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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150610/implications-of-improved-representations-of-plant-respiration-in-a-changing-climate
#1
Chris Huntingford, Owen K Atkin, Alberto Martinez-de la Torre, Lina M Mercado, Mary A Heskel, Anna B Harper, Keith J Bloomfield, Odhran S O'Sullivan, Peter B Reich, Kirk R Wythers, Ethan E Butler, Ming Chen, Kevin L Griffin, Patrick Meir, Mark G Tjoelker, Matthew H Turnbull, Stephen Sitch, Andy Wiltshire, Yadvinder Malhi
Land-atmosphere exchanges influence atmospheric CO2. Emphasis has been on describing photosynthetic CO2 uptake, but less on respiration losses. New global datasets describe upper canopy dark respiration (R d) and temperature dependencies. This allows characterisation of baseline R d, instantaneous temperature responses and longer-term thermal acclimation effects. Here we show the global implications of these parameterisations with a global gridded land model. This model aggregates R d to whole-plant respiration R p, driven with meteorological forcings spanning uncertainty across climate change models...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150244/proteomic-analysis-of-follicular-fluid-from-tropically-adapted-goats
#2
Alexandre R Paula Junior, Mauricio F van Tilburg, Marina D P Lobo, Ana C O Monteiro-Moreira, Renato A Moreira, Carlos H S Melo, Joanna M G Souza-Fabjan, Airton A Araújo, Luciana M Melo, Dárcio I A Teixeira, Arlindo A Moura, Vicente J F Freitas
The present study was conducted to characterize the major proteome of ovarian follicular fluid from locally-adapted, "Canindé" goats in the northeast of Brazil. Eight estrous cycling goats received a hormonal treatment consisting of medroxyprogesterone acetate, D-cloprostenol and FSH. Fluid was collected by laparoscopy from small (<3mm), medium (3-4mm) and large (>4mm) follicles and then, proteins were analyzed by 2-D SDS-PAGE and tandem mass spectrometry. Thirty-six proteins were identified in the goat follicular fluid, including albumin, immunoglobulins, ceruloplasmin, complement factor B, alpha-1B-glycoprotein precursor, serotransferrin, complement C3 and serpins, among others...
November 6, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149570/seagrass-mediated-phosphorus-and-iron-solubilisation-in-tropical-sediments
#3
Kasper Elgetti Brodersen, Klaus Koren, Maria Mosshammer, Peter Ralph, Michael Kühl, Jakob Santner
Tropical seagrasses are nutrient limited owing to the strong phosphorus fixation capacity of carbonate-rich sediments, yet they form densely-vegetated, multi-species meadows in oligotrophic tropical waters. Using a novel combination of high-resolution, two-dimensional chemical imaging of O2, pH, iron, sulphide, calcium and phosphorus, we found that tropical seagrasses are able to mobilize the essential nutrients iron and phosphorus in their rhizosphere via multiple biogeochemical pathways. We show that tropical seagrasses mobilize phosphorus and iron within their rhizosphere via plant-induced local acidification, leading to dissolution of carbonates and release of phosphate, and via local stimulation of microbial sulphide production, causing reduction of insoluble Fe(III) oxyhydroxides to dissolved Fe(II) with concomitant phosphate release into the rhizosphere porewater...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149480/the-characterisation-of-iron-iii-in-seawater-and-related-toxicity-to-early-life-stages-of-scleractinian-corals
#4
Justin Leigh-Smith, Amanda Reichelt-Brushett, Andrew L Rose
Currently toxicity data for iron (Fe) in seawater is limited; furthermore these data are of poor quality due to the importance of Fe solubility in test solutions being overlooked. This study characterised the solubility and lability of Fe(III) in seawater and then examined the effects of Fe(III) on the fertilisation success and larval survival of the tropical marine scleractinian corals Acropora spathulata and Platygyra daedalea. Here we present the first assessment of the effects of Fe on the early life stages of scleractinian corals...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149474/interventions-for-old-world-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#5
REVIEW
Julio Heras-Mosteiro, Begoña Monge-Maillo, Mariona Pinart, Patricia Lopez Pereira, Emely Garcia-Carrasco, Pedro Campuzano Cuadrado, Ana Royuela, Irene Mendez Roman, Rogelio López-Vélez
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by a parasitic infection, is considered one of the most serious skin diseases in many low- and middle-income countries. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) is caused by species found in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and India. The most commonly prescribed treatments are antimonials, but other drugs have been used with varying success. As OWCL tends to heal spontaneously, it is necessary to justify the use of systemic and topical treatments...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149288/overexpression-of-seipin1-increases-oil-in-hydroxy-fatty-acid-accumulating-seeds
#6
Daniel Lunn, James G Wallis, John Browse
While plant oils are an important source of food, plants also produce oils containing specialized fatty acids with chemical and physical properties valued in industry. Ricinoleic acid, a hydroxy-fatty acid (HFA) produced in the seed of castor (Ricinus communis), is of particular value with a wide range of applications. Since castor cultivation is currently successful only in tropic climates, and because castor seed contain the toxin ricin, there are ongoing efforts to develop a temperate crop capable of HFA biosynthesis...
