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Cerebral circulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438718/the-effect-of-50-compared-to-100-inspired-oxygen-fraction-on-brain-oxygenation-and-post-cardiac-arrest-mitochondrial-function-in-experimental-cardiac-arrest
#1
Annika Nelskyla, Jouni Nurmi, Milla Jousi, Alexey Schramko, Eero Mervaala, Giuseppe Ristagno, Markus B Skrifvars
BACKGROUND AND AIM: We hypothesised that the use of 50% compared to 100% oxygen maintains cerebral oxygenation and ameliorates the disturbance of cardiac mitochondrial respiration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced electrically in anaesthetised healthy adult pigs and left untreated for seven minutes followed by randomisation to manual ventilation with 50% or 100% oxygen and mechanical chest compressions (LUCAS(®))...
April 21, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436815/moyamoya-in-a-patient-with-fires-a-first-case-report
#2
Taylor Kaufman, Andrew White
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a form of epileptic encephalopathy with severe refractory epilepsy that presents in previously healthy, school-aged children after significant febrile illness with concomitant rise in body temperature. Suspected causes include genetic or acquired channelopathies, as well as mitochondrial disturbances. In FIRES, the EEG shows diffuse slowing, generalized, and/or multifocal discharges. Seizures are present and resistant to treatment. Moyamoya angiopathy (MMA) is characterized by progressive stenosis of cerebral arteries and subsequent development of a network of collateral circulation that is prone to rupture...
2017: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434443/aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#3
Athanasios K Petridis, Marcel A Kamp, Jan F Cornelius, Thomas Beez, Kerim Beseoglu, Bernd Turowski, Hans-Jakob Steiger
BACKGROUND: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with a mortality of more than 30%. Only about 30% of patients with SAB recover sufficiently to return to independent living. METHODS: This article is based on a selective review of pertinent literature retrieved by a PubMed search. RESULTS: Acute, severe headache, typically described as the worst headache of the patient's life, and meningismus are the characteristic manifestations of SAH...
March 31, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434009/hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy-and-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-neonates
#4
Wei Ling Amelia Lee, Adina T Michael-Titus, Divyen K Shah
This review aims to highlight a possible relationship between hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) and the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Inflammatory reactions perpetuate a large proportion of cerebral injury. The extent of injury noted in HIE is not only determined by the biochemical cascades that trigger the apoptosis-necrosis continuum of cell death in the brain parenchyma, but also by the breaching of the BBB by pro-inflammatory factors. We examine the changes that contribute to the breakdown of the BBB that occur during HIE at a macroscopic, cellular, and molecular level...
April 22, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432486/cholesterol-as-a-modifying-agent-of-the-neurovascular-unit-structure-and-function-under-physiological-and-pathological-conditions
#5
REVIEW
Ewelina Czuba, Aleksandra Steliga, Grażyna Lietzau, Przemysław Kowiański
The brain, demanding constant level of cholesterol, precisely controls its synthesis and homeostasis. The brain cholesterol pool is almost completely separated from the rest of the body by the functional blood-brain barrier (BBB). Only a part of cholesterol pool can be exchanged with the blood circulation in the form of the oxysterol metabolites such, as 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) and 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC). Not only neurons but also blood vessels and neuroglia, constituting neurovascular unit (NVU), are crucial for the brain cholesterol metabolism and undergo precise regulation by numerous modulators, metabolites and signal molecules...
April 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432264/prediction-of-stroke-subtype-and-recanalization-using-susceptibility-vessel-sign-on-susceptibility-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#6
Dong-Wan Kang, Han-Gil Jeong, Do Yeon Kim, Wookjin Yang, Seung-Hoon Lee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The susceptibility vessel sign (SVS) is a hypointense signal visualized because of the susceptibility effect of thrombi, sensitively detected on susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship of SVS parameters with the stroke subtype and recanalization status after endovascular treatment remains uncertain. METHODS: The data from 89 patients with acute stroke caused by anterior circulation infarcts who underwent susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging before endovascular treatment were examined...
