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Brain exercise

Takahiro Maekawa, Riki Ogasawara, Arata Tsutaki, Kihyuk Lee, Satoshi Nakada, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii
High-intensity exercise has recently been shown to cause an increase in brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. Some studies have suggested that myokines secreted from contracting skeletal muscle, such as irisin (one of the truncated form of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5)), play important roles in this process. Thus, we hypothesized that locally evoked muscle contractions may cause an increase of BDNF in the hippocampus through some afferent mechanisms. Under anesthesia, Sprague-Dawley rats were fixed on a custom-made dynamometer and their triceps surae muscles were made to maximally contract via delivery of electric stimulations of the sciatic nerve (100 Hz with 1-ms pulse and 3-s duration)...
March 20, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Uros Marusic, Sidney Grosprêtre
Normal and pathological ageing are associated with several motor impairments that reduce quality of life and represent a general challenge for public healthcare systems. Consequently, over the past decades, many scientists and physiotherapists dedicated their research to the development and improvement of safe and costless methods to counteract the progressive decline of motor functions with age. The urgency of finding new and easy to implement methods is even more paramount in case of acute pathologies (e...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Boris Cheval, Rémi Radel, Jason L Neva, Lara A Boyd, Stephan P Swinnen, David Sander, Matthieu P Boisgontier
BACKGROUND: In a time of physical inactivity pandemic, attempts to better understand the factors underlying the regulation of exercise behavior are important. The dominant neurobiological approach to exercise behavior considers physical activity to be a reward; however, negative affective responses during exercise challenge this idea. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to systematically review studies testing the automatic reactions triggered by stimuli associated with different types of exercise behavior (e...
March 19, 2018: Sports Medicine
Fabien Dal Maso, Bennet Desormeau, Marie-Hélène Boudrias, Marc Roig
A single bout of cardiovascular exercise performed immediately after practicing a visuo-motor tracking task has been shown to improve the long-term retention of this motor skill through an optimization of the memory consolidation process. The mechanisms underlying the time-dependent effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on motor memory consolidation, however, remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to determine the impact of a single bout of cardiovascular exercise performed immediately after motor skill practice on those mechanisms using electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG)...
March 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Jay R Hoffman, Alyssa Varanoske, Jeffrey R Stout
β-Alanine is one of the more popular sport supplements used by strength/power athletes today. The popularity of β-alanine stems from its ability to enhance intracellular muscle-buffering capacity thereby delaying fatigue during high-intensity exercise by increasing muscle carnosine content. Recent evidence also suggests that elevated carnosine levels may enhance cognitive performance and increase resiliency to stress. These benefits are thought to result from carnosine's potential role as an antioxidant. This review will discuss these new findings including recent investigations examining β-alanine supplementation and increased resiliency to posttraumatic stress and mild traumatic brain injury...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Tae-Woon Kim, Hye-Sang Park
Maternal obesity induces hippocampal functional changes and leads to deficits in cognitive functions, such as learning and memory in offspring. We investigated the protective effects of physical exercise against cognitive function deficit in offspring born to obese mothers. Neurotrophic factors, neurogenesis, and apoptosis were analyzed in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus of offspring. Four-week-old female rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks: 12 weeks prior to mating, and 8 weeks during pregnancy and breast-feeding...
March 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Inbal Maidan, Freek Nieuwhof, Hagar Bernad-Elazari, Bastiaan R Bloem, Nir Giladi, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Jurgen A H R Claassen, Anat Mirelman
BACKGROUND: In a randomized control trial conducted in patients with Parkinson's disease, a treadmill training program combined with virtual reality that targeted motor and cognitive aspects of safe ambulation led to fewer falls, compared with treadmill training alone. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the 2 types of training differentially affected prefrontal activation and if this might explain differences in fall rates after the intervention. METHODS: Sixty-four patients with Parkinson's disease were randomized into the treadmill training arm (n = 34, mean age 73...
