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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749627/acute-kidney-injury-in-pediatric-patients-diagnosis-and-management-in-the-emergency-department-digest
#1
Daniel Mohrer, Melissa Langhan, Pradip Chaudhari
Pediatric acute kidney injury is a condition that is underdiagnosed among children seen in the emergency department, and it has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality, including increased risk for chronic kidney disease. The most common etiologies in pediatric patients are now known to be due to hypovolemia, sepsis, shock, and cardiac dysfunction. This issue compares 3 classification systems for the diagnosis and staging of acute kidney injury and reviews the etiologies that lead to kidney injury in children...
May 22, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749625/diphtheria-pertussis-and-tetanus-evidence-based-management-of-pediatric-patients-in-the-emergency-department-digest
#2
Lara Zibners, Pradip Chaudhari
Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are potentially deadly bacterial infections that are largely preventable through vaccination, though they remain in the population. This issue reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and current recommended emergency management of these conditions. Disease-specific medications, as well as treatment of the secondary complications, are examined in light of the best current evidence. Resources include obtaining diphtheria antitoxin from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and best-practice recommendations with regard to testing, involvement of government health agencies, isolation of the patient, and identification and treatment of close contacts...
February 22, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749595/morbidity-and-mortality-in-infant-mountain-gorillas-gorilla-beringei-beringei-a-46-year-retrospective-review
#3
James M Hassell, Dawn Zimmerman, Michael R Cranfield, Kirsten Gilardi, Antoine Mudakikwa, Jan Ramer, Elisabeth Nyirakaragire, Linda J Lowenstine
Long-term studies of morbidity and mortality in free-ranging primates are scarce, but may have important implications for the conservation of extant populations. Infants comprise a particularly important age group, as variation in survival rates may have a strong influence on population dynamics. Since 1968, the Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project (MGVP, Inc.) and government partners have conducted a comprehensive health monitoring and disease investigation program on mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Rwanda, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo...
July 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749588/primary-cutaneous-cd4-positive-small-medium-sized-pleomorphic-t-cell-lymphoproliferative-disorder-report-of-a-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Brett H Keeling, Alde Carlo P Gavino, Joan Admirand, Anthony C Soldano
Primary cutaneous small/medium-sized T-cell lymphoma (PCSM-TCL), which was included in the WHO-EORTC classification for cutaneous lymphomas as a provisional entity in 2008, has recently been reclassified as a lymphoproliferative disorder (PCSM-TCLPD) due to its indolent behavior and uncertain malignant potential. Treatment with local therapies is usually curative, though there have been reports of aggressive, systemic disease. This spectrum of disease behavior evokes the consideration that this entity may actually be multiple diseases with a shared clinicopathologic features rather than a singular disease process with a variety of behaviors...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749539/indigenous-health-program-evaluation-design-and-methods-in-australia-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#5
Kamalini Lokuge, Katherine Thurber, Bianca Calabria, Meg Davis, Kathryn McMahon, Lauren Sartor, Raymond Lovett, Jill Guthrie, Emily Banks
OBJECTIVE: Indigenous Australians experience a disproportionately higher burden of disease compared to non-Indigenous Australians. High-quality evaluation of Indigenous health programs is required to inform health and health services improvement. We aimed to quantify methodological and other characteristics of Australian Indigenous health program evaluations published in the peer-reviewed literature. METHODS: Systematic review of peer-reviewed literature (November 2009-2014) on Indigenous health program evaluation...
July 27, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749465/acid-sphingomyelinase-mediates-human-cd4-t-cell-signaling-potential-roles-in-t-cell-responses-and-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Aiping Bai, Yuan Guo
Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a lipid hydrolase. By generating ceramide, ASM had been reported to have an important role in regulating immune cell functions inclusive of macrophages, NK cells, and CD8(+) T cells, whereas the role of ASM bioactivity in regulation of human CD4(+) T-cell functions remained uncertain. Recent studies have provided novel findings in this field. Upon stimulation of CD3 and/or CD28, ASM-dependent ceramide signaling mediates intracellular downstream signal cascades of CD3 and CD28, and regulates CD4(+) T-cell activation and proliferation...
