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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743100/studies-on-secondary-metabolite-profiling-anti-inflammatory-potential-in-vitro-photoprotective-and-skin-aging-related-enzyme-inhibitory-activities-of-malaxis-acuminata-a-threatened-orchid-of-nutraceutical-importance
#1
Biswajit Bose, Hiranjit Choudhury, Pramod Tandon, Suman Kumaria
Malaxis acuminata D. Don., a small, terrestrial orchid, is endemic to tropical Himalayas at an altitude of 1200-2000m asl. The dried pseudobulbs are important ingredients of century old ayurvedic drug 'Ashtavarga' and a polyherbal immune-booster nutraceutical 'Chyavanprash', known to restore vigour, vitality and youthfulness. Considering tremendous medicinal importance of this threatened orchid species, a detailed study was undertaken for the first time to address its antioxidant potential, secondary metabolite contents and biological activities against skin-aging related enzymes (anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, anti-tyrosinase and xanthine oxidase) and anti-inflammatory activity (5-lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase) in different plant parts of wild and in vitro-derived plants of M...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743006/restoring-low-input-high-diversity-grasslands-as-a-potential-global-resource-for-biofuels
#2
Brian Machovina, Kenneth J Feeley
Reducing meat consumption by humans and shifting to more efficient plant and animal protein sources could potentially free up large areas of pasture and feedcrop agricultural land for restoration or conversion to low-input high-diversity (LIHD) grasslands. LIHD grasslands improve biodiversity, carbon sequestration, erosion control, water storage, while also providing opportunities to produce biofuels. We examined the potential of converting pastures globally, and animal feedstock agricultural lands in the USA and Brazil, to LIHD biomass sources and the capacity of these systems to meet national energy demands via (1) cellulosic ethanol and (2) integrated gasification and combined cycle technology with Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis (IGCC-FT) processing...
July 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742928/shotgun-mitogenomics-across-body-size-classes-in-a-local-assemblage-of-tropical-diptera-phylogeny-species-diversity-and-mitochondrial-abundance-spectrum
#3
Le Qin Choo, Alex Crampton-Platt, Alfried P Vogler
Mitochondrial genomes can be assembled readily from shotgun sequenced DNA mixtures of mass-trapped arthropods ('mitochondrial metagenomics'), speeding up the taxonomic characterization. Bulk sequencing was conducted on some 800 individuals of Diptera obtained by canopy-fogging of a single tree in Borneo dominated by small (<1.5 mm) individuals. Specimens were split into five body-size classes for DNA extraction, to equalize read numbers across specimens and to study how body size, a key ecological trait, interacts with species and phylogenetic diversity...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742898/association-of-the-priority-review-voucher-with-neglected-tropical-disease-drug-and-vaccine-development
#4
Nina Jain, Thomas Hwang, Jessica M Franklin, Aaron S Kesselheim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742868/combining-ability-of-highland-tropic-adapted-potato-for-tuber-yield-and-yield-components-under-drought
#5
Betaw Hirut, Hussein Shimelis, Mengistu Fentahun, Merideth Bonierbale, Manuel Gastelo, Asrat Asfaw
Recurrent drought and late blight disease are the major factors limiting potato productivity in the northwest Ethiopian highlands. Incorporating drought tolerance and late blight resistance in the same genotypes will enable the development of cultivars with high and stable yield potential under erratic rainfall conditions. The objectives of this study were to assess combining ability effects and gene action for tuber yield and traits related to drought tolerance in the International Potato Centre's (CIP's) advanced clones from the late blight resistant breeding population B group 'B3C2' and to identify promising parents and families for cultivar development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742257/dynamic-carboniferous-tropical-forests-new-views-of-plant-function-and-potential-for-physiological-forcing-of-climate
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan P Wilson, Isabel P Montañez, Joseph D White, William A DiMichele, Jennifer C McElwain, Christopher J Poulsen, Michael T Hren
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: The Carboniferous, the time of Earth's penultimate icehouse and widespread coal formation, was dominated by extinct lineages of early-diverging vascular plants. Studies of nearest living relatives of key Carboniferous plants suggest that their physiologies and growth forms differed substantially from most types of modern vegetation, particularly forests. It remains a matter of debate precisely how differently and to what degree these long-extinct plants influenced the environment...
July 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742073/biological-nitrogen-fixation-in-the-oxygen-minimum-region-of-the-eastern-tropical-north-pacific-ocean
#7
Amal Jayakumar, Bonnie X Chang, Brittany Widner, Peter Bernhardt, Margaret R Mulholland, Bess B Ward
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) was investigated above and within the oxygen-depleted waters of the oxygen-minimum zone of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean. BNF rates were estimated using an isotope tracer method that overcame the uncertainty of the conventional bubble method by directly measuring the tracer enrichment during the incubations. Highest rates of BNF (~4 nM day(-1)) occurred in coastal surface waters and lowest detectable rates (~0.2 nM day(-1)) were found in the anoxic region of offshore stations...
