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Nature review immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043075/recent-advances-in-understanding-autoimmune-thyroid-disease-the-tallest-tree-in-the-forest-of-polyautoimmunity
#1
REVIEW
Sofie Bliddal, Claus Henrik Nielsen, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen
Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is often observed together with other autoimmune diseases. The coexistence of two or more autoimmune diseases in the same patient is referred to as polyautoimmunity, and AITD is the autoimmune disease most frequently involved. The occurrence of polyautoimmunity has led to the hypothesis that the affected patients suffer from a generalized dysregulation of their immune system. The present review summarizes recent discoveries unravelling the immunological mechanisms involved in autoimmunity, ranging from natural autoimmunity to disease-specific autoimmunity...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038795/immune-engineering-from-systems-immunology-to-engineering-immunity
#2
Ning Jiang
The smallpox vaccine represents the earliest attempt in engineering immunity. The recent success of chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T cells) in cancer once again demonstrates the clinical potential of immune engineering. Inspired by this success, diverse approaches have been used to boost various aspects of immunity: engineering dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells, T cells, antibodies, cytokines, small peptides, and others. With recent development of various high-throughput technologies (of which engineers, especially biomedical engineers/bioengineers contributed significantly), such as immune repertoire sequencing, and analytical methods, a systems level of understanding immunity (or the lack of it) beyond model animals has provided critical insights into the human immune system...
March 2017: Curr Opin Biomed Eng
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037061/-the-role-of-steroids-in-oncological-practice
#3
Zsófia Küronya, Lajos Géczi, Fruzsina Gyergyay, Krisztina Bíró
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced and disengage in the adrenal cortex. Traditionally natural and synthetic corticosteroids are used for diagnosing and treating dysfunctions of the adrenal cortex and treating inflammatory and immunological diseases. Their use is also widespread in oncological practice. Corticosteroids are indispensable in palliative care, in certain urgent oncological cases, as premedication of some chemotherapies and last but not least they have a key role in the secondary hormonal manipulations of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer...
October 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027807/annals-express-biochemistry-of-the-menopause
#4
John W Honour
The life of a human female is characterised from teenage years by monthly menstruation which ceases (the menopause) typically between the age of 40 and 60 years. The potential for reproduction declines and ceases as the ovaries become depleted of follicles. A transition period in mid-life, for 2 to 10 years, when menstruation is less regular is called the peri-menopause. The menopause is associated with a significant decline in plasma concentrations of sex hormones, an increase in the concentrations of the gonadotrophins and changes in other hormones such as the inhibins...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990666/updating-the-research-on-the-chemopreventive-and-therapeutic-role-of-peptide-lunasin
#5
REVIEW
Chia-Chien Hsieh, Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga, Ben O de Lumen, Blanca Hernández-Ledesma
Chronic diseases have become the medical challenge of the 21st century because of their high incidence and mortality rates. Modulation of diet and lifestyle habits is considered as the best strategy for the prevention of these disorders. Health promoting benefits beyond their nutritional effects have been described for multiple dietary compounds. Among these compounds, peptide lunasin is considered as one of the most promising. Naturally present in soybean, lunasin has been extensively studied in the last two decades because of its potential against chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular and immunological disorders...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987807/canine-susceptibility-to-visceral-leishmaniasis-a-systematic-review-upon-genetic-aspects-considering-breed-factors-and-immunological-concepts
#6
Tassia Cristina Bello de Vasconcelos, Marina Carvalho Furtado, Vínicus Silva Belo, Fernanda Nazaré Morgado, Fabiano Borges Figueiredo
Dogs have different susceptibility degrees to leishmaniasis; however, genetic research on this theme is scarce, manly on visceral form. The aims of this systematic review were to describe and discuss the existing scientific findings on genetic susceptibility to canine leishmaniasis, as well as to show the gaps of the existing knowledge. Twelve articles were selected, including breed immunological studies, genome wide associations or other gene polymorphism or gene sequencing studies, and transcription approaches...
