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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775542/exercise-and-circulating-bdnf-mechanisms-of-release-and-implications-for-the-design-of-exercise-interventions
#1
Jeremy James Walsh, Michael E Tschakovsky
Engagement in regular bouts of exercise confers numerous positive effects on brain health across the lifespan. Acute bouts of exercise transiently improve cognitive function, while long-term exercise training stimulates brain plasticity, improves brain function, and helps to stave off neurological disease. The action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a candidate mechanism underlying these exercise-induced benefits and is the subject of considerable attention in the exercise-brain health literature...
May 18, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773978/effects-of-sevoflurane-exposure-during-mid-pregnancy-on-learning-and-memory-in-offspring-rats-beneficial-effects-of-maternal-exercise
#2
Ziyi Wu, Xingyue Li, Yi Zhang, Dongyi Tong, Lili Wang, Ping Zhao
Fetal exposure to general anesthetics may pose significant neurocognitive risks but methods to mitigate against these detrimental effects are still to be determined. We set out, therefore, to assess whether single or repeated in utero exposure to sevoflurane triggers long-term cognitive impairments in rat offspring. Since maternal exercise during pregnancy has been shown to improve cognition in offspring, we hypothesized that maternal treadmill exercise during pregnancy would protect against sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772343/brain-stimulation-differentially-modulates-nociception-and-inflammation-in-aversive-and-non-aversive-behavioural-conditions
#3
G S Bassi, A Kanashiro, G J Rodrigues, F Q Cunha, N C Coimbra, L Ulloa
Inflammation and pain are major clinical burdens contributing to multiple disorders and limiting the quality of life of patients. We previously reported that brain electrical stimulation can attenuate joint inflammation in experimental arthritis. Here, we report that non-aversive electrical stimulation of the locus coeruleus (LC), the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) or the ventrolateral column of the periaqueductal grey matter (vlPAG) decreases thermal pain sensitivity, knee inflammation and synovial neutrophilic infiltration in ratswith intra-articular zymosan...
May 14, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770745/2706-km-cycling-in-two-weeks-effects-on-cardiac-function-in-six-elderly-male-athletes
#4
Thomas Morville, Mads Rosenkilde, Nick Mattsson, Flemming Dela, Jørn W Helge, Hanne K Rasmusen
INTRODUCTION: Physiological effects of exercise on trained and untrained individuals have been studied extensively. Typically, young or middle-aged individuals are examined before and after short periods of vigorous exertion. METHODS: We studied six elderly male athletes (61±8 years (mean ± SD); baseline VO2 max 48±5 ml·kg-1 · min-1 ) with focus on cardiac function and biomarkers following 14 consecutive days of moderate intensity exercise. Cardiac dimensions, function, biomarkers, and other measures of cardiovascular health were examined at baseline and 2 and 28 h after the last day of cycling a total of 2706 km...
May 17, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767351/evaluating-the-methods-used-for-measuring-cerebral-blood-flow-at-rest-and-during-exercise-in-humans
#5
REVIEW
Michael M Tymko, Philip N Ainslie, Kurt J Smith
The first accounts of measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) in humans were made by Angelo Mosso in ~1880, who recorded brain pulsations in patients with skull defects. In 1890, Charles Roy and Charles Sherrington determined in animals that brain pulsations-assessed via a similar method used by Mosso-were altered during a variety of stimuli including sensory nerve stimulation, asphyxia, and pharmacological interventions. Between 1880 and 1944, measurements for CBF were typically relied on skull abnormalities in humans...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764678/re-engaging-with-places-understanding-bio-geo-graphical-disruption-and-flow-in-adult-brain-injury-survivors
#6
Louise Meijering, Nicky Theunissen, Ant T Lettinga
Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) is one of the most common causes of disability and death in adults worldwide. After a period of rehabilitation, many ABI survivors still face complex mind/body conditions when they try to take up their former life again. Besides lasting visible impairments such as weakness and loss of body balance, there are often less obvious disabilities such as extreme fatigue, hypersensitivity for stimuli, memory, concentration and attention problems or personality changes. The aim of this paper is to understand how ABI survivors and their significant others renegotiate their engagements with everyday places, using the concepts of bio-geo-graphical disruption and flow...
