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Yanjie Zhang, Qiuyue Guan, Yin Liu, Yuwei Zhang, Yulong Chen, Jinglu Chen, Yulan Liu, Zhiguang Su
Hepatic gluconeogenesis is essential to maintain the blood glucose levels, and its abnormal activation leads to hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis remain to be fully defined. In this study, using murine hepatocytes and a liver-specific knockout mouse model, we explored the physiological role of nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) in regulating hepatic glucose metabolism and the underlying mechanism. We found that NF-Y targets the gluconeogenesis pathway in the liver...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
E Zhiguo, Tingting Li, Huaya Zhang, Zehou Liu, Hui Deng, Sandeep Sharma, Xuefeng Wei, Lei Wang, Baixiao Niu, Chen Chen
Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is a heterotrimeric transcription factor that consists of three subunits, NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC. Gene functions of NF-Ys during endosperm development are not well understood. In this study, we identified eight NF-Y encoding genes, including OsNF-YA8, OsNF-YB1,9, and OsNF-YC8,9,10,11,12, predominantly expressed in rice endosperm. Interestingly, the close homologs of these OsNF-Ys are present only in monocot species and preferentially expressed in endosperm as well, suggesting their roles in the regulation of endosperm development...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Silvia Belluti, Valentina Semeghini, Valentina Basile, Giovanna Rigillo, Valentina Salsi, Filippo Genovese, Diletta Dolfini, Carol Imbriano
The heterotrimeric NF-Y complex is a pioneer factor that binds to CCAAT-genes and regulates their transcription. NF-Y cooperates with multiple transcription factors and co-regulators in order to positively or negatively influence gene transcription. The recruitment of NF-Y to CCAAT box is significantly enriched in cancer-associated gene promoters loci and positively correlates with malignancy. NF-Y subunits, in particular the DNA-binding subunit NF-YA and the histone-fold subunit NF-YC, appear overexpressed in specific types of cancer...
March 2, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Hyun-Kyung Kim, Mi Ae Kang, Mi-Sook Kim, Young-Joo Shin, Sung-Gil Chi, Jae-Hoon Jeong
High mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) is an abundant, chromatin-associated, non-histone protein involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling, and recombination. Recently, the HMGB2 gene was found to be significantly downregulated during senescence and shown to regulate the expression of senescent-associated secretory proteins. Here, we demonstrate that HMGB2 transcription is repressed by p21 during radiation-induced senescence through the ATM-p53-p21 DNA damage signaling cascade. The loss of p21 abolished the downregulation of HMGB2 caused by ionizing radiation, and the conditional induction of p21 was sufficient to repress the transcription of HMGB2...
February 28, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Nerina Gnesutta, Roberto Mantovani, Fabio Fornara
CONSTANS (CO) is a master regulator of flowering time, although the mechanisms underlying its role as a transcriptional regulator are not well understood. The DNA-binding domain of CO shares homology with that of NUCLEAR FACTOR YA (NF-YA), a subunit of the CCAAT-binding trimer NF-Y. Recent publications indicate that CO and its rice homolog HEADING DATE 1 (Hd1) form heterotrimers with the histone-fold subunits of NF-Y to efficiently bind promoter elements in the florigen genes. Differences in the DNA-binding specificities of NF-Y and NF-CO can be conceptualized based on our knowledge of the 3D structure of the NF-Y/CCAAT complex...
January 10, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Yewei Dong, Jianhong Zhao, Junliang Chen, Shuqi Wang, Yang Liu, Qinghao Zhang, Cuihong You, Óscar Monroig, Douglas R Tocher, Yuanyou Li
The rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus was the first marine teleost demonstrated to have the ability of biosynthesizing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from C18 PUFA precursors, and all genes encoding the key enzymes for LC-PUFA biosynthesis have been cloned and functionally characterized, which provides us a potential model to study the regulatory mechanisms of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in teleosts. As the primary step to clarify such mechanisms, present research focused on promoter analysis of gene encoding ∆6/∆5 fatty acyl desaturase (Fad), a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the first step in the conversion of C18 PUFA to LC-PUFA...