October 5, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986119/utility-of-risk-stratification-for-paclitaxel-hypersensitivity-reactions
#7
Iris M Otani, Timothy Lax, Aidan A Long, Benjamin R Slawski, Carlos A Camargo, Aleena Banerji
BACKGROUND: Hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) are a common impediment to paclitaxel therapy. Management strategies to guide care after a paclitaxel-induced HSR are needed. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the utility and safety of risk stratification on the basis of severity of the initial HSR. METHODS: A risk stratification pathway was developed on the basis of a retrospective review of the management and outcome of 130 patients with paclitaxel-induced HSRs at Massachusetts General Hospital...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973703/emerging-therapeutic-strategies-in-breast-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Kayla Cox, Brandon Alford, Hatem Soliman
The field of medical oncology is experiencing a period of rapid evolution owing to advances in the fields of genomics, tumor biology, and immunology. These disciplines have provided valuable insights into the heterogeneity between breast tumors, key oncogenic drivers, and the role of the immune system in the natural history of breast cancer. This knowledge is translating into many novel therapeutic strategies using personalized medicines, targeted drug delivery systems, and immunomodulatory agents in the treatment of both the early and metastatic stages of the disease...
October 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961037/cns-not-an-immunoprivilaged-site-anymore-but-a-virtual-secondary-lymphoid-organ
#9
Neema Negi, Bimal K Das
The cardinal dogma of central nervous system (CNS) immunology believed brain is an immune privileged site, but scientific evidences gathered so far have overturned this notion proving that CNS is no longer an immune privileged site, but rather an actively regulated site of immune surveillance. Landmark discovery of lymphatic system surrounding the duramater of the brain, made possible by high resolution live imaging technology has given new dimension to neuro-immunology. Here, we discuss the immune privilege status of CNS in light of the previous and current findings, taking into account the differences between a healthy state and changes that occur during an inflammatory response...
September 29, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955346/natural-killer-cell-memory-progress-and-implications
#10
REVIEW
Hui Peng, Zhigang Tian
Immunological memory is a cardinal feature of adaptive immunity. Although natural killer (NK) cells have long been considered short-lived innate lymphocytes that respond rapidly to transformed and virus-infected cells without prior sensitization, accumulating evidence has recently shown that NK cells develop long-lasting and antigen-specific memory to haptens and viruses. Additionally, cytokine stimulation alone can induce memory-like NK cells with longevity and functional competence, leading to emerging interest in harnessing NK cell memory for cancer immunotherapy...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948106/sylvatic-host-associations-of-triatominae-and-implications-for-chagas-disease-reservoirs-a-review-and-new-host-records-based-on-archival-specimens
#11
Anna Y Georgieva, Eric R L Gordon, Christiane Weirauch
BACKGROUND: The 152 extant species of kissing bug include important vectors of the debilitating, chronic, and often fatal Chagas disease, which affects several million people mainly in Central and South America. An understanding of the natural hosts of this speciose group of blood-feeding insects has and will continue to aid ongoing efforts to impede the spread of Chagas disease. However, information on kissing bug biology is piecemeal and scattered, developed using methods with varying levels of accuracy over more than 100 years...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933664/immune-responses-after-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccination
#12
Kristin G-I Mohn, Ingrid Smith, Haakon Sjursen, Rebecca Cox
Since 2003 (US) and 2012 (Europe) the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has been used as an alternative to the traditional inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV). The immune responses elicted by LAIV mimic natural infection and have been found to provide broader clinical protection in children compared to the IIVs. However, our knowledge of the detailed immunological mechanisims induced by LAIV remain to be fully elucidated, and despite 14 years on the global market, there exists no correlate of protection...
