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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149766/numerosity-estimation-benefits-from-transsaccadic-information-integration
#1
Carolin Hübner, Alexander C Schütz
Humans achieve a stable and homogeneous representation of their visual environment, although visual processing varies across the visual field. Here we investigated the circumstances under which peripheral and foveal information is integrated for numerosity estimation across saccades. We asked our participants to judge the number of black and white dots on a screen. Information was presented either in the periphery before a saccade, in the fovea after a saccade, or in both areas consecutively to measure transsaccadic integration...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149764/human-saliva-as-a-diagnostic-material
#2
REVIEW
Sylwia Chojnowska, Tomasz Baran, Iwona Wilińska, Paulina Sienicka, Iwona Cabaj-Wiater, Małgorzata Knaś
Today blood biochemical laboratory tests are essential elements to the diagnosis and monitoring of the treatment of diseases. However, many researchers have suggested saliva as an preferable diagnostic material. The collection of saliva is simple, painless, cheap and safe, both for patients and medical staff. An additional advantage of saliva is the fact that it may be retrieved several times a day, which makes repeat analysis much easier. Furthermore, saliva has very high durability. Although 94-99% of salivary content is water, saliva also contains numerous cellular elements and many organic and inorganic substances, including most biological markers present in the blood and urine that may be used in the early detection and monitoring of many dental and general diseases...
November 14, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149752/hazard-assessment-of-hydraulic-fracturing-chemicals-using-an-indexing-method
#3
Guangji Hu, Tianyi Liu, James Hager, Kasun Hewage, Rehan Sadiq
The rapid expansion of unconventional natural gas production has triggered considerable public concerns, particularly regarding environmental and human health (EHH) risks posed by various chemical additives used in hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations. There is a need to assess the potential EHH hazards of additives used in real-world HF operations. In this study, HF additive and fracturing fluid data was acquired, and EHH hazards were assessed using an indexing approach. The indexing system analyzed chemical toxicological data of different ingredients contained within additives and produced an aggregated EHH safety index for each additive, along with an indicator describing the completeness of the chemical toxicological data...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149750/friends-or-foes-monetized-life-cycle-assessment-and-cost-benefit-analysis-of-the-site-remediation-of-a-former-gas-plant
#4
Lies Huysegoms, Sandra Rousseau, Valérie Cappuyns
Site contamination is a global concern because of the potential risks for human health and ecosystem quality. Every contaminated site has its own specific characteristics and the increased availability and efficiency of remediation techniques makes the choice of remediation alternative increasingly complicated. In this paper an attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the secondary environmental impacts of a site remediation is performed and its results are monetized using two different monetization techniques, namely Stepwise 2006 and Ecovalue 08...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149746/habitat-mosaics-and-path-analysis-can-improve-biological-conservation-of-aquatic-biodiversity-in-ecosystems-with-low-head-dams
#5
Sean M Hitchman, Martha E Mather, Joseph M Smith, Jane S Fencl
Conserving native biodiversity depends on restoring functional habitats in the face of human-induced disturbances. Low-head dams are a ubiquitous human impact that degrades aquatic ecosystems worldwide. To improve our understanding of how low-head dams impact habitat and associated biodiversity, our research examined complex interactions among three spheres of the total environment. i.e., how low-head dams (anthroposphere) affect aquatic habitat (hydrosphere), and native biodiversity (biosphere) in streams and rivers...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149739/removal-of-tio2-nanoparticles-from-water-by-low-pressure-pilot-plant-filtration
#6
Josune Olabarrieta, Oihane Monzón, Yolanda Belaustegui, Jon-Iñaki Alvarez, Saioa Zorita
Rising use of nanoparticles in manufacturing as well as in commercial products bring issues related to environmental release and human exposure. A large amount of TiO2 nanoparticles will eventually reach wastewater treatment plants. Low pressure membrane filtration has been suggested as a feasible treatment of water streams. This study investigated first at laboratory scale the influence of: i) membrane material, ii) pore size and iii) water chemistry on nTiO2 removal. TiO2 retention was governed by the cake layer formation mechanism and significant retention of nanoparticles was observed even for filters having considerably larger pores than nTiO2...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149728/tuning-magnetic-relaxation-properties-of-hard-cores-in-core-shell-colloids-by-modification-of-soft-shell
#7
Nataliya Shamsutdinova, Rustem Zairov, Irek Nizameev, Aidar Gubaidullin, Alsu Mukhametshina, Sergey Podyachev, Ildus Ismayev, Marsil Kadirov, Alexandra Voloshina, Timur Mukhametzyanov, Asiya Mustafina
The present work introduces an impact of polyelectrolyte-based hydrophilic shell on magnetic relaxivity and luminescence of hard cores built from isostructural complexes of Tb(III) and Gd(III) in the core-shell aqueous colloids. Microscopic and scattering techniques reveal "plum pudding" morphology of the colloids, where polyelectrolyte-coated ultrasmall (<5nm) hard cores form aggregates in aqueous solutions. Interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with the colloids provides a tool to modify the polyelectrolyte-based shell, which is the reason for the improvement in both aggregation behavior of the colloids and their relaxivity...