July 27, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749442/long-term-effects-of-pregnancy-complications-on-maternal-health-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Ran Neiger
Background: Most pregnancy-related medical complications appear to resolve at delivery or shortly thereafter. Common examples are preterm labor, placental abruption, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes. Women who developed such complications are known to be at increased risk of developing similar complications in future pregnancies. It has recently become evident that these women are at an increased risk of long term medical complications. Methods: A search through scientific publications in English regarding the association of obstetric complications and long-term maternal illness...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749424/drug-discovery-by-molecular-imaging-and-monitoring-therapy-response-in-lymphoma
#8
REVIEW
Senthilkumar Kalimuthu, Ju Hye Jeong, Ji Min Oh, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
Molecular imaging allows a noninvasive assessment of biochemical and biological processes in living subjects. Treatment strategies for malignant lymphoma depend on histology and tumor stage. For the last two decades, molecular imaging has been the mainstay diagnostic test for the staging of malignant lymphoma and the assessment of response to treatment. This technology enhances our understanding of disease and drug activity during preclinical and clinical drug development. Here, we review molecular imaging applications in drug development, with an emphasis on oncology...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749412/multi-targeting-andrographolide-a-novel-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibitor-as-a-potential-therapeutic-agent-for-stroke
#9
REVIEW
Chih-Hao Yang, Ting-Lin Yen, Chia-Yuan Hsu, Philip-Aloysius Thomas, Joen-Rong Sheu, Thanasekaran Jayakumar
A key focus in the field of drug discovery has been motivated by the neuroprotection of natural compounds. Cerebral ischemia is a multifaceted pathological process with a series of mechanisms, and a perspective for the development of neuroprotectants from traditional herbal medicine or natural products is a promising treatment for this disease. Natural compounds with the effects of anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and neurofunctional regulation exhibit therapeutic effects on experimental ischemic brain injury...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749391/variations-in-herpes-zoster-manifestation
#10
REVIEW
Uwe Wollina
Herpes zoster (HZ) is a neurocutaneous disorder due to endogenous reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). The typical clinical manifestation is an acute segmental eruption of herpetiform umbilicated vesicles associated with malaise, pain, dysaesthesia, allodynia and probably fever. This review focuses on other possible clinical manifestations of the disease to sensitize physicians not to overlook HZ since only an early antiviral treatment can reduce the risk of post-zosteric neuralgia.
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749317/understanding-the-use-of-geographical-information-systems-gis-in-health-informatics-research-a-review
#11
Nicola Shaw, Suzanne McGuire
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this literature review is to understand geographical information systems (GIS) and how they can be applied to public health informatics, medical informatics, and epidemiology. METHOD: Relevant papers that reflected the use of geographical information systems (GIS) in health research were identified from four academic databases: Academic Search Complete, BioMed Central, PubMed Central, and Scholars Portal, as well as Google Scholar. The search strategy used was to identify articles with "geographic information systems", "GIS", "public health", "medical informatics", "epidemiology", and "health geography" as main subject headings or text words in titles and abstracts...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749273/a-retrospective-review-of-western-lowland-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla-mortality-in-european-zoologic-collections-between-2004-and-2014
#12
Victoria Strong, Kerstin Baiker, Marnie L Brennan, Sharon Redrobe, Frank Rietkerk, Malcolm Cobb, Kate White
An understanding of the main causes of mortality among captive gorillas is imperative to promoting their optimal care, health, and welfare. A retrospective observational review of mortality among the European zoo-housed western lowland gorilla ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla) population from 2004 to 2014 was carried out. This is the first published study of mortality in this population. Relevant postmortem data were requested from each collection reporting a death during the study period. Age at death enabled grouping into discrete age categories...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749245/advances-in-our-understanding-of-immunization-and-vaccines-for-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#13
Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Abdulla Watad, Kassem Sharif, Mohammad Adawi, Gali Aljadeff, Howard Amital, Yehuda Shoenfeld
INTRODUCTION: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease. In SLE, immune system dysfunction is postulated to result by virtue of the disease itself as well as by the impact of treatment modalities employed. A myriad of immune dysregulations occur including complement system dysfunction among others. Infectious agents are known to complicate the disease course in close to 25-45 % of SLE patients. METHODS: In this review a discussion of the immunogenicity and safety of viral and bacterial vaccinations in SLE was performed...
