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HIV-Associated Nephropathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885931/genome-wide-association-studies-suggest-that-apol1-environment-interactions-more-likely-trigger-kidney-disease-in-african-americans-with-nondiabetic-nephropathy-than-strong-apol1-second-gene-interactions
#1
Carl D Langefeld, Mary E Comeau, Maggie C Y Ng, Meijian Guan, Latchezar Dimitrov, Poorva Mudgal, Mitzie H Spainhour, Bruce A Julian, Jeffrey C Edberg, Jennifer A Croker, Jasmin Divers, Pamela J Hicks, Donald W Bowden, Gary C Chan, Lijun Ma, Nicholette D Palmer, Robert P Kimberly, Barry I Freedman
African Americans carrying two apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) renal risk variants have a high risk for nephropathy. However, only a minority develops end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hence, modifying factors likely contribute to initiation of kidney disease such as endogenous (HIV infection) or exogenous (interferon treatment) environmental modifiers. In this report, genome-wide association studies and a meta-analysis were performed to identify novel loci for nondiabetic ESRD in African Americans and to detect genetic modifiers in APOL1-associated nephropathy...
June 6, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872351/hiv-associated-nephropathy-links-risks-and-management
#2
REVIEW
Laura Palau, Steven Menez, Javier Rodriguez-Sanchez, Tessa Novick, Marco Delsante, Blaithin A McMahon, Mohamed G Atta
Despite the decreased incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy due to the widespread use of combined active antiretroviral therapy, it remains one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in HIV-1 seropositive patients. Patients usually present with low CD4 count, high viral load and heavy proteinuria, with the pathologic findings of collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Increased susceptibility exists in individuals with African descent, largely due to polymorphism in APOL1 gene...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726752/spectrum-of-renal-disease-in-hiv-infected-children-report-of-five-cases
#3
Karalanglin Tiewsoh, Ankur Kumar Jindal, Dhrubajyoti Sharma, Sunil Arora, Ranjana W Minz, Parimal Agrawal, Ritambhra Nada, Deepti Suri
There is a paucity of literature on renal diseases associated with HIV infection in Asian countries. Renal disease in HIV-infected children can involve the glomerulus, interstitium, tubules or blood vessels of the kidney. In this case series, five HIV-infected children with various forms of renal disease are reported. The renal pathology included HIV-associated nephropathy, collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis without tubular changes, tubule-interstitial nephritis and minimal change disease (MCD). Case five fulfilled the classification criteria for childhood polyarteritis nodosa (PAN)...
May 4, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608912/glomerular-mitochondrial-changes-in-hiv-associated-renal-injury
#4
Joseph L Bryant, Poornachander R Guda, Girma Asemu, Rogin Subedi, Sugata Ray, Omar S Khalid, Vivek Shukla, Dhruvil Patel, Harry Davis, Vamshi K C Nimmagadda, Tapas K Makar
HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is an AIDs-related disease of the kidney. HIVAN is characterized by severe proteinuria, podocyte hyperplasia, collapse, glomerular, and tubulointerstitial damage. HIV-1 transgenic (Tg26) mouse is the most popular model to study the HIV manifestations that develop similar renal presentations as HIVAN. Viral proteins, including Tat, Nef, and Vpr play a significant role in renal cell damage. It has been shown that mitochondrial changes are involved in several kidney diseases, and therefore, mitochondrial dysfunction may be implicated in the pathology of HIVAN...
June 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608911/renal-aquaporin-4-associated-pathology-in-tg-26-mice
#5
Joseph L Bryant, Poornachander R Guda, Sugata Ray, Girma Asemu, Avinash R Sagi, Fahad Mubariz, Muhammed I Arvas, Omar S Khalid, Vivek Shukla, Vamshi K C Nimmagadda, Tapas K Makar
Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease in HIV patients, which is characterized by glomerulosclerosis and renal tubular dysfunction. Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) is a membrane bound water channel protein that plays a distinct role in water reabsorption from renal tubular fluid. It has been proven that failure of AQP-4 insertion into the renal tubular membrane leads to renal dysfunction. However, the role of AQP-4 in HIVAN is unclear. We hypothesize that impaired water reabsorption leads to renal injury in HIVAN, where AQP-4 plays a crucial role...
June 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578397/fibrillary-glomerulonephritis-in-an-hiv-patient-without-concurrent-hepatitis-c-infection-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Lian Zhang, John M Carson, M Scott Lucia
The most common renal disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), especially in the African American patient population. However, various patterns of glomerulonephritis (GN) are not uncommon, collectively accounting for nearly half of the renal biopsies performed in HIV patients. Most GNs that occur in HIV patients are immune complex mediated, often with concurrent infections such as hepatitis B or C. Fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN), a rare primary glomerular disease, has only been reported in 2 HIV patients, and both patients had concurrent hepatitis C (HCV) infection...
