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Nature review immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235552/t-helper-cells-in-leprosy-an-update
#1
REVIEW
Chaman Saini, Mohd Tarique, Reeta Rai, Anisuddin Siddiqui, Neena Khanna, Alpana Sharma
Leprosy is an ancient disease caused by gram positive, rod shaped bacilli called Mycobacterium leprae. Patients present with varied clinico-pathological disease depending on the host immune response to Mycobacterium leprae. Thus tuberculoid (TT) and lepromatous (LL) patients represent two ends of a spectrum where the former shows limited disease, high T cell mediate immune (CMI) response and low antibody (HI) levels in serum. In contrast the latter has low T cell and high humoral immune response i.e antibody levels...
February 21, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230336/the-endothelial-border-to-health-mechanistic-evidence-of-the-hyperglycemic-culprit-of-inflammatory-disease-acceleration
#2
REVIEW
Nina Waerling Hansen, Anker Jon Hansen, Anette Sams
The endothelial cell (EC) layer constitutes a barrier that controls movements of fluid, solutes and cells between blood and tissue. Further, the endothelial layer regulates vascular tone and directs local humoral and cellular inflammatory processes. The strategic position makes it an important player for maintenance of health and for development of a number of diseases. Endothelial dysfunction is known to be an important component of type 2 diabetes, but is also assumed to be involved in many other diseases, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and cardiovascular diseases...
March 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229252/pain-in-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer-prevalence-mechanisms-management-and-future-developments
#3
REVIEW
Andreas I Koulouris, Paul Banim, Andrew R Hart
Pain affects approximately 80% of patients with pancreatic cancer, with half requiring strong opioid analgesia, namely: morphine-based drugs on step three of the WHO analgesic ladder (as opposed to the weak opioids: codeine and tramadol). The presence of pain is associated with reduced survival. This article reviews the literature regarding pain: prevalence, mechanisms, pharmacological, and endoscopic treatments and identifies areas for research to develop individualized patient pain management pathways. The online literature review was conducted through: PubMed, Clinical Key, Uptodate, and NICE Evidence...
February 22, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224021/mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-potential-therapeutic-approaches-in-celiac-disease
#4
REVIEW
Ali Moheb-Alian, Flora Forouzesh, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Kamran Rostami
As a chronic immune complication, celiac disease has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and gluten ingestion as an external trigger will induce the onset of this disease in genetically predisposed individuals. Because of the complex nature of celiac disease and various cascades of immunological pathways, therapies which are tend to target a single pathway or factor, often have unsatisfactory results. Thus, it should be considered that the new emerging area of cellular therapy by targeting multiple pathways may hold the key for treating celiac affected patients with complicated forms of this disease...
December 2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207490/how-hiv-1-entry-mechanism-and-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-guide-structure-based-vaccine-design
#5
Marie Pancera, Anita Changela, Peter D Kwong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An HIV-1 vaccine that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) remains to be developed. Here, we review how knowledge of bNAbs and HIV-1 entry mechanism is guiding the structure-based design of vaccine immunogens and immunization regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: Isolation of bNAbs from HIV-1-infected donors has led to an unprecedented understanding of the sites of vulnerability that these antibodies target on the HIV-1 envelope (Env) as well as of the immunological pathways that these antibody lineages follow to develop broad and potent neutralization...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137237/model-systems-for-pulmonary-infectious-diseases-paradigms-of-anthrax-and-tuberculosis
#6
Gunjan Arora, Richa Misra, Andaleeb Sajid
Robert Koch utilized animal model systems to put forward his postulates while discovering the etiological agents of anthrax and tuberculosis, Bacillus anthracis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively. After more than 130 years, we have achieved limited success towards understanding these two pestilences, which have propagated as scourge against humans. B. anthracis and M. tuberculosis are diverse organisms, which share a common evolutionary path in tropics. They adapt unique strategies to overcome unfavorable conditions and surpass the host defense mechanisms...
January 30, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133800/polyvalent-vaccine-approaches-to-combat-hiv-1-diversity
#7
REVIEW
Bette Korber, Peter Hraber, Kshitij Wagh, Beatrice H Hahn
A key unresolved challenge for developing an effective HIV-1 vaccine is the discovery of strategies to elicit immune responses that are able to cross-protect against a significant fraction of the diverse viruses that are circulating worldwide. Here, we summarize some of the immunological implications of HIV-1 diversity, and outline the rationale behind several polyvalent vaccine design strategies that are currently under evaluation. Vaccine-elicited T-cell responses, which contribute to the control of HIV-1 in natural infections, are currently being considered in both prevention and treatment settings...
