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Giulio Preta, Marija Jankunec, Frank Heinrich, Sholeem Griffin, Iain Martin Sheldon, Gintaras Valincius
We demonstrate the use of tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs) as an experimental platform for functional and structural studies of membrane associated proteins by electrochemical techniques. The reconstitution of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) pyolysin (PLO) from Trueperella pyogenes into tBLMs was followed in real-time by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Changes of the EIS parameters of the tBLMs upon exposure to PLO solutions were consistent with the dielectric barrier damage occurring through the formation of water-filled pores in membranes...
September 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Mukesh K Sharma, J Narayanan, Sanjay Upadhyay, Ajay K Goel
Bacillus anthracis is a bioterrorism agent classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Herein, a novel electrochemical immunosensor for the sensitive, specific and easy detection of anthrax protective antigen (PA) toxin in picogram concentration was developed. The immunosensor consists of (i) a Nafion-multiwall carbon nanotubes-bismuth nanocomposite film modified glassy carbon electrodes (BiNPs/Nafion-MWCNTs/GCE) as a sensing platform and (ii) titanium phosphate nanoparticles-cadmium ion-mouse anti-PA antibodies (TiP-Cd(2+)-MαPA antibodies) as signal amplification tags...
December 15, 2015: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Melissa C Mercado-Crespo, Steven A Sumner, M Bridget Spelke, David E Sugerman, Christina Stanley
During November 2013-March 2014, twice as many all-intent drug overdose deaths were reported in Rhode Island as were reported during the same period in previous years. Most deaths were among injection-drug users, and a large percentage involved fentanyl, a synthetic opioid that is 50-100 times more potent than morphine. Clusters of fentanyl-related deaths have been reported recently in several states. From April 2005 to March 2007, time-limited active surveillance from CDC and the Drug Enforcement Administration identified 1,013 deaths caused by illicit fentanyl use in New Jersey; Maryland; Chicago, Illinois; Detroit, Michigan; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania...
June 20, 2014: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Edna K Moturi, Kimberly A Porter, Steven G F Wassilak, Rudolf H Tangermann, Ousmane M Diop, Cara C Burns, Hamid Jafari
In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to interrupt wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission worldwide, and in 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the completion of global polio eradication a programmatic emergency for public health. By 2013, the annual number of WPV cases had decreased by >99% since 1988, and only three countries remained that had never interrupted WPV transmission: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. This report summarizes global progress toward polio eradication during 2013-2014 and updates previous reports...
May 30, 2014: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Hsiu Wu, Su-San Chang, Hsiang-Jung Tsai, Ryan M Wallace, Sergio E Recuenco, Jeffrey B Doty, Neil M Vora, Feng-Yee Chang
Dog-to-dog transmission of rabies in Taiwan was eliminated in 1961; the island was considered canine rabies-free for 52 years. On July 16, 2013, three ferret-badgers (Melogale moschata) tested positive for rabies by fluorescent antibody testing at the Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture of Taiwan. This was the first time wild animals other than bats were tested. During 1999-2012, a total of 6,841 clinically healthy dogs and five apparently normal cats from shelters were tested and found negative for rabies...
February 28, 2014: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Laurence Cohen, Fátima Coronado, Catherine Folowoshele, Mehran Massoudi, Denise Koo
CONTEXT: Health professionals who can bridge the gap between public health and clinical medicine are needed. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Epidemiology Elective Program (EEP) offers a rotation in public health for medical and veterinary students that provides an introduction to public health, preventive medicine, and the principles of applied epidemiology through real-world, hands-on experiential learning. OBJECTIVE: To describe EEP, including its role in the integration of medicine and public health, and career paths for those who subsequently have enrolled in the Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS)...