July 25, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741999/deakozyma-yunnanensis-sp-nov-a-novel-yeast-species-isolated-from-rotten-wood
#8
Jun Zheng, Kai-Fang Liu, Xiao-Jing Liu, Lin Zhang, Feng-Li Hui
Three strains representing a novel yeast species were isolated from rotten wood samples collected in Xishuangbanna Tropical Rainforest in Yunnan Province, PR China. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions indicated that the novel species represented a member of the genus Deakozyma. The novel species was related most closely to the type strain of Deakozyma indianensis but they differed by 5.8 % sequence divergence (20 substitutions and 5 gaps) in the D1/D2 domain and by 12...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741648/american-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-infancy-and-childhood
#9
REVIEW
Alberto E Paniz-Mondolfi, Carolina Talhari, María F García Bustos, Tamara Rosales, Wilmer E Villamil-Gomez, Marilianna Marquez, Alexandra M Pérez Alvarez, Alejandra I Tálamo Sánchez, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales
Infant and young child skin diseases are among the most common features of morbidity throughout the tropics. Because the skin is directly exposed to the environment, it is considerably affected by climatic and local conditions such as vectors and microorganisms, as in the case of leishmaniasis. In America the observed magnitude of cutaneous leishmaniasis in children has led to the study of increased risk of exposure of this group due to the possibility of peri- and intradomiciliary transmission. The present review pretends to make a concrete approach all through the broad and main figures of this parasitic disease, including the clinical, physiopathological, epidemiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects, in order to be used as a practical source of reference for pediatricians leading with tropical cutaneous pathology in the region...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741042/the-first-case-of-lymphogranuloma-venereum-in-a-woman-in-east-central-europe-and-its-multiple-co-infections
#10
Katerina Juzlova, Filip Rob, Hana Zakoucka, Andrea Kubatova, Zuzana Secnikova, Martina Krasova, Petr Bohac, Jana Hercogova
We are reporting the first case of lymphogranuloma venereum in women in East-Central Europe. A 22-year-old heterosexual woman attended our department of venereology. She complained about a burning sensation in the urethra and vaginal discharge. Many tests were performed, and lymphogranuloma venereum, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial urethritis and cervicitis, genital herpes, genital warts, and hepatitis C were diagnosed. Lymphogranuloma venereum was originally endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, but since 2003, outbreaks of this infection have been reported in North America, Europe, and Australia in men who have sex with men (MSM) community...
July 24, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739371/trans-biome-diversity-in-australian-grass-specialist-lizards-diplodactylidae-strophurus
#11
Rebecca J Laver, Stuart V Nielsen, Dan F Rosauer, Paul M Oliver
Comparisons of biodiversity patterns within lineages that occur across major climate gradients and biomes, can provide insights into the relative roles that lineage history, landscape and climatic variation, and environmental change have played in shaping regional biotas. In Australia, while there has been extensive research into the origins and patterns of diversity in the Australian Arid Zone (AAZ), how diversity is distributed across this biome and the Australian Monsoonal Tropics (AMT) to the north, has been less studied...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738899/a-rare-manifestation-of-burns-after-lightning-strike-in-rural-ghana-a-case-report
#12
Paschal Awingura Apanga, John Atigiba Azumah, Joseph Bayewala Yiranbon
BACKGROUND: Lightning is a natural phenomenon that mostly affects countries in the tropical and subtropical regions of the globe, including Ghana. Lightning strikes pose a global public health issue. Although strikes to humans are uncommon, it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 10-year-old Ghanaian girl who got second-degree burns after being struck by lightning. She was put on an intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic (ceftriaxone), Ringer's lactate, and her burns were dressed with sterile gauze impregnated with Vaseline (petroleum jelly) and silver sulfadiazine ointment...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738838/improved-detection-of-genus-specific-alphavirus-using-a-generic-taqman%C3%A2-assay
#13
Claude Giry, Bénédicte Roquebert, Ghislaine Li-Pat-Yuen, Philippe Gasque, Marie-Christine Jaffar-Bandjee
BACKGROUND: Alphaviruses are arthropod borne RNA viruses of medical importance. Geographical expansion of mosquitoes of the Aedes genus in the past decades has been associated with major Alphavirus-associated outbreaks. Climate changes and intensification of air travels have favored vector expansion and virus dissemination in new territories leading to virus emergence not only in tropical areas but also in temperate regions. The detection of emergence is based upon surveillance networks with epidemiological and laboratory investigation...