May 2018: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435709/the-prevalence-and-isolated-subtypes-of-bk-polyomavirus-reactivation-among-patients-infected-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-in-southeastern-china
#7
Caiqin Hu, Ying Huang, Juwei Su, Mengyan Wang, Qihui Zhou, Biao Zhu
BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is an opportunistic infectious pathogen that is associated with hemorrhagic cystitis and nephropathy, mainly in transplant recipients and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infected patients. However, molecular characterization studies of BKPyV in China are rare. This study was designed to elucidate the prevalence and to determine the main subtypes of BKPyV among HIV-1-infected patients in southeastern China. In addition, the increased incidences for BKPyV reactivation were analyzed...
February 12, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406430/brief-report-abacavir-lamivudine-and-tenofovir-emtricitabine-in-pregnant-women-with-hiv-laboratory-and-clinical-outcomes-in-an-observational-national-study
#8
Marco Floridia, Carmela Pinnetti, Marina Ravizza, Giulia Masuelli, Carlo Personeni, Matilde Sansone, Anna Degli Antoni, Giovanni Guaraldi, Arsenio Spinillo, Beatrice Tassis, Serena Dalzero, Giuseppina Liuzzi, Enrica Tamburrini
BACKGROUND: Abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) and tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) represent in the guidelines of several countries, including Italy and United States, the preferred nucleoside/nucleotide backbones of antiretroviral regimens. We assessed their profile in pregnancy using data from a national observational study. METHODS: Laboratory measures (CD4, HIV-RNA, lipid profile, glucose, hemoglobin, and alanine transferase) and pregnancy outcomes (preterm delivery, low birthweight, nonelective cesarean section, birthweight Z-score, congenital defects, HIV transmission, maternal weight gain, and pregnancy complications) were compared after prenatal exposure to ABC/3TC or TDF/FTC...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398134/kidney-disease-in-the-setting-of-hiv-infection-conclusions-from-a-kidney-disease-improving-global-outcomes-kdigo-controversies-conference
#9
Charles R Swanepoel, Mohamed G Atta, Vivette D D'Agati, Michelle M Estrella, Agnes B Fogo, Saraladevi Naicker, Frank A Post, Nicola Wearne, Cheryl A Winkler, Michael Cheung, David C Wheeler, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer, Christina M Wyatt
HIV-positive individuals are at increased risk for kidney disease, including HIV-associated nephropathy, noncollapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, immune-complex kidney disease, and comorbid kidney disease, as well as kidney injury resulting from prolonged exposure to antiretroviral therapy or from opportunistic infections. Clinical guidelines for kidney disease prevention and treatment in HIV-positive individuals are largely extrapolated from studies in the general population, and do not fully incorporate existing knowledge of the unique HIV-related pathways and genetic factors that contribute to the risk of kidney disease in this population...
March 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374399/sonographic-evaluation-of-kidney-echogenicity-and-morphology-among-hiv-sero-positive-adults-at-lagos-university-teaching-hospital
#10
Cletus Uche Eze, Charles Ugwoke Eze, Adekunle Adeyomoye
AIM: To evaluate the role of kidney echogenicity and morphology in the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In the cross-sectional study, a sample of 340 anti-retroviral therapy (ART)-naïve AIDS patients underwent laboratory CD4+ count, serum creatinine determination and sonographic renal echogenicity grading and size measurement. Rounded kidneys were described as bulbous while bean-shaped kidneys were described as reniform; echogenicity was categorized into grades 0, 1, 2 and 3...
March 2018: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337702/changing-concepts-of-hiv-infection-and-renal-disease
#11
Jean Hou, Cynthia C Nast
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) was identified as the major renal manifestation of HIV infection early in the HIV epidemic. However, HIV infection now is associated with a different spectrum of renal lesions leading to chronic kidney disease. This review examines the changes in kidney injury occurring in the current HIV era and the factors involved in this transformation of disease expression. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of HIVAN and opportunistic infections in HIV-infected individuals has declined in concert with the use of effective combination antiretroviral agents...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238427/hiv-associated-nephropathy-in-africa-pathology-clinical-presentation-and-strategy-for-prevention
#12
REVIEW
Nazik Elmalaika Husain, Mohamed H Ahmed, Ahmed O Almobarak, Sufian K Noor, Wadie M Elmadhoun, Heitham Awadalla, Clare L Woodward, Dushyant Mital
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can lead to progressive decline in renal function known as HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Importantly, individuals of African ancestry are more at risk of developing HIVAN than their European descent counterparts. An in-depth search on Google Scholar, Medline and PubMed was conducted using the terms "HIVAN" and "pathology and clinical presentation", in addition to "prevalence and risk factors for HIVAN", with special emphasis on African countries for any articles published between 1990 and 2017...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236656/secondary-syphilis-associated-with-membranous-nephropathy-and-acute-hepatitis-in-a-patient-with-hiv-a-case-report
#13
Zhou Zhang, Aviv Hever, Nitin Bhasin, Dean A Kujubu
INTRODUCTION: We present a case of membranous nephropathy associated with a secondary syphilis infection in a patient with HIV. CASE PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old white man with HIV who was receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy presented to the Emergency Department with 6 weeks of rectal pain. He had a CD3-CD4 count of 656 cells/mm3 and an undetectable viral load. On admission, he was found to have an anal ulcer, a serum creatinine of 1.4 mg/dL (baseline 0...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224373/pharmacotherapy-and-treatment-options-for-hiv-associated-nephropathy
#14
REVIEW
Steven Menez, Mohamad Hanouneh, Blaithin A McMahon, Derek M Fine, Mohamed G Atta
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a worldwide disease with significant mortality and morbidity. There are a multitude of HIV-related kidney diseases including HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) most prominently. The risk of developing HIVAN increases with decreasing CD4 count, higher viral load, and based on genetic factors. The mortality rate for those with HIVAN-end stage renal disease (ESRD) remains 2.5-3 times higher than ESRD patients without HIVAN. Areas covered: The epidemiology of HIVAN, particularly risk assessment, will be explored in this review...