April 21, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430295/multiple-cerebral-fusiform-aneurysms-involving-the-posterior-and-anterior-circulation-including-the-anterior-cerebral-artery-a-case-report
#7
Sumit Das, Tibor Valyi-Nagy
<i>Multiple fusiform aneurysms occurring in a single patient are very uncommon. Fusiform aneurysms affecting the anterior circulation are extremely rare and reported cases involve the middle cerebral artery and internal carotid artery. We report here a case of a 55-year-old African American male who had a history of multiple strokes and who was found unresponsive prior to his latest hospital admission. Neuroimaging was remarkable for multiple fusiform aneurysms involving segments of the anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries as well as subarachnoid and intraparenchymal hemorrhage...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428348/predictors-of-the-aspiration-component-success-of-a-direct-aspiration-first-pass-technique-adapt-for-the-endovascular-treatment-of-stroke-reperfusion-strategy-in-anterior-circulation-acute-stroke
#8
Raphaël Blanc, Hocine Redjem, Gabriele Ciccio, Stanislas Smajda, Jean-Philippes Desilles, Eliane Orng, Guillaume Taylor, Elodie Drumez, Robert Fahed, Julien Labreuche, Mikael Mazighi, Bertrand Lapergue, Michel Piotin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The technique of a direct aspiration first pass technique (ADAPT) for the endovascular treatment of stroke has been reported to be fast, safe, and effective for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. The aim of this study is to determine the preoperative factors that affect success of the aspiration component of the technique in ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation. METHODS: We enrolled all 347 consecutive patients with anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke admitted for mechanical thrombectomy at our institution from August 2013 to October 2015 and treated by ADAPT for the endovascular treatment of stroke...
April 20, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426698/extensive-alterations-of-blood-metabolites-in-pediatric-cerebral-malaria
#9
Sanchit Gupta, Karl Seydel, Miguel A Miranda-Roman, Catherine M Feintuch, Alex Saidi, Ryung S Kim, Gretchen L Birbeck, Terrie Taylor, Johanna P Daily
Cerebral malaria (CM) presents as an encephalopathy and is due to infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Patients are comatose, often with fever, recurrent seizures and this condition is associated with a high mortality rate. The etiology of the coma and seizures are poorly understood. Circulating small molecules and lipids have bioactive functions and alterations in their concentrations have been implicated in seizure disorders and other forms of encephalopathy. We carried out a comprehensive analysis of blood metabolites during CM to explore a biochemical basis of this encephalopathy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424015/susceptibility-weighted-imaging-in-acute-cerebral-ischemia-review-of-emerging-technical-concepts-and-clinical-applications
#10
Charlie Chia-Tsong Hsu, Gigi Nga Chi Kwan, Sachintha Hapugoda, Michelle Craigie, Trevor William Watkins, E Mark Haacke
Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is an essential magnetic resonance imaging sequence in the assessment of acute ischemic stroke. In this article, we discuss the physics principals and clinical application of conventional SWI and multi-echo SWI sequences. We review the research evidence and practical approach of SWI in acute ischemic stroke by focusing on the detection and characterization of thromboembolism in the cerebral circulation. In addition, we discuss the role of SWI in the assessment of neuroparenchyma by depiction of asymmetric hypointense cortical veins in the ischemic territory (surrogate tissue perfusion), detection of existing microbleeds before stroke treatment and monitoring for hemorrhagic transformation post-treatment...
April 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421431/detection-of-autoantibodies-to-potentially-amyloidogenic-protein-gamma-synuclein-in-the-serum-of-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-cerebral-circulatory-disorders
#11
A Yu Roman, E A Kovrazhkina, O D Razinskaya, M S Kukharsky, A V Maltsev, R K Ovchinnikov, O A Lytkina, A P Smirnov, A A Moskovtsev, Yu V Borodina, A P Surguchov, A A Ustyugov, N N Ninkina, V I Skvortsova
In this study, we analyzed serum for the presence of antibodies to gamma-synuclein in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) compared to the control group of patients with other neurological diseases and healthy control donors. As a result, antibodies against gamma-synuclein are not an ALS-specific feature and have been identified in patients with ALS as well as in the control group patients. Patients with the impaired cerebral circulation showed increased incidence of autoantibodies to gamma-synuclein, yet the difference lacks statistical representativeness due to limited sample size...
