies are at increased risk of infectious diseases. This work reviews the various nutritional hyperimmune supplementations proposed to provide a passive immune protection and to positively impact puppies' health. Some strategies rely on canine immunoglobulins: canine colostrum banking and canine serum/plasma supplementation...
November 15, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782320/innate-immune-mediators-in-cancer-between-defense-and-resistance
#8
REVIEW
Pedro Berraondo, Luna Minute, Daniel Ajona, Leticia Corrales, Ignacio Melero, Ruben Pio
Chronic inflammation in the tumor microenvironment and evasion of the antitumor effector immune response are two of the emerging hallmarks required for oncogenesis and cancer progression. The innate immune system not only plays a critical role in perpetuating these tumor-promoting hallmarks but also in developing antitumor adaptive immune responses. Thus, understanding the dual role of the innate system in cancer immunology is required for the design of combined immunotherapy strategies able to tackle established tumors...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776895/evidence-in-immunotherapy-for-paediatric-respiratory-allergy-advances-and-recommendations
#9
M Tortajada-Girbés, M Mesa Del Castillo, H Larramona, J M Lucas, M Álvaro, A I Tabar, M J Jerez, A Martínez-Cañavate
Allergic respiratory diseases are major health problems in paediatric population due their high level of prevalence and chronicity, and to their relevance in the costs and quality of life. One of the most important risk factors for the development of airway diseases in children and adolescents is atopy. The mainstays for the treatment of these diseases are avoiding allergens, controlling symptoms, and preventing them through sustained desensitization by allergen immunotherapy (AIT). AIT is a treatment option that consists in the administration of increasing amounts of allergens to modify the biological response to them, inducing long-term tolerance even after treatment has ended...
October 21, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773803/the-genus-boschniakia-in-china-an-ethnopharmacological-and-phytochemical-review
#10
Le Zhang, Yunshan Zhao, Zhipeng A Wang, Kunhua Wei, Bin Qiu, Chunhong Zhang, QiYan Wang-Müller, Minhui Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: As a group of important medicine plants, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. et Schltdl) Fedtsch. and B. himalaica Hook.f.et Thoms, which are the only two species in the genus Boschniakia (Orobanchaceae), have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for their multiple therapeutic uses related to enhanced renal function, erectile dysfunction, defaecate and hepatoprotective. Additionally, the two species are also used as dietary supplements in wine, cosmetics, and other healthy food...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754444/the-potential-mechanisms-of-berberine-in-the-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
Xiaopeng Zhu, Hua Bian, Xin Gao
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a globally observed metabolic disease with high prevalence both in adults and children. However, there is no efficient medication available yet. Increased evidence indicates that berberine (BBR), a natural plant product, has beneficial effects on NAFLD, though the mechanisms are not completely known. In this review, we briefly summarize the pathogenesis of NAFLD and factors that influence the progression of NAFLD, and focus on the potential mechanisms of BBR in the treatment of NAFLD...
October 14, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749582/nfkb2-mutation-in-common-variable-immunodeficiency-and-isolated-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-deficiency-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#12
Chuan Shi, Fen Wang, Anli Tong, Xiao-Qian Zhang, Hong-Mei Song, Zheng-Yin Liu, Wei Lyu, Yue-Hua Liu, Wei-Bo Xia
BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) with central adrenal insufficiency is a recently defined clinical syndrome caused by mutations in the nuclear factor kappa-B subunit 2 (NFKB2) gene. We present the first case of NFKB2 mutation in Asian population. METHODS AND RESULTS: An 18-year-old Chinese female with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency was admitted due to adrenal crisis and pneumonia. She had a history of recurrent respiratory infections since childhood and ectodermal abnormalities were noted during physical examination...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737830/non-specific-immunological-effects-of-selected-routine-childhood-immunisations-systematic-review
#13
Rama Kandasamy, Merryn Voysey, Fiona McQuaid, Karlijn de Nie, Rebecca Ryan, Olivia Orr, Ulrike Uhlig, Charles Sande, Daniel O'Connor, Andrew J Pollard
OBJECTIVE:  To identify and characterise non-specific immunological effects after routine childhood vaccines against BCG, measles, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. DESIGN:  Systematic review of randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies. DATA SOURCES:  Embase, PubMed, Cochrane library, and Trip searched between 1947 and January 2014. Publications submitted by a panel of experts in the specialty were also included...
