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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226083/dengue-infection-in-the-nervous-system-lessons-learned-for-zika-and-chikungunya
#1
Marzia Puccioni-Sohler, Natalia Roveroni, Carolina Rosadas, Fernando Ferry, Jose Mauro Peralta, Amilcar Tanuri
Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya are emerging arboviruses and important causes of acute febrile disease in tropical areas. Although dengue does not represent a new condition, a geographic expansion over time has occurred with the appearance of severe neurological complications. Neglect has allowed the propagation of the vector (Aedes spp), which is also responsible for the transmission of other infections such as Zika and Chikungunya throughout the world. The increased number of infected individuals has contributed to the rise of neurological manifestations including encephalitis, myelitis, meningitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital malformations such as microcephaly...
February 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225834/correction-impact-of-amendments-on-the-physical-properties-of-soil-under-tropical-long-term-no-till-conditions
#2
Antonio C A Carmeis Filho, Carlos A C Crusciol, Tiara M Guimarães, Juliano C Calonego, Sacha J Mooney
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167564.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225774/environmental-characteristics-drive-variation-in-amazonian-understorey-bird-assemblages
#3
Juliana Menger, William E Magnusson, Marti J Anderson, Martin Schlegel, Guy Pe'er, Klaus Henle
Tropical bird assemblages display patterns of high alpha and beta diversity and, as tropical birds exhibit strong habitat specificity, their spatial distributions are generally assumed to be driven primarily by environmental heterogeneity and interspecific interactions. However, spatial distributions of some Amazonian forest birds are also often restricted by large rivers and other large-scale topographic features, suggesting that dispersal limitation may also play a role in driving species' turnover. In this study, we evaluated the effects of environmental characteristics, topographic and spatial variables on variation in local assemblage structure and diversity of birds in an old-growth forest in central Amazonia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224222/immunopathological-characterization-of-human-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-lesions-caused-by-leishmania-viannia-spp-in-amazonian-brazil
#4
Cláudia Maria Castro Gomes, Maria Gloria Teixeira Sousa, Joyce Prieto Bezerra Menezes, Marliane Campos Batista, Ana Carolina Stocco Lima, Walter Belda, Daniel Bradshaw, Monica Elinor Alves Gama, Márcia Dalastra Laurenti, Fernando Tobias Silveira, Carlos Eduardo Pereira Corbett
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a chronic infectious disease caused by different protozoan species of Leishmania, and it is endemic in both tropical and subtropical countries. Using immunohistochemistry, we investigate the density of CD68(+), lysozyme(+), CD1a(+), factor XIIIa(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), CD56(+), interferon (IFN)-γ(+), and inducible NO synthase (iNOS(+)) cells. These cells were analyzed from 22 biopsy samples obtained from the lesions of ACL patients, whose infection was caused by Leishmania (Viannia) spp...
February 21, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223505/light-driven-growth-in-amazon-evergreen-forests-explained-by-seasonal-variations-of-vertical-canopy-structure
#5
Hao Tang, Ralph Dubayah
Light-regime variability is an important limiting factor constraining tree growth in tropical forests. However, there is considerable debate about whether radiation-induced green-up during the dry season is real, or an apparent artifact of the remote-sensing techniques used to infer seasonal changes in canopy leaf area. Direct and widespread observations of vertical canopy structures that drive radiation regimes have been largely absent. Here we analyze seasonal dynamic patterns between the canopy and understory layers in Amazon evergreen forests using observations of vertical canopy structure from a spaceborne lidar...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223483/seasonal-prediction-of-us-summertime-ozone-using-statistical-analysis-of-large-scale-climate-patterns
#6
Lu Shen, Loretta J Mickley
We develop a statistical model to predict June-July-August (JJA) daily maximum 8-h average (MDA8) ozone concentrations in the eastern United States based on large-scale climate patterns during the previous spring. We find that anomalously high JJA ozone in the East is correlated with these springtime patterns: warm tropical Atlantic and cold northeast Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs), as well as positive sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies over Hawaii and negative SLP anomalies over the Atlantic and North America...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222925/linking-national-wood-consumption-with-global-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-service-losses
#7
Abhishek Chaudhary, L Roman Carrasco, Thomas Kastner
Identifying the global hotspots of forestry driven species, ecosystem services losses and informing the consuming nations of their environmental footprint domestically and abroad is essential to design demand side interventions and induce sustainable production methods. Here we first use countryside species area relationship model to project species extinctions of four vertebrate taxa (mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles) due to forest land use in 174 countries. We combine the projected extinctions with a global database on the monetary value of ecosystem services provided by different biomes and with bilateral trade data of wood products to calculate species extinctions and ecosystem services losses inflicted by national wood consumption and international wood trade...