January 9, 2018: Gene
Yi-Huan Xu, Zhi Luo, Kun Wu, Yao-Fang Fan, Wen-Jing You, Li-Han Zhang
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) is a key enzyme involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and fatty acid β-oxidation. To understand the transcriptional mechanism of CPT Iα1b and CPT Iα2a genes, we cloned the 2695-bp and 2631-bp regions of CPT Iα1b and CPT Iα2a promoters of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella ), respectively, and explored the structure and functional characteristics of these promoters. CPT Iα1b had two transcription start sites (TSSs), while CPT Iα2a had only one TSS. DNase I foot printing showed that the CPT Iα1b promoter was AT-rich and TATA-less, and mediated basal transcription through an initiator (INR)-independent mechanism...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yue Wang, Wei Xu, Zexi Chen, Bing Han, Mohammad E Haque, Aizhong Liu
Nuclear Factor-Y transcription factors, which function in regulating seed development (including storage reservoir accumulation) and responding to abiotic stresses, were identified and characterized in castor bean. Nuclear Factor-Y (NF-Y) transcription factors in plants contain three subunits (NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC), and function as a heterodimer or heterotrimer complex in regulating plant growth, development and response to stresses. Castor bean (Ricinus communis, Euphorbiaceae) one of the most economically important non-edible oilseed crops, able to grow in diverse soil conditions and displays high tolerance to abiotic stresses...
November 8, 2017: Planta
Mio Shibuta, Mitsutomo Abe
In the facultative long-day plant Arabidopsis thaliana, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), encoding the mobile hormone florigen, plays an essential role in modulating the optimal timing of flowering to ensure reproductive success. Under inductive long-day conditions, the transcription of FT is activated by the CONSTANS (CO)/NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y (NF-Y) protein complex in leaf phloem companion cells. FT is transported to the shoot apical meristem through interaction with florigen transporters, such as SODIUM POTASSIUM ROOT DEFECTIVE 1 (NaKR1)...
November 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Xingguo Zhu, Tianxiang Hu, Meng Hsuan Ho, Yongchao Wang, Miao Yu, Niren Patel, Wenhu Pi, Jeong-Hyeon Choi, Hongyan Xu, Vadivel Ganapathy, Ferdane Kutlar, Abdullah Kutlar, Dorothy Tuan
Hydroxyurea (HU), the first of two drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treating patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), produces anti-sickling effect by re-activating fetal γ-globin gene to enhance production of fetal hemoglobin. However, approximately 30% of the patients do not respond to HU therapy. The molecular basis of non-responsiveness to HU is not clearly understood. To address this question, we examined HU-induced changes in the RNA and protein levels of transcription factors NF-Y, GATA-1, -2, BCL11A, TR4, MYB and NF-E4 that assemble the γ-globin promoter complex and regulate transcription of γ-globin gene...
December 2017: Haematologica
Carla Vermeulen Carvalho Grade, Carolina Stefano Mantovani, Marina Alves Fontoura, Faisal Yusuf, Beate Brand-Saberi, Lúcia Elvira Alvares
Myostatin (MSTN) is a strong inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth in human and other vertebrates. Its transcription is controlled by a proximal promoter/enhancer (Mstn P/E) containing a TATA box besides CREB, NF-Y, MEIS1 and FXR transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), which are conserved throughout evolution. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of these TFBSs on Mstn P/E activity and evaluate the potential of their putative ligands as Mstn trans regulators. Mstn P/E mutant constructs were used to establish the role of conserved TFBSs using dual-luciferase assays...
October 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
Chao Bi, Yu Ma, Xiao-Fang Wang, Da-Peng Zhang
Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) family proteins are involved in many developmental processes and responses to environmental cues in plants, but whether and how they regulate phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) signaling need further studies. In the present study, we showed that over-expression of the NF-YC9 gene confers ABA hypersensitivity in both the early seedling growth and stomatal response, while down-regulation of NF-YC9 does not affect ABA response in these processes. We also showed that over-expression of the NF-YC9 gene confers salt and osmotic hypersensitivity in early seedling growth, which is likely to be directly associated with the ABA hypersensitivity...
November 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Jorge Fragoso-Medina, Gabriela Rodriguez, Angel Zarain-Herzberg
The cardiac sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase-2a (SERCA2a) is vital for the correct handling of calcium concentration in cardiomyocytes. Recent studies showed that the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (ERS) with the SERCA2 inhibitor Thapsigargin (Tg) increases the mRNA and protein levels of SERCA2a. The SERCA2 gene promoter contains an ERS response element (ERSE) at position -78 bp that is conserved among species and might transcriptionally regulate SERCA2 gene expression. However, its involvement in SERCA2 basal and calcium-mediated transcriptional activation has not been elucidated...