January 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418788/factors-associated-with-delayed-cooling-in-cardiac-arrest-patients
#12
David A Pearson, Katherine Mayer, Catherine M Wares, Michael S Runyon, Jonathan R Studnek, Shana L Ward, Kathi M Kraft, Alan C Heffner
Therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to improve neurologic outcome in medical cardiac arrest patients, yet little is known about factors that delay target temperature achievement. Our primary aim was to identify factors associated with not achieving our institutional "door-to-cool" (DTC) performance goal (emergency department [ED] arrival to temperature of 34°C) of ≤4 hours. Secondary aims included whether achievement of DTC goal was associated with timing of bolus neuromuscular blockade (NMB), survival, or functional outcome...
April 18, 2017: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416407/relationship-between-hemorrhagic-complications-and-target-vessels-in-acute-thrombectomy
#13
Manabu Shirakawa, Shinichi Yoshimura, Kazutaka Uchida, Seigo Shindo, Kiyofumi Yamada, Junko Kuroda, Toshinori Takagi, Yoshihiro Takada, Reiichi Ishikura
PURPOSE: Intracranial hemorrhage after thrombectomy using a catheter to treat acute major cerebral artery occlusion is known to exacerbate patient outcomes. This study was performed to determine the relationship between middle cerebral artery (MCA) tortuosity and postoperative hemorrhage. METHODS: We examined 111 consecutive patients who underwent acute thrombectomy for major intracranial artery occlusion in the anterior circulation at our hospital between September 2013 and June 2016...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409731/a-direct-aspiration-first-pass-technique-vs-stentriever-thrombectomy-in-emergent-large-vessel-intracranial-occlusions
#14
Christopher J Stapleton, Thabele M Leslie-Mazwi, Collin M Torok, Reza Hakimelahi, Joshua A Hirsch, Albert J Yoo, James D Rabinov, Aman B Patel
OBJECTIVE Endovascular thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by occlusion of the proximal anterior circulation arteries is superior to standard medical therapy. Stentriever thrombectomy with or without aspiration assistance was the predominant technique used in the 5 randomized controlled trials that demonstrated the superiority of endovascular thrombectomy. Other studies have highlighted the efficacy of a direct aspiration first-pass technique (ADAPT). METHODS To compare the angiographic and clinical outcomes of ADAPT versus stentriever thrombectomy in patients with emergent large vessel occlusions (ELVO) of the anterior intracranial circulation, the records of 134 patients who were treated between June 2012 and October 2015 were reviewed...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409729/neuropsychological-function-after-endovascular-and-neurosurgical-treatment-of-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Peter Egeto, R Loch Macdonald, Tisha J Ornstein, Tom A Schweizer
OBJECTIVE Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is treated with either surgical clipping or endovascular coiling, though the latter is the preferred treatment method given its more favorable functional outcomes. However, neuropsychological functioning after treatment is rarely taken into account. In this meta-analysis, the authors synthesized relevant data from the literature and compared neuropsychological functioning in patients after coiling and clipping of SAH. They hypothesized that the coiled patients would outperform the clipped patients; that group differences would be greater with higher posterior circulation rupture rates, in older patients, and in more recent publications; that group differences would be smaller with greater rates of middle cerebral artery (MCA) rupture; and that anterior communicating artery (ACoA) rupture rates would not influence effect sizes...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409035/the-use-of-coupled-plasma-filtration-adsorption-in-traumatic-rhabdomyolysis
#16
Mario Pezzi, Silvia Renda, Anna Maria Giglio, Anna Maria Scozzafava, Simona Paola Tiburzi, Patrizia Casella, Fabrizio Iannelli, Mario Verre
Severe musculoskeletal injuries induce the release of sarcoplasmic elements such as muscle enzymes, potassium, and myoglobin in the systemic circulation. The circulating myoglobin damages the glomerulus and renal tubules. Conventional haemodialysis is not able to remove myoglobin, due to its high molecular weight (17,8 kilodaltons [kDa]). We treated four traumatic rhabdomyolysis patients with Coupled Plasma Filtration Adsorption (CPFA) in order to remove myoglobin followed by 14 hours of Continuous Veno-Venous Hemofiltration (CVVH)...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405859/effects-of-mild-hypothermia-on-cerebral-large-and-small-microvessels-blood-flow-in-a-porcine-model-of-cardiac-arrest
#17
Junyuan Wu, Wei Yuan, Jiebin Li, Yongzhen Zhao, Jie Li, Zhenhua Li, Chunsheng Li
BACKGROUND: The effect of mild hypothermia (MH) on microcirculation after resuscitation from cardiac arrest is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine whether MH improves or aggravates the disturbance of cerebral microcirculation. METHODS: Twenty domestic male pigs were randomized into the MH group (n = 8), non-hypothermia (NH) group (n = 8) or sham operation group (n = 4). In the MH group, the animals were initiated rapid intravascular cooling at 1 h after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) from 8 min ventricular fibrillation, and the core temperature was reduced to 33 °C for 12 h and then rewarmed to 37 °C...