February 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222366/alterations-of-tissue-metallothionein-and-vitellogenin-concentrations-in-tropical-cup-oysters-saccostrea-sp-following-short-term-96h-exposure-to-cadmium
#8
Angela M Moncaleano-Niño, Sergio A Barrios-Latorre, Javier F Poloche-Hernández, Vanessa Becquet, Valérie Huet, Luisa Villamil, Hélène Thomas-Guyon, Michael J Ahrens, Andrea Luna-Acosta
Metallothioneins and vitellogenins are low molecular weight proteins that have been used widely in environmental monitoring as biomarkers of exposure and damage to metals and estrogenic compounds, respectively. In the present study, the responses of metallothionein and vitellogenin tissue concentrations were measured following acute (96h) aqueous exposures to cadmium in Saccostrea sp., a tropical cup oyster native to the Western Pacific Ocean that has recently established itself in the Caribbean Sea. Adult oysters (1...
February 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222199/examining-current-or-future-trade-offs-for-biodiversity-conservation-in-north-eastern-australia
#9
April E Reside, Jeremy VanDerWal, Atte Moilanen, Erin M Graham
With the high rate of ecosystem change already occurring and predicted to occur in the coming decades, long-term conservation has to account not only for current biodiversity but also for the biodiversity patterns anticipated for the future. The trade-offs between prioritising future biodiversity at the expense of current priorities must be understood to guide current conservation planning, but have been largely unexplored. To fill this gap, we compared the performance of four conservation planning solutions involving 662 vertebrate species in the Wet Tropics Natural Resource Management Cluster Region in north-eastern Australia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222162/optimal-combinations-of-control-strategies-and-cost-effective-analysis-for-visceral-leishmaniasis-disease-transmission
#10
Santanu Biswas, Abhishek Subramanian, Ibrahim M ELMojtaba, Joydev Chattopadhyay, Ram Rup Sarkar
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly neglected tropical disease that poses a serious problem in various countries all over the world. Implementation of various intervention strategies fail in controlling the spread of this disease due to issues of parasite drug resistance and resistance of sandfly vectors to insecticide sprays. Due to this, policy makers need to develop novel strategies or resort to a combination of multiple intervention strategies to control the spread of the disease. To address this issue, we propose an extensive SIR-type model for anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis transmission with seasonal fluctuations modeled in the form of periodic sandfly biting rate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221960/mycotoxin-contamination-in-stored-maize-and-groundnuts-based-on-storage-practices-and-conditions-in-subhumid-tropical-africa-the-case-of-kilosa-district-tanzania
#11
K S Magembe, M W Mwatawala, D P Mamiro
Experiments were conducted to assess the influence of storage practices on mycotoxin incidences in stored maize and groundnuts in Kilosa District, Eastern Central Tanzania. Factorial experiments were used to test the effects of processing, storage conditions, and protectants at 3-month intervals for 12 weeks. Temperature and relative humidity data were recorded by using data loggers. The differences among the treatment means were compared using Tukey's honestly significant difference test at 5% probability level...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221872/analysis-of-food-safety-and-security-challenges-in-emerging-african-food-producing-areas-through-a-one-health-lens-the-dairy-chains-in-mali
#12
Rachel Cheng, Alberto Mantovani, Chiara Frazzoli
Challenges posed by changes in livestock production in emerging food producing areas and demographic development and climate change require new approaches and responsibilities in the management of food chains. The increasingly recognized role of primary food producers requires the support of the scientific community to instruct effective approaches based on scientific data, tools, and expertise. Mali is an emerging food producing area, and this review covers (i) the dairy farming scenario and its environment, (ii) the role of dairy production in food security, including the greatly different animal rearing systems in the Sahel and tropical regions, (iii) risk management pillars as modern infrastructures, effective farmer organizations, and institutional systems to guarantee animal health and safety of products, and (iv) feasible interventions based on good practices and risk assessment at the farm level (e...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221833/evolution-of-thermal-reaction-norms-in-seasonally-varying-environments
#13
Priyanga Amarasekare, Christopher Johnson
Thermal reaction norms of ectotherms exhibit a distinctive latitudinal pattern: the temperature at which performance is maximized coincides with the mean habitat temperature in tropical ectotherms but exceeds the mean temperature in temperate ectotherms. We hypothesize, on the basis of Jensen's inequality, that this pattern is driven by latitudinal variation in seasonal temperature fluctuations. We test this hypothesis with an eco-evolutionary model that integrates the quantitative genetics of reaction norm evolution with stage-structured population dynamics, which we parameterize with data from insects...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221824/surviving-in-a-cosexual-world-a-cost-benefit-analysis-of-dioecy-in-tropical-trees
#14
Marjolein Bruijning, Marco D Visser, Helene C Muller-Landau, S Joseph Wright, Liza S Comita, Stephen P Hubbell, Hans de Kroon, Eelke Jongejans
Dioecy has a demographic disadvantage compared with hermaphroditism: only about half of reproductive adults produce seeds. Dioecious species must therefore have fitness advantages to compensate for this cost through increased survival, growth, and/or reproduction. We used a full life cycle approach to quantify the demographic costs and benefits associated with dioecy while controlling for demographic differences between dioecious and hermaphroditic species related to other functional traits. The advantage of this novel approach is that we can focus on the effect of breeding system across a diverse tree community...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221131/spatiotemporal-fluctuations-and-triggers-of-ebola-virus-spillover
#15
John Paul Schmidt, Andrew W Park, Andrew M Kramer, Barbara A Han, Laura W Alexander, John M Drake
Because the natural reservoir of Ebola virus remains unclear and disease outbreaks in humans have occurred only sporadically over a large region, forecasting when and where Ebola spillovers are most likely to occur constitutes a continuing and urgent public health challenge. We developed a statistical modeling approach that associates 37 human or great ape Ebola spillovers since 1982 with spatiotemporally dynamic covariates including vegetative cover, human population size, and absolute and relative rainfall over 3 decades across sub-Saharan Africa...