October 13, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733848/the-progress-of-therapeutic-vaccination-with-regard-to-tuberculosis
#14
Pere-Joan Cardona
A major problem with tuberculosis (TB) control is the long duration of drug therapy-both for latent and for active TB. Therapeutic vaccination has been postulated to improve this situation, and to this end there are several candidates already in clinical phases of development. These candidates follow two main designs, namely bacilli-directed therapy based on inactivated -whole or -fragmented bacillus (Mycobacterium w and RUTI) or fusion proteins that integrate non-replicating bacilli -related antigens (H56 vaccine), and host-directed therapy to reduce the tissue destruction...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732129/new-pharmaceutical-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-food-allergies
#15
Ana Brotons-Canto, Nekane Martín-Arbella, Carlos Gamazo, Juan M Irache
Allergic diseases constitute one of the most common causes of chronic illness in developed countries. The main mechanism determining allergy is an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 response towards Th2. Areas covered: This review describes the mechanisms underlying the natural tolerance to food components and the development of an allergic response in sensitized individuals. Furthermore, therapeutic approaches proposed to manage these abnormal immunologic responses food are also presented and discussed. Expert opinion: In the past, management of food allergies has consisted of the education of patients to avoid the ingestion of the culprit food and to initiate the therapy (e...
October 12, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689879/mass-spectrometric-and-functional-aspects-of-drug-protein-conjugation
#16
Arun Tailor, James C Waddington, Xiaoli Meng, B Kevin Park
The covalent binding of drugs (metabolites) to proteins to form drug-protein adducts can have an adverse effect on the body. These adducts are thought to be responsible for idiosyncratic drug reactions including severe drug hypersensitivity reactions. Major advances in proteomics technology have allowed for the identification and quantification of target proteins for certain drugs. Human serum albumin (HSA) and Hb have been identified as accessible targets and potential biomarkers for drug-protein adducts formation, for numerous drugs (metabolites) including β-lactam antibiotics, reactive drug metabolites such as quinone imines (acetaminophen) and acyl glucuronides (diclofenac), and covalent inhibitors (neratinib)...
September 30, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678124/bone-loss-among-women-living-with-hiv
#17
REVIEW
M Neale Weitzmann, Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Kehmia Titanji, Anjali Sharma, Michael T Yin
Clinical data accumulated over the past two decades attests to a significant decline in bone mineral density (BMD) in patients infected by HIV, which does not remit but may actually intensify with anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Long generally perceived as an aberration without clinical consequences in relatively young HIV-infected cohorts, recent studies have documented marked increases in fracture incidence in HIV-infected men and women over a wide age continuum. Fractures are associated with chronic pain, crippling morbidity, and increased mortality, undermining the gains in quality of life achieved though ART...
December 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660501/diagnosis-and-prevention-of-overtraining-syndrome-an-opinion-on-education-strategies
#18
Jeffrey B Kreher
Overtraining syndrome is a condition of maladapted physiology in the setting of excessive exercise without adequate rest. The exact etiology and pathogenesis are unknown and being investigated. Symptoms are multisystem in nature and often representative of underlying hormonal, immunologic, neurologic, and psychologic disturbances. Unfortunately, systematic review of the literature does not clearly direct diagnosis, management, or prevention. However, given the severity of symptoms and impairment to quality of life, prevention of overtraining syndrome should be considered by all who interact with endurance athletes...
2016: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649929/neonatal-mucosal-immunology
#19
N Torow, B J Marsland, M W Hornef, E S Gollwitzer
Although largely deprived from exogenous stimuli in utero, the mucosal barriers of the neonate after birth are bombarded by environmental, nutritional, and microbial exposures. The microbiome is established concurrently with the developing immune system. The nature and timing of discrete interactions between these two factors underpins the long-term immune characteristics of these organs, and can set an individual on a trajectory towards or away from disease. Microbial exposures in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are some of the key determinants of the overall immune tone at these mucosal barriers and represent a leading target for future intervention strategies...
September 21, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646278/cats-are-not-small-dogs-is-there-an-immunological-explanation-for-why-cats-are-less-affected-by-arthropod-borne-disease-than-dogs
#20
REVIEW
Michael J Day
It is widely recognized that cats appear to be less frequently affected by arthropod-borne infectious diseases than dogs and share fewer zoonotic pathogens with man. This impression is supported by the relative lack of scientific publications related to feline vector-borne infections. This review explores the possible reasons for the difference between the two most common small companion animal species, including the hypothesis that cats might have a genetically-determined immunological resistance to arthropod vectors or the microparasites they transmit...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
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