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hydrocephalus AND pediatric

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675068/cerebellar-mutism-syndrome-following-midline-posterior-fossa-tumor-resection-in-children-an-institutional-experience
#1
Nand Kishore Gora, Ashok Gupta, Virendra Deo Sinha
Aim: Cerebellar mutism (CM) syndrome is a well-known and annoying complication of posterior fossa surgery in the pediatric age group. Risk factors such as the type of tumor, size, involvement of posterior fossa structures and hydrocephalus, and postoperative cerebellar swelling for CM were investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: A consecutive series of 33 children with midline posterior fossa tumors were operated at the SMS Medical College and Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Jaipur India, between September 2015 and December 2016...
October 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664509/congenital-hydrocephalus-g%C3%A3-mez-l%C3%A3-pez-hern%C3%A3-ndez-syndrome-an-underdiagnosed-syndrome-a-clinical-case
#2
Camila Gálvez V, Isidro Huete, Marta Hernández
INTRODUCTION: Hydrocephalus is defined as complex conditions influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Excluding hydrocephalus acquired from infection or brain tumors, congenital hydrocephalus with a genetic cause may occur isolated (hydrocephalus isolated, pure or non-syndromatic) or as a component of a genetic syndrome (syndromic hydrocephalus). OBJECTIVE: To present a syndromic congenital hydrocephalus with a known diagnosis, in order to be considered in the study of this pathology and to perform a review of hydrocephaly with a genetic cause...
February 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662203/potent-antitumor-efficacy-of-anti-gd2-car-t-cells-in-h3-k27m-diffuse-midline-gliomas
#3
Christopher W Mount, Robbie G Majzner, Shree Sundaresh, Evan P Arnold, Meena Kadapakkam, Samuel Haile, Louai Labanieh, Esther Hulleman, Pamelyn J Woo, Skyler P Rietberg, Hannes Vogel, Michelle Monje, Crystal L Mackall
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) and other diffuse midline gliomas (DMGs) with mutated histone H3 K27M (H3-K27M)1-5 are aggressive and universally fatal pediatric brain cancers 6 . Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing T cells have mediated impressive clinical activity in B cell malignancies7-10 , and recent results suggest benefit in central nervous system malignancies11-13 . Here, we report that patient-derived H3-K27M-mutant glioma cell cultures exhibit uniform, high expression of the disialoganglioside GD2...
April 16, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624145/surgical-decision-making-in-the-management-of-childhood-tumors-of-the-cns-disseminated-at-presentation
#4
Matthew A Kirkman, Richard Hayward, Kim Phipps, Kristian Aquilina
OBJECTIVE It is relatively unusual for pediatric CNS tumors to be disseminated at presentation, and the literature on the clinical features, management, and outcomes of this specific group is scarce. Surgical management in this population is often challenging, particularly in the presence of hydrocephalus. The authors present their recent experience of treating pediatric CNS tumors that were disseminated at presentation, and they compare these lesions with focal tumors. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of prospectively collected data on children presenting to a tertiary center between 2003 and 2016 inclusive...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600905/therapeutic-outcomes-of-transsphenoidal-surgery-in-pediatric-patients-with-craniopharyngiomas-a-single-center-study
#5
Shozo Yamada, Noriaki Fukuhara, Mitsuo Yamaguchi-Okada, Hiroshi Nishioka, Akira Takeshita, Yasuhiro Takeuchi, Naoko Inoshita, Junko Ito
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to analyze the outcomes of transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) in a single-center clinical series of pediatric craniopharyngioma patients treated with gross-total resection (GTR). METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the surgical outcomes for 65 consecutive patients with childhood craniopharyngiomas (28 girls and 37 boys, mean age 9.6 years) treated with TSS (45 primary and 20 repeat surgeries) between 1990 and 2015. Tumors were classified as subdiaphragmatic or supradiaphragmatic...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594463/traumatic-brain-injury-in-indian-children
#6
REVIEW
Krishna Chaitanya, Archana Addanki, Rajendra Karambelkar, Rakesh Ranjan
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children and adolescents is a community-based medical and educational challenge world-over due to increasing urbanization and motorization. In India, children between 1 to 15 years constitute significant proportion of the total population, who are vulnerable for TBI. In developed countries, pediatric trauma mortality still represents more than half of all childhood fatalities, which is 18 times more common than brain tumors. In this study, we attempted to analyze epidemiological factors, management, and outcome of TBI in children at a tertiary care center in Pune, Maharashtra...
March 29, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587815/pleural-effusion-from-intrathoracic-migration-of-a-ventriculo-peritoneal-shunt-catheter-pediatric-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Federica Porcaro, Emidio Procaccini, Maria Giovanna Paglietti, Alessandra Schiavino, Francesca Petreschi, Renato Cutrera
BACKGROUND: Pleural effusion is a rare complication of ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting and its diagnosis is difficult in patients with neurological and consciousness impairment. CASE REPORT: Herein we report the case of a child affected by Pfeiffer syndrome and hydrocephalus, shunted at the age of 3 months, who developed acute respiratory failure due to a right-sided pleural effusion 2 years later. Plain chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) showed the intrathoracic migration of the right VP shunt abdominal tip...