September 21, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928888/potential-roles-of-peripheral-dopamine-in-tumor-immunity
#13
REVIEW
Xiang Zhang, Qiaofei Liu, Quan Liao, Yupei Zhao
Recent years, immunotherapy has turned out to be a promising strategy against tumors. Peripheral dopamine (DA) has important roles in immune system among tumor patients. Accumulated reports demonstrate variable expression and distribution of DA receptors (DRs) in diverse immune cells. Interestingly, peripheral DA also involves in tumor progression and it exerts anticancer effects on immunomodulation, which includes inflammasomes in cancer, function of immune effector cells, such as T lymphocytes, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and natural killer (NK) cells...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926962/anti-nkg2d-mab-a-new-treatment-for-crohn-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Kasper Vadstrup, Flemming Bendtsen
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are immunologically-mediated, debilitating conditions resulting from destructive inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The pathogenesis of IBD is incompletely understood, but is considered to be the result of an abnormal immune response with a wide range of cell types and proteins involved. Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) is an activating receptor constitutively expressed on human Natural Killer (NK), γδ T, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT), CD56⁺ T, and CD8⁺ T cells...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910694/an-epidemiologic-perspective-on-the-stem-cell-hypothesis-in-human-carcinogenesis
#15
REVIEW
David Schottenfeld
BACKGROUND: Tomasetti and Vogelstein have hypothesized that the patterns of cancer incidence in various cells and tissues are highly correlated with the estimated lifetime number of stem cell divisions. The authors reviewed the risks in tissues of 17 types of cancer from the United States and 69 additional countries. Positive correlations were observed consistently between the tissue - specific cancer incidence and the estimated lifetime number of stem cell divisions. The authors concluded that approximately two-thirds of global cancer incidence may be attributed to random DNA replication errors...
September 11, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890016/single-recombinant-and-purified-major-allergens-and-peptides-how-they-are-made-and-how-they-change-allergy-diagnosis-and-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Mirela Curin, Viktoriya Garib, Rudolf Valenta
OBJECTIVE: To review the current knowledge regarding recombinant and purified allergens and allergen-derived peptides. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, homepages relevant to the topic, and the National Institutes of Health clinical trial database were searched. STUDY SELECTIONS: The literature was screened for studies describing purified and recombinant allergens and allergen-derived peptides. Studies relevant to the topic were included in this review...
September 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887790/polyspecificity-of-anti-lipid-a-antibodies-and-its-relevance-to-the-development-of-autoimmunity
#17
Omid Haji-Ghassemi, Susannah M L Gagnon, Sven Müller-Loennies, Stephen V Evans
The process of natural selection favours germ-line gene segments that encode CDRs that have the ability to recognize a range of structurally related antigens. This presents an immunological advantage to the host, as it can confer protection against a common pathogen and still cope with new or changing antigens. Cross-reactive and polyspecific antibodies also play a central role in autoimmune responses, and a link has been shown to exist between auto-reactive B cells and certain bacterial infections. Bacterial DNA, lipids, and carbohydrates have been implicated in the progression of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus...
September 9, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881314/analytical-characterization-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-potential-applications-in-pharmaceutical-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Márkó Grabarics, Orsolya Csernák, Réka Balogh, Szabolcs Béni
Human breast milk is the gold standard for infant feeding and the best possible nourishment a new-born could have. Breastfeeding is the natural way to provide optimal nutritional, immunological and emotional nurturing for the healthy growth and development of infants. Human milk is a complex and dynamic biofluid comprised of many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive structures, among which one of the most abundant substances are the non-conjugated complex carbohydrates referred to as human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs)...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874415/cytokine-mediated-regulation-of-human-lymphocyte-development-and-function-insights-from-primary-immunodeficiencies
#19
REVIEW
Stuart G Tangye, Simon J Pelham, Elissa K Deenick, Cindy S Ma
Cytokine-mediated intracellular signaling pathways are fundamental for the development, activation, and differentiation of lymphocytes. These distinct processes underlie protection against infectious diseases after natural infection with pathogens or immunization, thereby providing the host with long-lived immunological memory. In contrast, aberrant cytokine signaling can also result in conditions of immune dysregulation, such as early-onset autoimmunity. Thus, balanced signals provided by distinct cytokines, and delivered to specific cell subsets, are critical for immune homeostasis...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866278/precise-immune-tolerance-for-hpsc-derivatives-in-clinical-application
#20
Wenliang Zhu, Mengqi Li, Yihui Wu, Baoyang Hu
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) promise a foreseeing future for regeneration medicine and cell replacement therapy with their abilities to produce almost any types of somatic cells of the body. The complicated immunogenicity of hPSC derivatives and context dependent responses in variable transplantations greatly hurdle the practical application of hPSCs in clinic. Especially for applications of hPSCs, induction of immune tolerance at the same time increases the risks of tumorigenesis. Over the past few years, thanks to the progress in immunology and practices in organ transplantation, endeavors on exploring strategies to induce long term protection of allogeneic transplants have shed light on overcoming this barrier...
August 30, 2017: Cellular Immunology
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