November 11, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149723/residual-effects-of-biochar-on-growth-photosynthesis-and-cadmium-uptake-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l-under-cd-stress-with-different-water-conditions
#8
Muhammad Rizwan, Shafaqat Ali, Tahir Abbas, Muhammad Adrees, Muhammad Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Ibrahim, Farhat Abbas, Muhammad Farooq Qayyum, Rab Nawaz
Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination and drought stress are among the main issues hindering global food security. Biochar has been used to reduce metal uptake by plants and water stress mitigation, but long-term residual effects of biochar under Cd stress at different moisture levels needs to be investigated. A following rice (Oryza sativa L.) was grown after wheat on Cd-contaminated soil amended with different levels of biochar (0, 3.0, and 5.0%, w/w). Thirty five days old plants were irrigated with three moisture levels including zero drought as a control (1-2 cm water layer on soil), mild drought (MD, 50% of soil water holding capacity, WHC), and severe drought (SD, 35% of soil WHC) for an accompanying 35 days...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149720/a-robust-strategy-for-preparation-of-sequential-stimuli-responsive-block-copolymer-prodrugs-via-thiolactone-chemistry-to-overcome-multiple-anticancer-drug-delivery-barriers
#9
Wendong Ke, Wei Yin, Zengshi Zha, Jean Felix Mukerabigwi, Weijian Chen, Yuheng Wang, Chuanxin He, Zhishen Ge
Block copolymer prodrugs (BCPs) have attracted considerable attentions in clinical translation of nanomedicine owing to their self-assembly into well-defined core-shell nanoparticles for improved pharmacokinetics, stability in blood circulation without drug leakage, and optimized biodistribution. However, a cascade of physiological barriers against specific delivery of drugs into tumor cells limit the final therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we report a robust and facile strategy based on thiolactone chemistry to fabricate well-defined BCPs with sequential tumor pH-promoted cellular internalization and intracellular stimuli-responsive drug release...
November 9, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149714/influence-of-fe-ii-on-the-se-iv-sorption-under-oxic-anoxic-conditions-using-bentonite
#10
Jiangang He, Yanlin Shi, Xiaoyu Yang, Wanqiang Zhou, Yao Li, Chunli Liu
(79)Se, one of the key radionuclides for nuclear waste disposal, threatens the quality of the environment, as well as human health. Therefore, it needs to be permanently isolated from the biosphere. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of Fe(II)/Fe(III) on the removal of (79)Se using bentonite in the pH range of 2.0-10.0 under oxic/anoxic conditions. Under oxic conditions, Se(IV) prefers to form inner-sphere complexes with Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide, derived from the oxidization of Fe(II) using oxygen...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149712/detection-of-perfluoroalkyl-acids-and-sulphonates-in-italian-eel-samples-by-hplc-hrms-orbitrap
#11
Luca Maria Chiesa, Maria Nobile, Elisa Pasquale, Claudia Balzaretti, Petra Cagnardi, Doriana Tedesco, Sara Panseri, Francesco Arioli
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) contain one or more carbon-bound hydrogens substituted by fluorine. Since the 1950s, these compounds have been used to manufacture fat- and water-resistant fabrics, paper and food containers, and to produce photographic films, firefighting foams, detergents and insecticides. The widespread use and global distribution of PFASs, have led to their accumulation in the environment. Food, particularly fish and other seafood, is considered the main route of human exposure to PFASs...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149702/an-hplc-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-quantification-of-et-26-hcl-and-its-major-metabolite-in-plasma-and-application-to-a-pharmacokinetic-study-in-rats
#12
Xu Chen, Wensheng Zhang, Sandy Rios, Miriam B Morkos, Xiaoli Ye, Gen Li, Xuehua Jiang, Zhijun Wang, Ling Wang
ET-26-HCl is a new analog of etomidate, a short-acting anesthetic drug, with less adrenal cortex inhibition. The pharmacokinetics of ET-26-HCl in rats needs to be determined for future clinical trials in human subjects. In order to facilitate the pharmacokinetic study, a liquid chromatography based tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for quantification of ET-26-HCl and its major metabolite, ET-26-acid. These two compounds and gabapentin (internal standard) were extracted using a protein precipitation method with methanol and detected by Multiple Reaction Monitoring of m/z transition of 275...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149699/tetrahymena-cilia-cap-is-built-in-a-multi-step-process-a-study-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#13
Cecília Seixas, João Gonçalves, Luís Viseu Melo, Helena Soares
Cilia are complex and dynamic organelles that have motility and sensory functions. Defects in cilia biogenesis and function are at the origin of human ciliopathies. In motile cilia, a basal body organizes the axoneme composed of nine microtubule doublets surrounding a central pair of singlet microtubules. The distal ends of axonemal microtubules are attached to the membrane by microtubule-capping structures. Little is known about the early steps of cilium assembly. Although cilia grow and resorb from their distal tips, it remains poorly understood where and when the components of the caps are first assembled...