September 2014: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
William Schaffner
My commitment to vaccines had its beginnings in an unlikely fashion. I just had completed two years of an internal medicine residency as well as two years of clinical and research training in infectious diseases at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tennessee. Now it was time to fulfill my national service obligation (Selective Service--"the draft") that all young men had back in the 1960s. Because of my interest in infectious diseases, it had been suggested that, rather than serving in the Army, I apply for a Commission in the US Public Health Service...
June 2012: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Peter Nsubuga, Kenneth Johnson, Christopher Tetteh, Joseph Oundo, Andrew Weathers, James Vaughan, Suzanne Elbon, Mufuta Tshimanga, Faustine Ndugulile, Chima Ohuabunwo, Michele Evering-Watley, Fausta Mosha, Obinna Oleribe, Patrick Nguku, Lora Davis, Nykiconia Preacely, Richard Luce, Simon Antara, Hiari Imara, Yassa Ndjakani, Timothy Doyle, Yescenia Espinosa, Ditu Kazambu, Dieula Delissaint, John Ngulefac, Kariuki Njenga
As of 2010 sub-Saharan Africa had approximately 865 million inhabitants living with numerous public health challenges. Several public health initiatives [e.g., the United States (US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the US President's Malaria Initiative] have been very successful at reducing mortality from priority diseases. A competently trained public health workforce that can operate multi-disease surveillance and response systems is necessary to build upon and sustain these successes and to address other public health problems...
2011: Pan African Medical Journal
Thomas R Frieden
In 1949, Alexander Langmuir became the first chief epidemiologist at the Communicable Disease Center (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia. Among his many contributions to the agency and to public health, 2 of the most important--the Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) and his particular brand of epidemic-assistance investigation (the Epi-Aid)--are highlighted in this supplement to the American Journal of Epidemiology. What makes these and many other of Langmuir's innovations so remarkable is their continued relevance to the health challenges we face in this new century...
December 1, 2011: American Journal of Epidemiology
Jeffrey P Koplan, William H Foege
The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) has served the United States and the world for >58 years by being an extraordinary apprenticeship in the fundamentals of practical field epidemiology: a training program, a professional entry point, the basis for lifelong careers, and a closely supervised and mentored opportunity for research, analysis, and community service. Epidemic-assistance investigations, a key element of the EIS experience, are the written summaries of each field investigation undertaken by the EIS officer...
December 1, 2011: American Journal of Epidemiology
Arne Simon, Karun Khurana, Anja Wilkesmann, Andreas Müller, Steffen Engelhart, Martin Exner, Oliver Schildgen, Anna M Eis-Hübinger, Jessie R Groothuis, Udo Bode
BACKGROUND: Nosocomially acquired respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections cause serious problems in hospitalized patients. An increased effort should be made to describe the problems connected with such infections in pediatric hospitals, with the aim of reducing the occurrence of nosocomial RSV infections (NI). METHODS: A specialized database was introduced for surveillance and a multifaceted barrier concept based on the CDC recommendations was developed for the control of NI in a university children's hospital in Germany...
July 2006: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Marguerite Pappaioanou, Paul L Garbe, M Kathleen Glynn, Stephen B Thacker
Public health affords important and exciting career opportunities for veterinarians. The Epidemic Intelligence Service Program (EIS) of the Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC) is a two-year post-graduate program of service and on-the-job training for health professionals, including veterinarians, who are interested in careers in epidemiology and public health. EIS serves as a major point of entry into the public health arena. Veterinarians applying to the program must have a Master of Public Health or equivalent degree, or demonstrated public health experience or course work...
2003: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
S B Thacker, A L Dannenberg, D H Hamilton
The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) was established in 1951 at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, as a combined training and service program in the practice of applied epidemiology. Since then, nearly 2,500 professionals have served in this 2-year program of the US Public Health Service. The experience of an EIS Officer has been modified because of the increased need for more sophisticated analytical methods and the use of microcomputers, as well as CDC's expanded mission into chronic diseases, environmental health, occupational health, and injury control...