September 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Yi-Deun Jung, Hee-Eun Lee, Ara Jo, Imai Hiroo, Hee-Jae Cha, Heui-Soo Kim
Ribonucleic acid export 1 (RAE1) plays an important role in the export of mature mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) became integrated into the human genome during primate evolution. One such repeat element, LTR12C, lies within a predicted regulatory region located upstream of the RAE1 gene. We examined the transcriptional activity of LTR12C by using the luciferase assay, and showed that the tandem repeat region (TRR) located within LTR12C was required for its regulatory function...
November 15, 2017: Gene
C Boulard, A Fatihi, L Lepiniec, B Dubreucq
The LAFL genes (LEC2, ABI3, FUS3, LEC1) encode transcription factors that regulate different aspects of seed development, from early to late embryogenesis and accumulation of storage compounds. These transcription factors form a complex network, with members able to interact with various other players to control the switch between embryo development and seed maturation and, at a later stage in the plant life cycle, between the mature seed and germination. In this review, we first summarize our current understanding of the role of each member in the network in the light of recent advances regarding their regulation and structure/function relationships...
October 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
P Manimaran, S Venkata Reddy, Mazahar Moin, M Raghurami Reddy, Poli Yugandhar, S S Mohanraj, S M Balachandran, P B Kirti
Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is a heterotrimeric transcription factor with three distinct NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC subunits. It plays important roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. We have reported earlier on development of gain-of-function mutants in an indica rice cultivar, BPT-5204. Now, we screened 927 seeds from 70 Ac/Ds plants for salinity tolerance and identified one activation-tagged salt tolerant DS plant (DS-16, T3 generation) that showed enhanced expression of a novel 'histone-like transcription factor' belonging to rice NF-Y subfamily C and was named as OsNF-YC13...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xueran Chen, Huihui Ma, Zhen Wang, Shangrong Zhang, Haoran Yang, Zhiyou Fang
Gliomas with mutant p53 occurring in 30% of glioma patients exhibit therapeutic resistance and poor outcomes. In this study, we identify a novel mechanism through which mutant p53 drives cancer cell survival and malignant growth. We documented overexpression of the zinc finger protein ZDHHC5 in glioma compared with normal brain tissue and that this event tightly correlated with p53 mutations. Mechanistic investigations revealed that mutant p53 transcriptionally upregulated ZDHHC5 along with the nuclear transcription factor NF-Y...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Research
Shisong Ma, Michael Snyder, Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar
Deciphering gene regulatory networks requires identification of gene expression modules. We describe a novel bottom-up approach to identify gene modules regulated by cis-regulatory motifs from a human gene co-expression network. Target genes of a cis-regulatory motif were identified from the network via the motif's enrichment or biased distribution towards transcription start sites in the promoters of co-expressed genes. A gene sub-network containing the target genes was extracted and used to derive gene modules...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
D G Garbuz
Heat shock (HS) genes, or stress genes, code for a number of proteins that collectively form the most ancient and universal stress defense system. The system determines the cell capability of adaptation to various adverse factors and performs a variety of auxiliary functions in normal physiological conditions. Common stress factors, such as higher temperatures, hypoxia, heavy metals, and others, suppress transcription and translation for the majority of genes, while HS genes are upregulated. Transcription of HS genes is controlled by transcription factors of the HS factor (HSF) family...
May 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Ryan D Welch, Chun Guo, Monideepa Sengupta, Katherine J Carpenter, Natalie A Stephens, Stacy A Arnett, Marvin J Meyers, Lauren M Sparks, Steven R Smith, Jinsong Zhang, Thomas P Burris, Colin A Flaveny
OBJECTIVE: The loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength are a central feature of traumatic injury and degenerative myopathies. Unfortunately, pharmacological interventions typically fail to stem the long-term decline in quality of life. Reduced Rev-Erb-mediated gene suppression in cultured C2C12 myoblasts has been shown to stimulate myoblast differentiation. Yet the mechanisms that allow Rev-Erb to pleiotropically inhibit muscle differentiation are not well understood. In this study, we sought to elucidate the role of Rev-Erb in the regulation of muscle differentiation and regeneration in vivo...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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