October 20, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149696/clearance-of-plasmin-pn-1-complexes-by-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-human-aneurysm-of-the-ascending-aorta
#14
Kamel Boukais, Luciano F Borges, Laurence Venisse, Ziad Touat, Déborah François, Véronique Arocas, Guillaume Jondeau, Paul Declerck, Marie-Christine Bouton, Jean-Baptiste Michel
Plasminogen is a circulating zymogen which enters the arterial wall by radial, transmural hydraulic conductance, where it is converted to plasmin by tissue plasminogen activator t-PA on an activation platform involving S100A4 on the vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) membrane. Plasmin is involved in the progression of human thoracic aneurysm of the ascending aorta (TAA). vSMCs protect the TAA wall from plasmin-induced proteolytic injury by expressing high levels of antiproteases. Protease nexin-1 (PN-1) is a tissue antiprotease belonging to the serpin superfamily, expressed in the vascular wall, and is able to form a covalent complex with plasmin...
October 24, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149686/preliminary-application-of-structure-from-motion-and-gis-to-document-decomposition-and-taphonomic-processes
#15
Connor D Carlton, Samantha Mitchell, Patrick Lewis
Over the past decade, Structure from Motion (SfM) has increasingly been used as a means of digital preservation and for documenting archaeological excavations, architecture, and cultural material. However, few studies have tapped the potential of using SfM to document and analyze taphonomic processes affecting burials for forensic sciences purposes. This project utilizes SfM models to elucidate specific post-depositional events that affected a series of three human cadavers deposited at the South East Texas Applied Forensic Science Facility (STAFS)...
November 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149679/innovative-urban-forestry-governance-in-melbourne-investigating-green-placemaking-as-a-nature-based-solution
#16
Natalie Marie Gulsrud, Kelly Hertzog, Ian Shears
A nature-based approach to climate resilience aims to challenge and re-frame conventional environmental management methods by refocusing solutions from technological strategies to socio-ecological principles such as human well-being and community-based governance models, thereby improving and legitimizing the delivery of ecosystem services (ES). There are, however, many challenges to applying a socio-ecological agenda to urban climate resilience and thereby re-framing ES delivery as community and people focused, a knowledge gap extensively outlined in the environmental governance literature...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149672/the-application-of-bacteriophages-as-novel-indicators-of-viral-pathogens-in-wastewater-treatment-systems
#17
Edgard Dias, James Ebdon, Huw Taylor
Many wastewater treatment technologies have been shown to remove bacterial pathogens more effectively than viral pathogens and, in aquatic environments, levels of traditional faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) do not appear to correlate consistently with levels of human viral pathogens. There is, therefore, a need for novel viral indicators of faecal pollution and surrogates of viral pathogens, especially given the increasing importance of indirect and direct wastewater reuse. Potential candidates include bacteriophages (phages) and the study described here sought to elucidate the relationship between three groups of phages (somatic coliphages (SOMPH), F-RNA coliphages (F-RNAPH) and human-specific phages infecting B...
November 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149670/an-updated-review-on-tritium-in-the-environment
#18
REVIEW
Frédérique Eyrolle, Loïc Ducros, Séverine Le Dizès, Karine Beaugelin-Seiller, Sabine Charmasson, Patrick Boyer, Catherine Cossonnet
Various studies indicated more or less recently that organically bound tritium (OBT) formed from gaseous or liquid tritium releases into the environment potentially accumulates in organisms contradicting hypotheses associated to methods used to assess the biological impact of tritium on humans (ASN, 2010). Increasing research works were then performed during the last decade in order to gain knowledge on this radionuclide expected to be increasingly released by nuclear installations in the near future within the environment...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149663/%C3%AE-keto-tetrahydrofuran-lignan-glucosides-from-the-bangladeshi-medicinal-plant-terminalia-citrina-inhibit-estradiol-e2-induced-proliferation-in-cancer-cells
#19
Md Abdul Muhit, Kaoru Umehara, Hiroshi Noguchi
EtOAc extract from the leaves of Terminalia citrina collected in Bangladesh were separated, and seven previously undescribed α-keto tetrahydrofuran lignan glucosides (terminalosides Q to W) were isolated and characterized. NOESY analysis of (1)H NMR spectra and ECD spectroscopic data analysis revealed the absolute stereochemistry of the tetrahydrofuran ring of the isolated constituents as being a (7S,8R,8'S)- configuration in terminalosides Q to U and a (7R,8R,8'S)- configuration in terminalosides V and W...
November 14, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149649/chk1-inhibitors-overcome-imatinib-resistance-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-cells
#20
Hu Lei, Jin Jin, Meng Liu, Xiangyun Li, Hao Luo, Li Yang, Hanzhang Xu, Yingli Wu
Drug resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is currently a clinical problem of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Bcr-Abl protein depletion is considered as a way to overcome drug resistance to TKIs. In our study, Chk1 inhibitors, AZD7762 and MK-8776, had strong antitumor effects on CML cell line KBM5 and imatinib-resistant form KBM5(T315I). Moreover, Chk1 inhibitors showed a strong cytotoxic effect on leukemia cells from primary CML and imatinib-resistance CML patients, but low cytotoxic effect on normal human mononuclear cells...
November 11, 2017: Leukemia Research
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