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221110/likely-autochthonous-transmission-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-to-humans-south-central-texas-usa
#16
Sarah M Gunter, Kristy O Murray, Rodion Gorchakov, Rachel Beddard, Susan N Rossmann, Susan P Montgomery, Hilda Rivera, Eric L Brown, David Aguilar, Lawrence E Widman, Melissa N Garcia
Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major neglected tropical disease affecting the Americas. The epidemiology of this disease in the United States is incomplete. We report evidence of likely autochthonous vectorborne transmission of T. cruzi and health outcomes in T. cruzi-seropositive blood donors in south central Texas, USA.
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220864/a-phylogenetic-perspective-on-biogeographical-divergence-of-the-flora-in-yunnan-southwestern-china
#17
Shuiyin Liu, Hua Zhu, Jie Yang
In recent years, an increasing number of studies incorporated biogeography with phylogenetic analyses to reveal the origin and evolutionary history of specific floras. In this study, we constructed the mega-phylogeny of the floras of three representative regions across Yunnan, southwestern China. We analyzed the phylogenetic structure and beta diversity based on the presence/absence of species (genus or family) data to investigate the phylogenetic patterns of regional floras. We found conspicuous divergence at the genus and species level in the pattern of phylogenetic structures, which most likely related to historical biogeography...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220714/is-maternal-education-a-social-vaccine-for-childhood-malaria-infection-a-cross-sectional-study-from-war-torn-democratic-republic-of-congo
#18
Cary Ma, Kasereka Masumbuko Claude, Zacharie Tsongo Kibendelwa, Hannah Brooks, Xiaonan Zheng, Michael Hawkes
In zones of violent conflict in the tropics, social disruption leads to elevated child mortality, of which malaria is the leading cause. Understanding the social determinants of malaria transmission may be helpful to optimize malaria control efforts. We conducted a cross-sectional study of healthy children aged 2 months to 5 years attending well-child and/or immunization visits in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Six hundred and forty-seven children were tested for malaria antigenemia by rapid diagnostic test and the accompanying parent or legal guardian simultaneously completed a survey questionnaire related to demographics, socioeconomic status, maternal education, as well as bednet use and recent febrile illness...
February 21, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220442/synechococcus-production-and-grazing-loss-rates-in-nearshore-tropical-waters
#19
Pei Li Heng, Joon Hai Lim, Choon Weng Lee
Temporal variation of Synechococcus, its production (μ) and grazing loss (g) rates were studied for 2 years at nearshore stations, i.e. Port Dickson and Port Klang along the Straits of Malacca. Synechococcus abundance at Port Dickson (0.3-2.3 × 10(5) cell ml(-1)) was always higher than at Port Klang (0.3-7.1 × 10(4) cell ml(-1)) (p < 0.001). μ ranged up to 0.98 day(-1) (0.51 ± 0.29 day(-1)), while g ranged from 0.02 to 0.31 day(-1) (0.15 ± 0.07 day(-1)) at Port Klang. At Port Dickson, μ and g averaged 0...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220322/serious-fungal-infections-in-the-philippines
#20
M C R Batac, D Denning
The Philippines is a low middle-income, tropical country in Southeast Asia. Infectious diseases remain the main causes of morbidity, including tuberculosis. AIDS/HIV prevalence is still low at <1%, but is rapidly increasing. Fungal disease surveillance has not been done, and its burden has never been estimated. This becomes more important as the population of immunocompromised patients increases, drawn from patients with AIDS, TB, malignancies, and autoimmune diseases requiring chronic steroid use. Using the methodology of the LIFE program ( www...
February 21, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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