May 5, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761310/characteristics-of-patients-with-a-relatively-greater-minimum-ve-vco-2-against-peak-vo-2-and-impaired-exercise-tolerance
#7
Taisuke Nakade, Hitoshi Adachi, Makoto Murata, Shigeru Oshima
PURPOSE: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) is used to evaluate functional capacity and assess prognosis in cardiac patients. Ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 ) reflects ventilation-perfusion mismatch; the minimum VE/VCO2 value (minVE/VCO2 ) is representative of pulmonary arterial blood flow in individuals without pulmonary disease. Usually, minVE/VCO2 has a strong relationship with the peak oxygen uptake (VO2 ), but dissociation can occur. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between minVE/VCO2 and predicted peak VO2 (peak VO2 %) and evaluated the parameters associated with a discrepancy between these two parameters...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758940/self-reported-physical-activity-is-associated-with-tau-burden-measured-by-positron-emission-tomography
#8
Belinda M Brown, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Vincent Dore, Jeremiah J Peiffer, Samantha C Burnham, Simon M Laws, Kevin Taddei, David Ames, Colin L Masters, Christopher C Rowe, Ralph N Martins, Victor L Villemagne
Numerous animal studies have reported exercise reduces the accumulation of Alzheimer's disease pathology, including amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau. Furthermore, we previously reported a relationship between higher levels of physical activity (PA) and lower brain Aβ burden in a human population. The recent advent of tau positron emission tomography (PET) tracers enables us to extend our investigations into the evaluation of the relationship between PA and brain tau burden. Utilizing data from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study, we have examined the cross-sectional relationship between habitual PA and PET-quantified tau burden...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756525/the-effectiveness-of-physical-exercise-as-an-intervention-to-reduce-depressive-symptoms-following-traumatic-brain-injury-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#9
Sophie A Perry, Rudi Coetzer, Christopher W N Saville
Alongside the obvious health benefits, physical exercise has been shown to have a modest anti-depressant effect for people in the general population. To the authors' knowledge, there are no current literature reviews or meta-analyses available exploring this effect for people with a traumatic brain injury (TBI). A systematic review of intervention studies utilising physical exercise and mood outcome measures for a TBI population was performed in November 2016. Baseline and outcome data were extracted for the nine studies which met the inclusion criteria...
May 13, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755380/effects-of-physical-exercise-on-cognitive-functioning-and-wellbeing-biological-and-psychological-benefits
#10
REVIEW
Laura Mandolesi, Arianna Polverino, Simone Montuori, Francesca Foti, Giampaolo Ferraioli, Pierpaolo Sorrentino, Giuseppe Sorrentino
Much evidence shows that physical exercise (PE) is a strong gene modulator that induces structural and functional changes in the brain, determining enormous benefit on both cognitive functioning and wellbeing. PE is also a protective factor for neurodegeneration. However, it is unclear if such protection is granted through modifications to the biological mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration or through better compensation against attacks. This concise review addresses the biological and psychological positive effects of PE describing the results obtained on brain plasticity and epigenetic mechanisms in animal and human studies, in order to clarify how to maximize the positive effects of PE while avoiding negative consequences, as in the case of exercise addiction...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746958/hippocampal-microrna-mrna-regulatory-network-is-affected-by-physical-exercise
#11
Jansen Fernandes, Andre Schwambach Vieira, Juliana Carlota Kramer-Soares, Eduardo Alves Da Silva, Kil Sun Lee, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Ricardo Mario Arida
BACKGROUND: It is widely known that physical activity positively affects the overall health and brain function. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as potential regulators of numerous biological processes within the brain. These molecules modulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by inducing mRNA degradation and inhibiting the translation of target mRNAs. METHODS: To verify whether the procognitive effects of physical exercise are accompanied by changes in the activity of miRNA-mRNA network in the brain, differential expression analysis was performed in the hippocampus of control (CTL) and exercised (Ex) rats subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill exercise...
May 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746891/effect-of-green-tea-extract-supplementation-on-exercise-induced-delayed-onset-muscle-soreness-and-muscular-damage
#12
Willian da Silva, Álvaro S Machado, Mauren A Souza, Pâmela B Mello-Carpes, Felipe P Carpes
Previous studies addressed the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role of compounds from green tea in different human tissues. Positive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects were described for brain tissues. Whether similar effects are observed in the skeletal muscle, green tea supplementation could be a strategy to reduce delayed onset muscle soreness resultant of exercise. Here we determine the effect of green tea extract supplementation on exercise-induced muscle soreness, muscle damage and oxidative stress...
May 7, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745626/train-the-brain-immediate-sensorimotor-effects-of-mentally-performed-flexor-exercises-in-patients-with-neck-pain-a-pilot-study
#13
Konstantin Beinert, Marc Sofsky, Jörg Trojan
BACKGROUND: Sensorimotor tests, like cranio- cervical flexion and cervical joint position sense tests, share a strong cognitive component during their execution. However, cognitive training for those tests has not been investigated so far. AIM: To compare mental and physical exercises for improving the sensorimotor function of the cervical spine. DESIGN: A within-subject design with 16 participants. SETTING: Outpatient physiotherapy centre...
