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Cerebral circulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091829/inhibition-of-dpp-4-activity-and-neuronal-atrophy-with-genistein-attenuates-neurological-deficits-induced-by-transient-global-cerebral-ischemia-and-reperfusion-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#1
Mithun Singh Rajput, Purnima Dey Sarkar, Nilesh Prakash Nirmal
Genistein, an isoflavonoid phytoestrogen, has been known for its potential pharmacological properties especially for neuroprotection and treating diabetes. The present study aims to determine the neuroprotective efficacy of genistein against global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced neuronal injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and explore the underlying mechanisms. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were subjected to transient cerebral ischemia by occluding both common carotid arteries for 30 min followed by 24 h reperfusion to induce neuronal injury...
January 16, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090185/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-anterior-circulation-intracranial-aneurysm-managed-with-clipping-in-hospital-sungai-buloh
#2
Ailani Ab Ghani, Saiful Azli Mat Nayan, Regunath Kandasamy, Azmin Kas Rosman, Abdul Rahman Izani Ghani
INTRODUCTION: The annual incidence of intracranial aneurysm in Malaysia is estimated to be 1.1-1.7 per 100,000 population based on a study done conducted in 1988. Since then, little epidemiological research has been conducted in Malaysia, and the real incidence is therefore probably unreported despite advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. Intracranial aneurysm may be treated by microsurgical clipping or embolisation depending on its location and the surgeon's preference...
November 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088807/posterior-versus-anterior-circulation-stroke-in-young-adults-a-comparative-study-of-stroke-aetiologies-and-risk-factors-in-stroke-among-young-fabry-patients-sifap1
#3
Bettina von Sarnowski, Ulf Schminke, Ulrike Grittner, Christian Tanislav, Tobias Böttcher, Michael G Hennerici, Turgut Tatlisumak, Jukka Putaala, Manfred Kaps, Franz Fazekas, Christian Enzinger, Arndt Rolfs, Christof Kessler
BACKGROUND: Although 20-30% of all strokes occur in the posterior circulation, few studies have explored the characteristics of patients with strokes in the posterior compared to the anterior circulation so far. Especially data on young patients is missing. METHODS: In this secondary analysis of data of the prospective multi-centre European sifap1 study that investigated stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients aged 18-55 years, we compared vascular risk factors, stroke aetiology, presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and cerebral microbleeds (CMB) between patients with ischaemic posterior circulation stroke (PCS) and those having suffered from anterior circulation stroke (ACS) based on cerebral MRI...
January 14, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088803/small-versus-large-ruptured-intracranial-aneurysm-concerns-with-the-site-of-aneurysm
#4
Bum Joon Kim, Hyun Goo Kang, Byeong-Duk Kwun, Jae-Sung Ahn, Jisung Lee, Sung Ho Lee, Dong-Wha Kang, Jong S Kim, Sun U Kwon
BACKGROUND: Although size is one of the strongest predictors, small aneurysms often rupture. We compared the characteristics of small and large ruptured intracranial aneurysms (RIAs) according to their location to find the factors associated with small RIAs in each location. METHODS: Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to saccular RIAs were consecutively enrolled. The sizes were dichotomized as small (<5 mm) or large, and the location was classified as paraclinoid-distal internal carotid artery, sidewalls of anterior or middle cerebral artery (MCA; sidewall), MCA-bifurcation, anterior or posterior communicating artery (Acom or Pcom, respectively), and posterior circulation RIAs...