March 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Lieselot Decroix, Cajsa Tonoli, Elodie Lespagnol, Constantino Balestra, Amandine Descat, Marie Jose Drittij-Reijnders, Jamie R Blackwell, Wilhelm Stahl, Andrew M Jones, Antje R Weseler, Aalt Bast, Romain Meeusen, Elsa Heyman
INTRODUCTION: During exercise in hypoxia, O2 delivery to brain and muscle is compromised and oxidative stress is elicited. Cocoa flavanols (CF) have antioxidant capacities and can increase blood flow by stimulating endothelial function. We aimed to examine the effects of 7-day CF intake on oxidative stress, nitric oxide production and tissue oxygenation in response to exercise in hypoxia (14.3% O2 ). METHODS: In a randomized, double blind, cross-over study, 14 well-trained male cyclists completed 4 trials: exercise in normoxia or hypoxia, after 7-day CF or placebo intake...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Angus P Yu, Bjorn T Tam, Christopher W Lai, Doris S Yu, Jean Woo, Ka-Fai Chung, Stanley S Hui, Justina Y Liu, Gao X Wei, Parco M Siu
Tai Chi Chuan (TCC), a traditional Chinese martial art, is well-documented to result in beneficial consequences in physical and mental health. TCC is regarded as a mind-body exercise that is comprised of physical exercise and meditation. Favorable effects of TCC on body balance, gait, bone mineral density, metabolic parameters, anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and sleep have been previously reported. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining the effects of TCC remain largely unclear. Recently, advances in neuroimaging technology have offered new investigative opportunities to reveal the effects of TCC on anatomical morphologies and neurological activities in different regions of the brain...
2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Maria Luíza de Medeiros Rêgo, Daniel Aranha Rego Cabral, Eduardo Bodnariuc Fontes
Heart Failure is a clinical syndrome prevalent throughout the world and a major contribution to mortality of cardiac patients in Brazil. In addition, this pathology is strongly related to cerebral dysfunction, with a high prevalence of cognitive impairment. Many mechanisms may be related to cognitive loss, such as cerebral hypoperfusion, atrophy and loss of gray matter of the brain, and dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. The literature is clear regarding the benefits of aerobic physical activity in healthy populations in the modulation of the autonomic nervous system and in brain functions...
January 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Dailson Paulucio, Augusto Terra, Caleb G Santos, Mauricio Cagy, Bruna Velasques, Pedro Ribeiro, Bruno M da Costa, Mariana Gongora, Renato Alvarenga, Luciano Alonso, Fernando A M S Pompeu
Ethanol (ET) is a substance that modulates the Central Nervous System (CNS). Frequently, ET intake occurs combined with energy drinks, which contain taurine (TA), an important amino acid found in the body (i.e brain and muscles). Although TA administration has been used in the improvement of physical performance, the impact of TA, ET and exercise remains unknown. This study aimed to analyze the acute effect of 6g of Taurine (TA), 0.6 mL∙kg-1 of Ethanol (ET), and Taurine combined with Ethanol (TA+ET) ingestion on the electrocortical activity before and after a moderate intensity exercise in 9 subjects, 5 women (counterbalanced experimental design)...