December 1, 2001: American Journal of Epidemiology
J P Koplan, S B Thacker
The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) was the vision of Alexander Langmuir, who developed a program with a vital mission to address an unmet need in the United States. The Communicable Disease Center, now the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; Atlanta, Georgia), and the EIS steadily expanded from focusing on infectious disease to address chronic diseases, health statistics, occupational and environmental health and safety, injury prevention and control, and reproductive health. Langmuir recognized the need for epidemiologists to collaborate with others, initially from the laboratory and later including veterinarians, demographers, statisticians, nutritionists, behavioral and social scientists, industrial hygienists, and sanitarians...
December 1, 2001: American Journal of Epidemiology
A Ammon, O Hamouda, T Breuer, L R Petersen
The German Field Epidemiology Training Programme (FETP), which started in January 1996, is part of a national effort to improve research capacity for the epidemiology of infectious diseases in Germany. The aim of the two year programme is to develop a cadre of epidemiologists capable of performing outbreak investigations, epidemiological research, and surveillance at an international standard measured in articles published in international peer-reviewed journals. These epidemiologists will also be instructed to train future epidemiologists and public health personnel...
March 2001: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
S M Ostroff
The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) - the two year applied epidemiology training programme of the United States (US) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - celebrates its 50th anniversary in 2001. Developed during the Korean war, only five years after CDC was established, the stimulus behind developing the EIS was a lack of trained field investigators should biological agents be intentionally used against the US population. It was, however, clear to Alexander Langmuir, the head of epidemiology at CDC and founder of the EIS, that his trainees would engage in a wide range of activities and help fill gaps in the US for epidemiologists with the skills and practical field experience to investigate and control naturally occurring outbreaks of diseases...
March 2001: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
J Buffington, R L Lyerla, S B Thacker
INTRODUCTION: Although historically a training program in applied epidemiology for physicians, veterinarians, and dentists, CDC's Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) has been attracting an increasing number of other doctoral-level scientists with prior experience and training in advanced analytic methods. METHODS: Using data from alumni records, we studied the participation of these nonmedical scientists in the EIS program and their subsequent employment. RESULTS: 160 nonmedical doctoral level scientists enrolled in EIS from 1964 through 1997; 135 had completed EIS as of July 1997...
May 1999: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
J Buffington, P R Bellamy, A L Dannenberg
INTRODUCTION: To increase awareness of and interest in public health and epidemiology, CDC initiated an elective in epidemiology and public health for senior medical students in 1975 and for veterinary students in 1982. METHODS: A review of CDC records to describe participation in the elective, to assess whether students subsequently enrolled in another CDC training program, the Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS), and, if enrolled, employment status following EIS...
May 1999: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
A Grosse-Bley, A M Eis-Hübinger, R Kaiser, J Oldenburg, H H Brackmann, T F Schwarz, K E Schneweis
It is known that parvovirus B19 (B19) is transmitted to hemophiliacs by clotting factors prepared from human plasma. However, it is not clear whether B19 is also transmitted by the more recently used inactivated clotting factor preparations. Therefore, we investigated 69 hemophiliacs, mostly children, receiving only virus-inactivated clotting factors. 49 of them (71%) were B19 IgG-positive and 18 of the IgG-positive hemophiliacs (37%) were also B19 IgM-positive. In contrast, out of 73 age-matched controls only 10 (14%) were IgG-positive, two of them being also IgM-positive...
October 1994: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
R A Goodman, C F Bauman, M B Gregg, J F Videtto, D F Stroup, N P Chalmers
The epidemiologic field investigation is an important tool used by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to provide assistance to State, local, and international public health agencies. The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) of the CDC is an ongoing program that gives physicians and other health professionals opportunities to learn and practice epidemiology. In the period 1946-87, EIS Officers and other professional staff based at CDC headquarters participated in 2,900 epidemiologic field investigations requested by State, local, and international public health agencies...
November 1990: Public Health Reports
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