November 15, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149062/polyphenolics-from-albizia-harveyi-exhibit-antioxidant-activities-and-counteract-oxidative-damage-and-ultra-structural-changes-of-cryopreserved-bull-semen
#7
Mansour Sobeh, Soha A Hassan, Mohamed A El Raey, Wael A Khalil, Mahmoud A E Hassan, Michael Wink
Albizia harveyi is a tropical deciduous tree, found across South and Eastern Africa and widely used in traditional medicine. The leaf extract ameliorated the damaging effects of the frozen-thawing process in cryopreserved bull semen. In a dose-dependent pattern, sperm motility, viability, and membrane integrity were improved compared to the untreated control. Furthermore, the extract increased the percentage of viable sperm cells and reduced the percentages of early apoptotic and apoptotic sperm cells as well as the damage in sperm ultra-structure...
November 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148889/lack-of-detection-of-avian-influenza-newcastle-disease-and-west-nile-viruses-in-wild-birds-of-northeastern-brazil
#8
Camile Lugarini, Renata Hurtado, Jansen de Araujo, Tatiana Ometto, Luciano Thomazelli, Marina de Seixas, Edison Durigon, Jean Carlos Silva
We tested 529 wild birds captured in northeastern Brazil for infection by avian influenza, Newcastle disease, and West Nile. Viruses were not detected by real-time PCR with the exception of one Tropical Gnatcatcher (Polioptila plumbea) positive for influenza virus, but this could not be confirmed by viral isolation or gene sequencing.
November 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147977/are-isomeric-alkenes-used-in-species-recognition-among-neo-tropical-stingless-bees-melipona-spp
#9
Stephen J Martin, Sue Shemilt, Cândida B da S Lima, Carlos A L de Carvalho
Our understanding of the role of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) in recognition is based largely on temperate ant species and honey bees. The stingless bees remain relatively poorly studied, despite being the largest group of eusocial bees, comprising more than 400 species in some 60 genera. The Meliponini and Apini diverged between 80-130 Myr B.P. so the evolutionary trajectories that shaped the chemical communication systems in ants, honeybees and stingless bees may be very different. The aim of this study was to study if a unique species CHC signal existed in Neotropical stingless bees, as has been shown for many temperate species, and what compounds are involved...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147808/maribacter-marinus-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-deep-sea-seamount
#10
Dan-Yang Wang, Ya-Wen Sun, Jie Liu, De-Chao Zhang
A Gram-stain negative, rod-shaped, aerobic strain, designated YC973(T), was isolated from a seamount near the Yap Trench in the tropical western Pacific. Phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain YC973(T) is related to the genus Maribacter and has high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Maribacter orientalis KMM 3947(T) (97.6%). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:1 G and an unidentified fatty acid of equivalent chain-length 13.565. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine and five unidentified lipids...
November 17, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147779/the-role-of-ants-in-north-temperate-grasslands-a-review
#11
REVIEW
B D Wills, D A Landis
Historic and current land-use changes have altered the landscape for grassland biota, with over 90% of grasslands and savannas converted to agriculture or some other use in north temperate regions. Reintegrating grasslands into agricultural landscapes can increase biodiversity while also providing valuable ecosystem services. In contrast to their well-known importance in tropical and subtropical ecosystems, the role of ants in temperate grasslands is often underappreciated. As consumers and ecosystem engineers, ants in temperate grasslands influence invertebrate, plant, and soil microbial diversity and potentially alter grassland productivity...
November 16, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147722/-dengue-fever-symptoms-epidemiology-entomology-pathogen-diagnosis-and-prevention
#12
D Wiemer, H Frickmann, A Krüger
Dengue infections are among the most frequent causes of febrile disease in tropical climates. Infections are caused by a flavivirus transmitted by the Aedes mosquito. Aedes aegypti mosquitos are the main transmitters of Dengue viruses. Since these insects are both diurnal and container breeders, particular prevention and control measures are required. Symptom severity varies and can range from a mild, flu-like clinical picture to severe hemorrhage and shock. The most common symptoms experienced by travelers include fever, muscular pain, headaches and skin rash...
November 16, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146777/comment-on-the-extent-of-forest-in-dryland-biomes
#13
Daniel M Griffith, Caroline E R Lehmann, Caroline A E Strömberg, Catherine L Parr, R Toby Pennington, Mahesh Sankaran, Jayashree Ratnam, Christopher J Still, Rebecca L Powell, Niall P Hanan, Jesse B Nippert, Colin P Osborne, Stephen P Good, T Michael Anderson, Ricardo M Holdo, Joseph W Veldman, Giselda Durigan, Kyle W Tomlinson, William A Hoffmann, Sally Archibald, William J Bond
Bastin et al (Reports, 12 May 2017, p. 635) infer forest as more globally extensive than previously estimated using tree cover data. However, their forest definition does not reflect ecosystem function or biotic composition. These structural and climatic definitions inflate forest estimates across the tropics and undermine conservation goals, leading to inappropriate management policies and practices in tropical grassy ecosystems.