January 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128711/foreskin-as-a-source-of-immunotherapeutic-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#8
Mehdi Najar, Laurence Lagneaux
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have well-characterized properties and thus represent an attractive cell population for use in several therapeutic applications. Due to the limitations and inconveniences associated with classical sources of MSCs, the identification and characterization of alternative sources are required for safe and efficient cell therapy. The skin tissue is currently referred to as a reservoir of cells with therapeutically relevant functions. Historically considered biological waste, foreskin (FSK) is increasingly used to provide immunotherapeutic MSCs for medicinal products...
January 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118528/clinical-and-serological-features-distinguish-patients-with-incomplete-lupus-classification-from-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-and-controls
#9
Teresa Aberle, Rebecka L Bourn, Melissa E Munroe, Hua Chen, Virginia C Roberts, Joel M Guthridge, Krista Bean, Julie M Robertson, Kathy L Sivils, Astrid Rasmussen, Meghan Liles, Joan T Merrill, John B Harley, Nancy J Olsen, David R Karp, Judith A James
OBJECTIVE: Incomplete lupus erythematosus (ILE) involves clinical and/or serologic manifestations consistent with but insufficient for SLE classification. Because the nature of ILE is poorly understood and no treatment recommendations exist, we examined clinical manifestations, medication history, and immunologic features in a diverse collection of ILE and SLE patients. METHODS: Medical records of subjects enrolled to the Lupus Family Registry and Repository were reviewed for medication history and American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria to identify ILE patients (3 ACR criteria; n=440) and SLE patients (≥4 ACR criteria; n=3,397)...
January 24, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115308/a-supporting-role-of-chinese-national-immortalized-cell-bank-in-life-science-research
#10
Xu Chongfeng, Duan Ziyuan
A biorepository of human samples is essential to support the research of life science. Lymphoblastoid B cell line (LCL), which is easy to be prepared and can reproduce indefinitely, is a convenient form of sample preservation. LCLs are established from human B cells transformed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Chinese National Immortalized Cell Bank has preserved human LCLs from different ethnic groups in China. As there are many studies on the nature of LCLs and public available resources with genome-wide data for LCLs, they have been widely applied in genetics, immunology, pharmacogenetics/genomics, regenerative medicine, cancer pathogenesis and immunotherapy, screening and generation of fully human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and study on EBV pathogenesis...
January 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108952/transcriptional-regulators-dictate-innate-lymphoid-cell-fates
#11
REVIEW
Chao Zhong, Jinfang Zhu
Research on innate lymphoid cells (ILC) has recently been a fast paced topic of immunological research. As ILCs are able to produce signature Th cytokine, ILCs have garnered considerable attention and have been described to represent the innate counterpart of the CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells. The development and function of ILCs are precisely regulated by a network of crucial transcription factors, which are also involved in the development or differentiation of conventional natural killer (cNK) cells and T cells...
January 20, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097690/an-overview-of-structural-features-of-antibacterial-glycoconjugate-vaccines-that-influence-their-immunogenicity
#12
REVIEW
Farjana Khatun, Rachel J Stephenson, Istvan Toth
Bacterial cell-surface-derived or mimicked carbohydrate moieties that act as protective antigens are used in the development of antibacterial glycoconjugate vaccines. The carbohydrate antigen must have a minimum length or size to maintain the conformational structure of the antigenic epitope(s). The presence or absence of O-acetate, phosphate, glycerol phosphate and pyruvate ketal plays a vital role in defining the immunogenicity of the carbohydrate antigen. The nature of the carrier protein, spacer and conjugation pattern used to develop the glycoconjugate vaccine also defines its overall spatial orientation which in turn affects its avidity and selectivity of interaction with the desired target(s)...
November 7, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093620/inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-cancer-response-due-to-anti-ctla-4-is-it-in-the-flora
#13
REVIEW
Franck Carbonnel, Emilie Soularue, Clélia Coutzac, Nathalie Chaput, Christine Mateus, Patricia Lepage, Caroline Robert
Checkpoint inhibitors blocking CTLA-4 (ipilimumab) and PD-1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab) have transfigured our cancer treatment paradigm. However, these drugs can induce immune-related adverse events that share clinical and pathological characteristics with immune-mediated diseases. One of the most severe immune-related adverse event observed with anti-CTLA-4 is an enterocolitis that mirrors naturally occurring inflammatory bowel disease. This paper reviews the clinical, immunological, and microbiota data associated with the immune-related enterocolitis induced by the cancer immunotherapy blocking CTLA-4, ipilimumab...