April 12, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402004/the-vegf-gene-polymorphism-impacts-brain-volume-and-arterial-blood-volume
#18
Hikaru Takeuchi, Hiroaki Tomita, Yasuyuki Taki, Yoshie Kikuchi, Chiaki Ono, Zhiqian Yu, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Rui Nouchi, Yuka Kotozaki, Seishu Nakagawa, Carlos Makoto Miyauchi, Kunio Iizuka, Ryoichi Yokoyama, Takamitsu Shinada, Yuki Yamamoto, Sugiko Hanawa, Tsuyoshi Araki, Keiko Kunitoki, Yuko Sassa, Ryuta Kawashima
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a critical role in the angiogenesis and proliferation of various types of cells such as neurons, astroglia, and endothelial cells in the brain. A common polymorphism in the VEGF gene (-2578 C/A) is associated with circulating VEGF levels, cancers and Alzheimer's disease. Nonetheless, the effects of this polymorphism on normal human brain volume, arterial blood volume, and blood supply remain unclear. In this study, the effects of this polymorphism on the total gray matter volume (TGMV) and total white matter volume (TWMV) using T1-weighted structural images and the total arterial blood volume (TABV) and mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) during rest using arterial spin labeling (ASL) in 765 young adult humans were investigated...
April 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394897/vertebral-artery-terminating-in-posterior-inferior-cerebellar-artery-a-normal-variation-with-clinical-significance
#19
I-Wen Liu, Bo-Lin Ho, Chien-Fu Chen, Ke Han, Chung-Jung Lin, Wen-Yung Sheng, Han-Hwa Hu, A-Ching Chao
A vertebral artery (VA) terminating in a posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is often considered to be a normal variation associated with VA hypoplasia. We aimed to investigate the clinical significance of this cerebrovascular variant. A total of 80 patients with clinically evident cerebrovascular events in posterior circulation were examined by duplex sonography and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Eighty healthy subjects who had MRA check-up were recruited as controls. PICA termination of the VA (PICA-VA) was identified as the VA not communicating with the basilar artery (BA) but ending into a PICA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393856/toward-a-scientific-understanding-of-the-effectiveness-material-basis-and-prescription-compatibility-of-a-chinese-herbal-formula-dan-hong-injection
#20
Panlin Li, Weiwei Su, Sha Yun, Yiqiu Liao, Yinyin Liao, Hong Liu, Peibo Li, Yonggang Wang, Wei Peng, Hongliang Yao
Since traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a complex mixture of multiple components, the application of methodologies for evaluating single-components Western medicine in TCM studies may have certain limitations. Appropriate strategies that recognize the integrality of TCM and connect to TCM theories remain to be developed. Here we use multiple unique approaches to study the scientific connotation of a TCM formula Dan-hong injection (DHI) without undermining its prescription integrity. The blood circulation improving and healing promoting effects of DHI were assessed by a qi stagnation blood stasis rat model and a mouse model of laser irradiation induced cerebral microvascular thrombosis...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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