May 9, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743340/androgen-and-estrogen-action-on-male-physical-activity-a-story-beyond-muscle
#14
Ferran Jardi, Michaël R Laurent, Vanessa Dubois, Nari Kim, Rougin Khalil, Brigitte Decallonne, Dirk Vanderschueren, Frank Claessens
Physical inactivity is a pandemic that contributes to several chronic diseases and poses a significant burden on health care systems worldwide. The search for effective strategies to combat sedentary behavior has led to an intensification of the research efforts to unravel the biological substrate controlling activity. A wide body of preclinical evidence makes a strong case for sex steroids regulating physical activity in both genders, albeit the mechanisms implicated remain unclear. The beneficial effects of androgens on muscle as well as on other peripheral functions might play a role in favoring adaptation to exercise...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741205/protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-piano-training-on-cognitive-and-psychosocial-outcomes
#15
Jennifer Bugos
Age-related cognitive decline and cognitive impairment represent the fastest growing health epidemic worldwide among those over 60. There is a critical need to identify effective and novel complex cognitive interventions to promote successful aging. Since piano training engages cognitive and bimanual sensorimotor processing, we hypothesize that piano training may serve as an effective cognitive intervention, as it requires sustained attention and engages an executive network that supports generalized cognition and emotional control...
May 9, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740553/development-and-validation-of-exercise-rehabilitation-program-for-cognitive-function-and-activity-of-daily-living-improvement-in-mild-dementia-elderly
#16
Mi-Ri Choi, Ji-Youn Kim, Eun-Surk Yi
We investigated the effect of exercise rehabilitation based on fine motor movement for the elderly with mild dementia. Using electroencephalogram (EEG), the change of brain wave of them based on fine motor movement and comparing the improvement level of cognitive ability and performance capability in daily living activity was recorded. The subjects were the elderly with mild dementia living in a sanatorium in Incheon city. Mini-Mental Status Examination, activity of daily living (ADL), and the influence on depression were examined...
April 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740398/neurosteroids-in-adult-hippocampus-of-male-and-female-rodents-biosynthesis-and-actions-of-sex-steroids
#17
REVIEW
Yasushi Hojo, Suguru Kawato
The brain is not only the target of steroid hormones but also is able to locally synthesize steroids de novo . Evidence of the local production of steroids in the brain has been accumulating in various vertebrates, including teleost fish, amphibia, birds, rodents, non-human primates, and humans. In this review, we mainly focus on the local production of sex steroids in the hippocampal neurons of adult rodents (rats and mice), a center for learning and memory. From the data of the hippocampus of adult male rats, hippocampal principal neurons [pyramidal cells in CA1-CA3 and granule cells in dentate gyrus (DG)] have a complete system for biosynthesis of sex steroids...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740264/-map-training-my-brain-%C3%A2-meditation-plus-aerobic-exercise-lessens-trauma-of-sexual-violence-more-than-either-activity-alone
#18
Tracey J Shors, Han Y M Chang, Emma M Millon
Sexual violence against women often leads to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a mental illness characterized by intrusive thoughts and memories about the traumatic event (Shors and Millon, 2016). These mental processes are obviously generated by the brain but often felt in the body. MAP Training My Brain ™ is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training of the brain with physical training of the body (Curlik and Shors, 2013; Shors et al., 2014). Each training session begins with 20-min of sitting meditation, followed by 10-min of slow-walking meditation, and ending with 30-min of aerobic exercise at 60-80% of the maximum heart rate (see maptrainmybrain...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735212/tracked-and-fit-fitbits-brain-games-and-the-quantified-aging-body
#19
Stephen Katz, Barbara L Marshall
This paper explores the technical turn to new ways of quantifying and standardizing measurements of age as these intersect with discourses of anti-aging and speculative futures of 'smart' quantified aging bodies. Often couched in a metaphorical language of 'smart', 'fit', 'boosting' and 'optimizing', the aging body is emerging as a node for data collection, monitoring, and surveillance. The research is located in the current literature that links aging, bodies and technologies, with specific extended examples of wearable devices such as fitness trackers and digital exercises such as brain games designed for memory performance...
June 2018: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734571/spirometry-and-oxidative-stress-after-rebreather-diving-in-warm-water
#20
Gerardo Bosco, Alex Rizzato, Silvia Quartesan, Enrico Camporesi, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Sarah Moretti, Costantino Balestra, Alessandro Rubini
Introduction: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy and use of enriched air can result in oxidative injury affecting the brain, lungs and eyes. HBO₂ exposure during diving can lead to a decrease in respiratory parameters. However, the possible effects of acute exposure to oxygen-enriched diving on subsequent spirometric performance and oxidative state in humans have not been recently described recently. We aim to investigate possible effects of acute (i) hyperbaric and (ii) hyperbaric hyperoxic exposure using scuba or closed-circuit rebreather (CCR) on subsequent spirometry and to assess the role of oxidative state after hyperoxic diving...
March 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
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