July 24, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738511/litter-thickness-but-not-root-biomass-explains-the-average-and-spatial-structure-of-soil-hydraulic-conductivity-in-secondary-forests-and-coffee-agroecosystems-in-veracruz-mexico
#14
B E Marín-Castro, S Negrete-Yankelevich, D Geissert
Secondary forests and coffee agroecosystems are considered good alternatives for conservation of a high capacity for water filtration in the soil where tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) once grew; however, it is not clear which characteristics of the vegetation modulate the field saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil (Kfs) and whether these characteristics persist in such derived systems. Here, we explore how changes in vegetation between secondary forests and coffee agroecosystems have consequences for the average value and spatial variation of litter thickness and root biomass, and whether these differences can explain the Kfs and its spatial distribution...
July 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738506/taxonomy-or-trait-based-ecological-assessment-for-tropical-rivers-case-study-on-benthic-diatoms-in-mayotte-island-france-indian-ocean
#15
Kálmán Tapolczai, Agnès Bouchez, Csilla Stenger-Kovács, Judit Padisák, Frédéric Rimet
Diatom-based ecological quality assessment methods have been implemented and used regularly in the Water Framework Directive. These indices use the species' abundance profiles along a specific environmental gradient, which they aim to assess. However, this approach has several problematic issues including the unstable and fast-changing diatom taxonomy. The use of traits can be a solution if their responses to the environmental pressure are well-defined. Here, we developed taxonomy-based and trait-based diatom assemblage indices to assess the ecological status of riverine sites on a tropical island...
July 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738301/effects-of-an-in-situ-diesel-oil-spill-on-oxidative-stress-in-the-clam-anomalocardia-flexuosa
#16
Adriana E Sardi, Paul E Renaud, Gisele C Morais, César C Martins, Paulo da Cunha Lana, Lionel Camus
Intensive exploitation and transport of oil and derivatives are increasing the risk of coastal contamination by either dramatic disasters or diffuse sources. Tools for monitoring diffuse contamination, such as diesel oil that leaks from marine vessels are much needed. We experimentally tested the efficiency of antioxidant biomarkers as indicators of chronic exposure to diesel oil in a mudflat from the subtropical Bay of Paranaguá, in southern Brazil. We examined the effects of three successive diesel oil spills, with two weeks of recovery time between exposures, on the edible clam Anomalocardia flexuosa...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737879/-visceral-leishmaniasis-pediatric-case-report
#17
Andrés Gomila H, Carolina Vanzo, Analía Garnero, Luisina Peruzzo, Mónica Badalotti
La leishmaniasis es una enfermedad causada por parásitos obligados intracelulares pertenecientes al género Leishmania y que reconoce tres formas clínicas principales: cutánea, visceral y mucocutánea. Es una patología del grupo de las "enfermedades desatendidas". Es la única enfermedad tropical transmitida a través de vectores que se ha mantenido endémica por décadas en el sur de Europa. La leishmaniasis visceral representa la forma más grave. Se caracteriza por fiebre, pérdida de peso, anemia y hepatoesplenomegalia...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737737/tropical-forest-conservation-developing-without-deforestation
#18
Ben Phalan, Reem Hajjar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737156/thyroid-function-of-steatitis-affected-mozambique-tilapia-oreochromis-mossambicus-from-a-sub-tropical-african-reservoir
#19
J Dabrowski, P Oberholster, J Steyl, G Osthoff, A Hugo, D M Power, J H van Wyk
Thyroid function and nutritional indicators were measured in obese, steatitis-affected Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus from Loskop Reservoir (LR), South Africa. Plasma thyroid hormones (especially T3) and thyroid follicle histomorphology revealed high levels of activity in every aspect of the thyroid cascade measured in fish from LR compared to a reference population of steatitis-free fish. Concurrent measurements of nutritional state including plasma lipids, liver lipid content and hepatocyte size showed that fish from LR had significant energy stores indicative of abundant nutritional intake...
July 24, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736941/in-vivo-neutralization-of-%C3%AE-4-and-%C3%AE-7-integrins-inhibits-eosinophil-trafficking-and-prevents-lung-injury-during-tropical-pulmonary-eosinophilia-in-mice
#20
Pankaj Sharma, Aditi Sharma, Mrigank Srivastava
Integrins regulate leukocyte trafficking during homeostasis and inflammatory conditions. However, the role of α4 and β7 integrins in guiding eosinophil transmigration into the lungs during filarial manifestation of Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia (TPE) has not been explored. In this study, mice exhibiting TPE manifestations were administered with in vivo neutralizing antibodies against integrins α4 and β7 or their combination and immuno-pathological parameters were evaluated. Results show an intact lung barrier, significantly lower lung inflammation and reduced eosinophil counts in the Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lungs of mice receiving anti-α4(+) β7 treatment...
July 24, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
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