2018: PloS One
Hyun Jun Kim, Sang Yeoup Lee, Hwa Gyeong Lee, Yang Hee Cho, Eun Mi Ko
Few studies have been undertaken to develop cognitive functional improvement-focused exercise programs and determine their effect. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of a cognitive enhancement fitness program (CEFP) on short-term memory and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels according to the cognitive state in middle-aged women. A total of 30 healthy volunteers aged 40-59 years were divided into two groups, that is, a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) group and a non-MCI group based on results from the Korean Dementia Screening Questionnaire...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Miranda Smit, Haike E Van Stralen, Bart Van den Munckhof, Tom J Snijders, Hendrik Christiaan Dijkerman
Reports on patients who lack ownership over their entire body are extremely rare. Here, we present patient SA who suffered from complete body disownership after a tumour resection in the right temporoparietal cortex. Neuropsychological assessment disclosed selective bilateral ownership problems, despite intact primary visual and somatosensory senses. SA's disownership seems to stem from a suboptimal multimodal integration, as shown by the rubber hand illusion and the beneficial effect during and after simple exercises aiming at multisensory recalibration...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
Sara Abolahrari-Shirazi, Javad Kojuri, Zahra Bagheri, Zahra Rojhani-Shirazi
Background: This study aimed to compare the effects of combined endurance-resistance training (CT) versus endurance training (ET) on some cardiovascular markers in patients with heart failure after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Materials and Methods: The study applied a randomized, controlled design in which 75 patients with heart failure who had undergone PCI were randomly assigned to one of three groups: ET, CT, and control. The ET group performed ET for 45 min, three times a week for 7 weeks...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Julie A Morgan, Andrew T Olagunju, Frances Corrigan, Bernhard T Baune
BACKGROUND: Regular exercise in adults improves depressive symptoms (DS) and major depressive disorder (MDD), however the clinical effects of ceasing exercise are largely unknown. METHODS: Seven databases were searched from inception to December 2017. Eligibility criteria included English language studies investigating the effects of ceasing exercise on DS or MDD in regularly active adults with or without prior DS or MDD. Blood based markers related to exercise cessation (EC) were assessed, if recorded...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Aline Siteneski, Mauricio P Cunha, Vicente Lieberknecht, Francis L Pazini, Karen Gruhn, Patricia S Brocardo, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Evidence has indicated that the practice of physical exercise has antidepressant effects that might be associated with irisin release and BDNF signaling. In this study we investigated the effects of the central administration of irisin or BDNF in predictive tests of antidepressant properties paralleled with the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC1-α), fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of mice...
March 7, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Bryan D Loy, Michelle H Cameron, Patrick J O'Connor
Persistent fatigue is a common problem (∼20-45% of U.S. population), with higher prevalence and severity in people with medical conditions such as cancer, depression, fibromyalgia, heart failure, sleep apnea and multiple sclerosis. There are few FDA-approved treatments for fatigue and great disagreement on how to measure fatigue, with over 250 instruments used in research. Many instruments define fatigue as "a lack of energy", thus viewing energy and fatigue states as opposites on a single bipolar continuum...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Jesús Cespón, Carlo Miniussi, Maria Concetta Pellicciari
A growing body of evidence suggests that healthy elderly individuals and patients with Alzheimer's disease retain an important potential for neuroplasticity. This review summarizes studies investigating the modulation of neural activity and structural brain integrity in response to interventions involving cognitive training, physical exercise and non-invasive brain stimulation in healthy elderly and cognitively impaired subjects (including patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease)...
March 6, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Rasoul Rezaee, Sanaz Nasoohi, Abbas Haghparast, Fariba Khodagholi, Mohammadreza Bigdeli, Maryam Nourshahi
AIMS: Different modes of physical activity provide cerebrovascular protection against thromboembolic events. Based on recent reports high intensity exercise protocols appear to raise cerebral VEGF levels leading to efficient cerebral angiogenesis. The present study aims to address if moderate continuous training (MCT) and high intensity interval training (HIT) differ in preconditioning against ischemic stroke. METHODS: Wistar rats were subjected to HIT or MCT for 8 weeks before transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) surgery...
March 6, 2018: Life Sciences
Jeremy J Walsh
Participation in regular exercise is important for the maintenance and improvement of brain health across the lifespan. These beneficial effects are realized almost immediately, as a single bout of exercise transiently improves cognitive function after cessation from exercise. This postexercise time period represents an opportunity to strategically prescribe cognitively stimulating activities for enhancing brain plasticity and function. Mechanistically, acute exercise is proposed to upregulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and increase regional activation and arousal of brain areas involved in cognitive control; however, the specific mechanisms underlying this facilitation are poorly understood...
March 9, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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