November 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146768/adhesive-performance-of-tropical-arboreal-ants-varies-with-substrate-temperature
#14
Alyssa Y Stark, Katherine Arstingstall, Stephen P Yanoviak
The surface temperature of tree branches in the tropical rainforest canopy can reach up to 55°C. Ants and other small cursorial organisms must maintain adequate attachment in this extreme microenvironment to forage effectively and prevent falling. Ant adhesion depends on liquid secretions that should become less viscous at high temperatures, causing ants to slip. However, tropical arboreal ants have high thermal tolerance and actively forage on hot canopy surfaces, suggesting that these ants can maintain adhesion on hot substrates...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146258/screening-of-tropically-derived-multi-trait-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-and-evaluation-of-corn-and-soybean-colonization-ability
#15
Bruna Durante Batista, Paulo Teixeira Lacava, Andrea Ferrari, Natalia Sousa Teixeira-Silva, Maria Letícia Bonatelli, Sarina Tsui, Mateus Mondin, Elliot Watanabe Kitajima, José Odair Pereira, João Lúcio Azevedo, Maria Carolina Quecine
The present study assessed the plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits and diversity of culturable rhizobacteria associated with guarana (Paullinia cupana), a typical tropical plant. Ninety-six bacteria were isolated, subjected to biochemical tests, and identified by partial or total 16S rDNA sequencing. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the dominant rhizospheric phyla found, and Burkholderia and Bacillus were the most abundant genera. Thirteen strains exhibited the four PGP traits evaluated, and most of them belonged to the genus Burkholderia...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146170/identification-of-tagitinin-c-from-tithonia-diversifolia-as-antitrypanosomal-compound-using-bioactivity-guided-fractionation
#16
Stefania Sut, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Valeria Baldan, Stephane L Ngahang Kamte, Farahnaz Ranjbarian, Prosper C Biapa Nya, Sauro Vittori, Giovanni Benelli, Filippo Maggi, Loredana Cappellacci, Anders Hofer, Riccardo Petrelli
Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae), is used as traditional medicine in tropical countries for the treatment of various diseases, including malaria. Although numerous studies have assessed the antimalarial properties, nothing is known about the effect of T. diversifolia extracts on trypanosomiasis. In this study extracts of T. diversifolia aerial parts were evaluated for their bioactivity against Trypanosoma brucei. The activity was studied against bloodstream forms of T. brucei (TC221), as well as against mammalian cells (BALB/3T3 mouse fibroblasts), as a counter-screen for toxicity...
November 13, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145810/predictors-of-prenatal-care-satisfaction-among-pregnant-women-in-american-samoa
#17
Oluwaseyi Adeyinka, Anne Marie Jukic, Stephen T McGarvey, Bethel T Muasau-Howard, Mata'uitafa Faiai, Nicola L Hawley
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women in American Samoa have a high risk of complications due to overweight and obesity. Prenatal care can mitigate the risk, however many women do not seek adequate care during pregnancy. Low utilization of prenatal care may stem from low levels of satisfaction with services offered. Our objective was to identify predictors of prenatal care satisfaction in American Samoa. METHODS: A structured survey was distributed to 165 pregnant women receiving prenatal care at the Lyndon B Johnson Tropical Medical Center, Pago Pago...
November 16, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145403/us-gulf-coast-states-the-rise-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-in-flyover-nation
#18
Peter J Hotez, Sheila Jackson Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143899/headache-in-resource-limited-settings
#19
REVIEW
Yohannes W Woldeamanuel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the unmet need of headache burden and management in resource-limited settings. It provides a general overview of the nuances and peculiarities of headache disorders in resource-limited settings. The review delivers perspectives and explanations for the emerging burden of both primary and secondary headache disorders. Important discussion on demographic and epidemiologic transition pertinent to low-resource settings is included. A critical analysis of headache disorders is made within the context of growing burden non-communicable disorders in low-resource countries...
November 16, 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143880/effects-of-heat-waves-on-daily-excess-mortality-in-14-korean-cities-during-the-past-20%C3%A2-years-1991-2010-an-application-of-the-spatial-synoptic-classification-approach
#20
Dae-Geun Lee, Kyu Rang Kim, Jiyoung Kim, Baek-Jo Kim, Chun-Ho Cho, Scott C Sheridan, Laurence S Kalkstein, Ho Kim, Seung-Muk Yi
The aims of this study are to explore the "offensive" summer weather types classified under the spatial synoptic classification (SSC) system and to evaluate their impacts on excess mortality in 14 Korean cities. All-cause deaths per day for the entire population were examined over the summer months (May-September) of 1991-2010. Daily deaths were standardized to account for long-term trends of subcycles (annual, seasonal, and weekly) at the mid-latitudes. In addition, a mortality prediction model was constructed through multiple stepwise regression to develop a heat-health warning system based on synoptic climatology...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
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