January 14, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088349/stroke-biomarkers-in-clinical-practice-a-critical-appraisal
#5
REVIEW
Geelyn J L Ng, Amy M L Quek, Christine Cheung, Thiruma V Arumugam, Raymond C S Seet
Biomarkers provide critical mechanistic insights to key biologic processes that occur during cerebral ischemia which, when carefully applied, can improve clinical decision-making in acute stroke management. The translation of a blood-based biomarker in ischemic stroke to clinical practice is challenging, in part, due to the complexity of ischemic stroke pathogenesis and the presence of a blood-brain barrier that restricts the release of brain-specific markers into the circulation. The pathologic and clinical aspects of ischemic stroke are described in this review, where a non-exhaustive list of biomarkers that interrogate different aspects of ischemic stroke such as oxidative damage, inflammation, thrombus formation, cardiac function and brain injury are described...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087439/cerebrovascular-heterogeneity-and-neuronal-excitability
#6
REVIEW
Laura Librizzi, Marco de Curtis, Damir Janigro, Leonie Runtz, Frederic deBock, Emmanuel L Barbier, Nicola Marchi
The cerebral vasculature is a complex tridimensional network of arterial and venous vessels which are anatomically in proximity of and functionally coupled to neurons. Depending on the cellular composition of the vascular wall and its anatomical arrangement, cerebral vessels control regional blood flow, define interstitial homeostasis or cerebrospinal fluid circulation and influence immune cell patrolling. Pathological deviations from these functions promote or are a consequence of brain diseases, directly impacting neuronal firing...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087097/quick-epinephrine-administration-induces-favorable-neurological-outcomes-in-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-patients
#7
H Ueta, H Tanaka, S Tanaka, R Sagisaka, H Takyu
OBJECTIVE: This research is to study if quick administration of adrenaline on OHCA prior to hospitalization has an effect on improving CPC1-2 at one month. METHODOLOGY: A total 13,326 cases were extracted from 2011 to 2014 Utstein data for this retrospective cohort study, also, EMT reached the patients within 16min after 119 called and adrenaline was then administered within 22min of after contact. PATIENTS DIVIDED INTO TWO GROUPS: Patients were contacted within 8min of the 119 call (n=6956), and were contacted between 8 and 16min after the call (n=6370)...
January 3, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070897/stable-spline-deconvolution-for-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-mri
#8
Denis Peruzzo, Marco Castellaro, Gianluigi Pillonetto, Alessandra Bertoldo
PURPOSE: To present the stable spline (SS) deconvolution method for the quantification of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) from dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI. METHODS: The SS method was compared with both the block-circulant singular value decomposition (oSVD) and nonlinear stochastic regularization (NSR) methods. oSVD is one of the most popular deconvolution methods in dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI). NSR is an alternative approach that we proposed previously...
January 9, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067615/intracranial-atherosclerosis-from-anatomy-to-pathophysiology
#9
Yuehua Pu, Linfang Lan, Xinyi Leng, Lawrence Ks Wong, Liping Liu
Background Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis is an important etiology subtype of ischemic stroke. Stenosis severity was thought to be the main reference index for clinical treatment and research. However, stenosis could not reflect the ischemia risk completely, instead the hemodynamic state across the lesion, the extent of collateral circulation, and perfusion impairment downstream the stenosis are more important. Aims We write this review aimed to summarize novel angiographic methods applied in the evaluation of functional severity of ICAS, and commented on their limitations and prospects in future research...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062805/intravenous-thrombolysis-before-endovascular-therapy-for-large-vessel-strokes-can-lead-to-significantly-higher-hospital-costs-without-improving-outcomes
#10