July 27, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749197/cardiovascular-benefits-and-safety-of-non-insulin-medications-used-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Srikanth Yandrapalli, George Jolly, Adam Horblitt, Abdallah Sanaani, Wilbert S Aronow
Diabetes mellitus is a growing in exponential proportions. If the current growth trend continues, it may result in every third adult in the United States having diabetes mellitus by 2050, and every 10(th) adult worldwide. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) confers a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events compared with non-diabetic patients, and CV mortality is responsible for around 80% mortality in this population. Patients with T2DM can have other features of insulin resistance-metabolic syndrome like hypertension, lipid abnormalities, and obesity which are all associated with increased CV disease and stroke risk even in the absence of T2DM...
July 27, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749174/microbeam-radiation-therapy-grid-therapy-and-beyond-a-clinical-perspective
#15
Elisabeth Schültke, Jacques Balosso, Thomas Breslin, Guido Cavaletti, Valentin Djonov, Francois Esteve, Michael Grotzer, Guido Hildebrandt, Alexander Valdman, Jean A Laissue
Microbeam irradiation is spatially fractionated radiation on a micrometer scale. Microbeam irradiation with therapeutic intent has become known as microbeam radiation therapy (MRT). The basic concept of MRT was developed in the 1980s, but it has not yet been tested in any human clinical trial, even although there is now a large number of animal studies demonstrating its marked therapeutic potential with an exceptional normal tissue sparing effect. Furthermore, MRT is conceptually similar to macroscopic grid based radiation therapy which has been used in clinical practice for decades...
July 27, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749121/diphtheria-pertussis-and-tetanus-evidence-based-management-of-pediatric-patients-in-the-emergency-department
#16
Lara Zibners
Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are potentially deadly bacterial infections that are largely preventable through vaccination, though they remain in the population. This issue reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and current recommended emergency management of these conditions. Disease-specific medications, as well as treatment of the secondary complications, are examined in light of the best current evidence. Resources include obtaining diphtheria antitoxin from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and best-practice recommendations with regard to testing, involvement of government health agencies, isolation of the patient, and identification and treatment of close contacts...
February 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749114/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-admitted-for-intensive-care-a-single-centre-experience
#17
Shafaq Maqsood, Farhana Badar, Abdul Hameed
Background and Purpose: Patients with hematological malignancies admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) generally have a high mortality rate. The aim of our study was to assess the characteristics and outcomes of such patients and to identify factors predicting ICU mortality. Material and Methods: This retrospective chart review was conducted in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre over a period of 5 years, from January 2010 to January 2015. Results: Characteristics :A total of 213 patients were included in this study...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749102/an-exploration-of-phytochemicals-from-simaroubaceae
#18
Biba Vikas, B S Akhil, P S R Suja, K Sujathan
Natural products such as plants, animals and minerals have been the basis of treatment of human diseases. Herbal remedies have been used for the treatment of many ailments. Many compounds have been derived from the plant species mentioned in the ancient texts of Indian system of medicine for the treatment of a number of ailments. The R and D thrust in the pharmaceutical sector is focused on development of new drugs, innovative/indigenous processes for known drugs and development of plant based drugs through investigation of leads from the traditional systems of medicine...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749101/barriers-to-cervical-cancer-and-breast-cancer-screening-uptake-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#19
Rakibul M Islam, Baki Billah, Md Nassif Hossain, John Oldroyd
Background: Cervical cancer (CCa) and breast cancer (BCa) are the two leading cancers in women worldwide. Early detection and education to promote early diagnosis and screening of CCa and BCa greatly increases the chances for successful treatment and survival. Screening uptake for CCa and BCa in low and middle - income countries (LMICs) is low, and is consequently failing to prevent these diseases. We conducted a systematic review to identify the key barriers to CCa and BCa screening in women in LMICs. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search using Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, CINHAL Plus, and Google scholar to retrieve all English language studies from inception to 2015...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749097/lymphoepithelioma-like-carcinoma-of-the-breast-mimicking-granulomatous-mastitis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Dalia M Abouelfad, Noha N Yassen, Hebat Allah A Amin, Marwa E Shabana
Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) of the breast is an exceedingly rare variant of mammary cancer. To our knowledge, only twenty - one cases have been reported in the literature. Diagnosis of this type of mammary carcinoma may be challenging, owing to its rarity and the histopathological similarity to common inflammatory and malignant lesions of the breast mainly granulomatous mastitis, medullary carcinoma, pleomorphic lobular carcinoma, lymphoma and other hematological malignancies. Our case is the 22nd case of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma reported in the breast, presenting with a palpable tender mass in a post-menopausal female...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
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