January 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204904/the-functionality-of-african-specific-variants-in-the-tgfb1-regulatory-region-and-their-potential-role-in-hivan
#15
M Nel, J-M Buys, F C J Botha, N Wearne, S Prince, J M Heckmann
BACKGROUND: Transcription of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) is regulated by a polymorphic promoter region containing African-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Some of these SNPs have higher frequencies among Southern Africans compared to other African populations and their functionality has only been partially studied. Due to the high prevalence of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) in Africans we hypothesized that functional African TGFB1-promoter SNPs may contribute to HIVAN pathogenesis...
December 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169276/iatrogenic-kaposi-s-sarcoma-in-an-hiv-negative-young-male-with-crohn-s-disease-and-iga-nephropathy-a-case-report-and-brief-review-of-the-literature
#16
Annika L Windon, Stuti G Shroff
BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a vascular tumor arising in association with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection, and different variants show different clinical presentations. Isolated intestinal KS in the background of Crohn's disease (CD) is exceedingly rare with only 3 cases reported in the English literature (from 1966 to 2016). CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we report a case of intestinal KS in a 21-year-old HIV-negative Ethiopian male with a long-standing history of steroid therapy for his underlying IgA nephropathy...
May 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142953/absence-of-hiv-associated-nephropathy-among-antiretroviral-naive-adults-with-persistent-albuminuria-in-western-kenya
#17
M K Koech, M O G Owiti, W D Owino-Ong'or, A K Koskei, M J Karoney, V D D'Agati, C M Wyatt
Introduction: HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) has been strongly linked to African ancestry. However, studies have demonstrated wide variability in the prevalence of HIVAN in different sub-Saharan African populations. Accurate assessment of the disease burden is important because antiretroviral therapy (ART) is increasingly available and may prevent progression to end-stage renal disease. Methods: We prospectively screened ART-naïve, afebrile, nonhypertensive, and nondiabetic adults attending a large HIV care program in Western Kenya for the presence of albuminuria (dipstick albumin ≥ trace or urine albumin to creatinine ratio [UACR] ≥ 30 mg/g)...
March 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110758/apol1-renal-risk-variants-fertile-soil-for-hiv-associated-nephropathy
#18
REVIEW
Jeffrey B Kopp, Jurgen Heymann, Cheryl A Winkler
Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) genetic variants are potent risk factors for glomerular disease, but one or more additional factors are required for expression of glomerular disease. Uncontrolled or poorly controlled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is the most potent susceptibility factor for APOL1 nephropathy that has been identified to date. APOL1 variants are associated with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), a podocyte disease, but not with HIV-immune complex disease, primarily a disease of the mesangium...
November 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029647/renal-manifestations-of-hiv-during-the-antiretroviral-era-in-south-africa-a-systematic-scoping-review
#19
Shirelle Assaram, Nombulelo P Magula, Suman Mewa Kinoo, Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 650,000 patients may develop human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related renal disease in South Africa. South Africa has recently adopted WHO policy, stipulating that all HIV-infected patients have access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) irrespective of CD4 cell count. METHODS: We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, Worldcat.org and EBSCO host databases from July 2015 to December 2015. Eligibility criteria included articles pertaining to renal manifestations of HIV in South Africa from 2004 to 2015 in adult patients (≥ 18 years)...
October 13, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021661/successful-renal-transplant-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-hiv-associated-nephropathy
#20
Anshuman Sood, David Hakim, Abhishek Bose
HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a pathological state of the kidneys due to longstanding, uncontrolled HIV infection. With the rapid progression of HIVAN to end-stage kidney failure, there is a significant potential for renal transplantation to improve the quality of life in these patients. Numerous studies have been recently published documenting renal transplantation as a primary treatment for HIVAN. With the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, allograft and patient survival rates of HIV-infected persons are nearly identical to those who are HIV negative...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
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