Ansaar T Rai, SoHyun Boo, Chelsea Buseman, Amelia K Adcock, Abdul R Tarabishy, Maurice M Miller, Thomas D Roberts, Jennifer R Domico, Jeffrey S Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Limited efficacy of IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) for large vessel occlusions (LVO) raises doubts about its utility prior to endovascular therapy. PURPOSE: To compare outcomes and hospital costs for anterior circulation LVOs (middle cerebral artery, internal carotid artery terminus (ICA-T)) treated with either primary endovascular therapy alone (EV-Only) or bridging therapy (IV+EV)). METHODS: A single-center retrospective analysis was performed...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059658/parent-vessel-occlusion-after-pipeline-embolization-of-cerebral-aneurysms-of-the-anterior-circulation
#11
Matthew B Potts, Maksim Shapiro, Daniel W Zumofen, Eytan Raz, Erez Nossek, Keith G DeSousa, Tibor Becske, Howard A Riina, Peter K Nelson
OBJECTIVE The Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) is now a well-established option for the treatment of giant or complex aneurysms, especially those arising from the anterior circulation. Considering the purpose of such treatment is to maintain patency of the parent vessel, postembolization occlusion of the parent artery can be regarded as an untoward outcome. Antiplatelet therapy in the posttreatment period is therefore required to minimize such events. Here, the authors present a series of patients with anterior circulation aneurysms treated with the PED who subsequently experienced parent vessel occlusion (PVO)...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057589/microsurgical-clipping-of-unruptured-intracranial-aneurysms-a-single-surgeon-s-experience-over-sixteen-years
#12
Anil Nanda, Devi Prasad Patra, Shyamal C Bir, Tanmoy K Maiti, Piyush Kalakoti, Papireddy Bollam
INTRODUCTION: Unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) have become an issue of greater significance as their detection rates have increased over the years. We present the overall experience of microsurgical clipping of unruptured aneurysms by a single surgeon over a period of more than 16 years. METHODS: The clinical and radiological data were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical outcome at follow-up was assessed by Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), and angiograms were reviewed for the degree of occlusion...
January 2, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053539/complex-neurological-symptoms-in-bilateral-thalamic-stroke-due-to-percheron-artery-occlusion
#13
Paola Caruso, Paolo Manganotti, Rita Moretti
The artery of Percheron is a rare anatomical variant where a single thalamic perforating artery arises from the proximal posterior cerebral artery (P1 segment) between the basilar artery and the posterior communicating artery and supplies the rostral mesencephalon and both paramedian territories of the thalami. Almost one-third of human brains present this variant. Occlusion of the artery of Percheron mostly results in a bilateral medial thalamic infarction, which usually manifests with altered consciousness (including coma), vertical gaze paresis, and cognitive disturbance...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045724/out-of-hospital-perimortem-cesarean-delivery-performed-in-a-woman-at-32-weeks-of-gestation-a-case-report
#14
Harald Lenz, Liv Berit Stenseth, Nina Meidell, Hans Julius Heimdal
A 34-year-old pregnant woman experienced cardiac arrest at home. Out-of-hospital perimortem cesarean delivery was performed 27 minutes after the collapse. Both mother and child were resuscitated and had return of spontaneous circulation before they were transported to a university hospital. The mother underwent hysterectomy and developed disseminated intravascular coagulation. Despite intensive treatment, she died 8.5 hours after arrival. The infant was extubated the next day, and her subsequent hospital course was uneventful...
December 30, 2016: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040435/in-vitro-investigation-of-the-hemodynamic-responses-of-the-cerebral-coronary-and-renal-circulations-with-a-rotary-blood-pump-installed-in-the-descending-aorta
#15
M A Rezaienia, G Paul, E J Avital, S Mozafari, M Rothman, T Korakianitis
This study investigates the hemodynamic responses of the cardiovascular system when a rotary blood pump is operating in the descending aorta, with a focus on the cerebral, coronary and renal autoregulation, using our in-house cardiovascular emulator. Several improvements have been made from our previous studies. A novel coronary system was developed to replicate the native coronary perfusion. Three pinch valves actuated by stepper motors were used to simulate the regional autoregulation systems of the native cerebral, coronary and renal circulations...