January 16, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059453/therapeutic-effects-of-curcumin-in-inflammatory-and-immune-mediated-diseases-a-nature-made-jack-of-all-trades
#14
REVIEW
Elham Abdollahi, Amir Abbas Momtazi, Thomas P Johnston, Amirhosein Sahebkar
Curcumin is a dietary polyphenol from turmeric with numerous pharmacological activities. Novel animal and human studies indicate that curcumin can affect different immune cells, such as various T lymphocyte subsets, macrophages, dendritic cells, B lymphocytes and natural killer cells, which results in decreasing severity of various diseases with immunological etiology. The present review provides a comprehensive overview of the effects of curcumin on different immune cells and immune system-related diseases...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057508/the-humoral-immune-system-of-anadromous-fish
#15
REVIEW
Patty Zwollo
The immune system of anadromous fish is extremely complex, a direct consequence of their diadromous nature. Hormone levels fluctuate widely throughout their life cycle, as fish move between fresh and salt water. This poses major challenges to the physiology of anadromous fish, including adaptation to very different saline environments, distinct pathogen fingerprints, and different environmental stressors. Elevated cortisol and sex hormone levels inhibit B lymphopoiesis and IgM(+) antibody responses, while catecholamines, growth hormones and thyroid hormones are generally stimulatory and enhance the humoral immune response...
January 2, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006927/the-safety-of-therapeutic-monoclonal-antibodies-implications-for-cancer-therapy-including-immuno-checkpoint-inhibitors
#16
R Demlova, D Valík, R Obermannova, L ZdraŽilová-Dubská
Monoclonal antibody-based treatment of cancer has been established as one of the most successful therapeutic strategies for both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. In addition to targeting cancer antigens antibodies can also modulate immunological pathways that are critical to immune surveillance. Antibody therapy directed against several negative immunologic regulators (checkpoints) is demonstrating significant success in the past few years. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, ipilimumab, pembrolizumab and nivolumab, have shown significant clinical benefit in several malignancies and are already approved for advanced melanoma and squamous NSCLC...
December 21, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990523/teichoic-acids-synthesis-and-applications
#17
REVIEW
Daan van der Es, Wouter F J Hogendorf, Herman S Overkleeft, Gijsbert A van der Marel, Jeroen D C Codée
This review describes the developments in the synthesis of teichoic acids (TA) - glycosylated poly(alditolphosphates) - and the application of these fragments in immunological studies. These structurally diverse biopolymers are omnipresent constituents of the Gram-positive bacterial cell wall where they fulfill a variety of vital functions. They have been and continue to be attractive synthetic targets because of their challenging structures and the fact that their microheterogeneity precludes their isolation in single and pure enough form from natural sources...
December 19, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982737/il-37-a-new-il-1-family-member-emerges-as-a-key-suppressor-of-asthma-mediated-by-mast-cells
#18
P Conti, G Ronconi, A Caraffa, G Lessiani, Kempuraj Duraisamy
: In 1986, we reported a multiple biological effect of IL-1 including immunological, inflammatory, and tumor killing activity. Since then other IL-1 family cytokines have been discovered, some with inflammatory and other with anti-inflammatory activity. In this review article, we speculate on the possible inhibitory effect of IL-37 in the light of new findings. IL-37, formerly termed IL-1 family member 7 (IL-1F7), binding IL-18 receptor α chain, acts as a cytokine with intracellular as well as extracellular functionality and as a natural inhibitor of immune responses and inflammation...
December 16, 2016: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956338/-from-acute-pulmonary-embolism-to-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension-pathobiology-and-pathophysiology
#19
Miguel E Beltrán-Gámez, Julio Sandoval-Zárate, Tomás Pulido
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) represents a unique subtype of pulmonary hypertension characterized by the presence of mechanical obstruction of the major pulmonary vessels caused by venous thromboembolism. CTEPH is a progressive and devastating disease if not treated, and is the only subset of PH potentially curable by a surgical procedure known as pulmonary endarterectomy. The clot burden and pulmonary embolism recurrence may contribute to the development of CTEPH however only few thrombophilic factors have been found to be associated...
January 2017: Archivos de Cardiología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931829/primary-immunodeficiencies-associated-with-ebv-induced-lymphoproliferative-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Mahsima Shabani, Kim E Nichols, Nima Rezaei
Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are a subgroup of inherited immunological disorders that increase susceptibility to viral infections. Among the range of viral pathogens involved, EBV remains a major threat because of its high prevalence of infection among the adult population and its tendency to progress to life-threatening lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) and/or malignancy. The high mortality in immunodeficient patients with EBV-driven LPDs, despite institution of diverse and often intensive treatments, prompts the need to better study these PIDs to identify and understand the affected molecular pathways that increase susceptibility to EBV infection and progression...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
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