December 28, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036062/an-unusual-case-of-post-traumatic-headache-complicated-by-intracranial-hypotension
#16
Sara Siavoshi, Carrie Dougherty, Jessica Ailani, Kaustubh Yadwadkar, Frank Berkowitz
We present a case of post-traumatic headache complicated by intracranial hypotension resulting in an acquired Chiari malformation and myelopathy with syringomyelia. This constellation of findings suggest a possible series of events that started with a traumatic cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) leak, followed by descent of the cerebellar tonsils and disruption of CSF circulation that caused spinal cord swelling and syrinx. This unusual presentation of post-traumatic headache highlights the varying presentations and the potential sequelae of intracranial hypotension...
December 29, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033622/reversible-hypertensive-myelopathy-the-spinal-cord-variant-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome
#17
Rahsan Gocmen, Didem Ardicli, Yasin Erarslan, Ali Duzova, Banu Anlar
The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a well-known clinical and radiologic entity mainly affecting the territory of the posterior cerebral circulation. Spinal cord involvement is extremely rare, and as of yet, only a few cases have been reported in the literature. The present case describes a reversible, longitudinal spinal cord lesion in a patient with high blood pressure. We discuss the differential diagnosis of longitudinal myelopathy and focus on the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of the "spinal cord variant of PRES...
December 29, 2016: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033279/the-effect-of-fenestration-of-the-lamina-terminalis-on-the-incidence-of-shunt-dependent-hydrocephalus-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-fish-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Chuanyuan Tao, Chaofeng Fan, Xin Hu, Junpeng Ma, Lu Ma, Hao Li, Yi Liu, Hong Sun, Min He, Chao You
BACKGROUND: Shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (SDH) is a well-known sequela following aneurysmal hemorrhage, adversely affecting the outcome after securing ruptured aneurysm. Fenestration of lamina terminalis (FLT) creates an anterior ventriculostomy, facilitates cerebrospinal fluid circulation and clot clearance in the basal cistern. However, controversy exists over whether microsurgical FLT during aneurysm repair can decrease the incidence of SDH. AIMS: The study is designed to determine the efficacy of lamina terminalis fenestration on the reduction of SDH after aneurysm clipping...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030955/reno-cerebral-reflex-activates-renin-angiotensin-system-promoting-oxidative-stress-and-renal-damage-after-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#19
Wei Cao, Aiqing Li, Jiawen Li, Chunyi Wu, Shuang Cui, Zhanmei Zhou, Youhua Liu, Christopher Stuart Wilcox, Fan Fan Hou
AIMS: A kidney-brain interaction has been described in acute kidney injury but the mechanisms are uncertain. Since we recently described a reno-cerebral reflex, we tested the hypothesis that renal ischemia-reperfusion injury activates a sympathetic reflex that interlinks the renal and cerebral renin-angiotensin axis to promote oxidative stress and progression of the injury. RESULTS: Bilateral ischemia-reperfusion activated the intrarenal and cerebral, but not the circulating, renin-angiotensin system, increased sympathetic activity in the kidney and the cerebral sympathetic regulatory regions, and induced brain inflammation and kidney injury...
December 28, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028157/brain-histopathology-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-identification-of-lesions-associated-with-clinical-neuropsychiatric-lupus-syndromes-and-the-role-of-complement
#20
Daniëlle Cohen, Emilie C Rijnink, Rob J A Nabuurs, Gerda M Steup-Beekman, Maarten J Versluis, Bart J Emmer, Malu Zandbergen, Mark A van Buchem, Cornelia F Allaart, Ron Wolterbeek, Jan A Bruijn, Sjoerd G van Duinen, Tom W J Huizinga, Ingeborg M Bajema
OBJECTIVES: Neuropsychiatric (NP) involvement is a poorly understood manifestation of SLE. We studied post-mortem histopathology in relation to clinical NPSLE syndromes and complement deposition in brains of NPSLE and SLE patients and controls. Furthermore, we investigated the correlation between cerebral post-mortem histopathology and ex vivo 7 T MRI findings in SLE and NPSLE. METHODS: A nationwide search for autopsy material yielded brain tissue from 16 NPSLE and 18 SLE patients...
January 2017: Rheumatology
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