March 27, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587767/opportunities-in-posthemorrhagic-hydrocephalus-research-outcomes-of-the-hydrocephalus-association-posthemorrhagic-hydrocephalus-workshop
#8
REVIEW
Jenna E Koschnitzky, Richard F Keep, David D Limbrick, James P McAllister, Jill A Morris, Jennifer Strahle, Yun C Yung
The Hydrocephalus Association Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus Workshop was held on July 25 and 26, 2016 at the National Institutes of Health. The workshop brought together a diverse group of researchers including pediatric neurosurgeons, neurologists, and neuropsychologists with scientists in the fields of brain injury and development, cerebrospinal and interstitial fluid dynamics, and the blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers. The goals of the workshop were to identify areas of opportunity in posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus research and encourage scientific collaboration across a diverse set of fields...
March 27, 2018: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579305/seizure-outcomes-of-supratentorial-brain-tumor-resection-in-pediatric-patients
#9
Fadi S Saadeh, Edward F Melamed, Nolan D Rea, Mark D Krieger
Background: This study aims to identify the prevalence of and risk factors for seizure development after supratentorial brain tumor resection in pediatric patients. This could be used to guide the postoperative management and usage of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Methods: Retrospective study was conducted for patients between 0 and 21 years with supratentorial tumor resection between 2005 and 2015 at a single institution. Results: Two hundred patients (114 males/86 females) were identified...
March 20, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551726/watertight-dural-closure-in-pediatric-craniotomies-is-it-really-necessary
#10
Jonathan Roth, Haggai Benvenisti, Shlomi Constantini
BACKGROUND: Dural closure following intracranial procedures is considered crucial to reduce postoperative complications such as pseudomeningoceles (PM), CSF leaks, hydrocephalus, and infections. However, watertight dural closure (WTDC) is often difficult to achieve, and dural substitutes are often used. We describe our experience with non-WTDC in children. METHODS: Data was collected retrospectively. Redo and craniectomy cases were excluded. Collected data included demographics, surgical etiology, various radiological parameters, ventricular opening, usage of drains and shunts, dural closure technique, and complications...
March 15, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545198/mice-expressing-c-myc-in-neural-precursors-develop-choroid-plexus-and-ciliary-body-tumors
#11
Morgan L Shannon, Ryann M Fame, Kevin F Chau, Neil Dani, Monica L Calicchio, Gwenaelle S Géléoc, Hart G W Lidov, Sanda Alexandrescu, Maria K Lehtinen
Choroid plexus tumors and ciliary body medulloepithelioma are predominantly pediatric neoplasms. Progress in understanding the pathogenesis of these tumors has been hindered by their rarity and lack of models that faithfully recapitulate the disease. Here, we find that endogenous c-Myc is down-regulated in the forebrain neuroepithelium, whose neural plate border domains give rise to anterior choroid plexus and ciliary body. To uncover the consequences of persistent MYC (c-Myc) expression, c-Myc expression was forced in multipotent neural precursors (Nestin-Cre:MYC), which produced a fully penetrant model of choroid plexus carcinoma and ciliary body medulloepithelioma...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541280/case-report-of-an-obstructive-hydrocephalus-caused-by-an-unruptured-mesencephalic-arteriovenous-malformation-in-a-boy-and-a-review-of-literature
#12
Furkan Diren, Serra Sencer, Tayfun Hakan
Objective: Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is the most common form of intracranial vascular malformations in adults. Intracranial pediatric AVMs are rare. AVM located in the vicinity of the brain stem in children are even more rare. Case report: This study reports a rare case of acute obstructive hydrocephalus following aqueductal stenosis caused by an unruptured grade IV perimesencephalic arteriovenous malformation. An 11-year-old boy admitted to the hospital with progressive headache, nausea and vomiting throughout a month...
2018: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535897/adjuvant-coil-assisted-glue-embolization-of-vein-of-galen-aneurysmal-malformation-in-pediatric-patients
#13
Dong Joon Kim, Dae Chul Suh, Byung Moon Kim, Dong Ik Kim
Purpose: Adjuvant coils may offer advantages in flow control during glue embolization of high flow vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) patients but involves specific issues such as feasibility, durability and coil mass effect. The purpose of this study is to assess the outcome of adjuvant coils in addition to transarterial glue embolization for treatment of these patients. Materials and Methods: Five pediatric VGAM patients (age range; 11 weeks to 2 yrs 2 mos) with high flow fistulous angioarchitecture were treated with adjuvant coils 1) in the distal feeding artery and/or 2) in the vein of Galen followed by glue embolization of the shunt...
March 2018: Neurointervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527373/-pantoea-agglomerans-infections-in-children-report-of-two-cases
#14
Shraddha Siwakoti, Rinku Sah, Rupa Singh Rajbhandari, Basudha Khanal
Introduction: Pantoea agglomerans, primarily an environmental and agricultural organism has been reported as both commensal and pathogen of humans. We present two case reports of P. agglomerans infections in children that involved the meninges and bloodstream. Case Presentations: A 6-month-old female baby, diagnosed as congenital hydrocephalus secondary to aqueduct stenosis with ventriculoperitoneal shunt in situ, operated 14 days back was brought to the pediatric emergency with a two-day history of high fever associated with vomiting, irritability, excessive crying, and decreased feeding...
2018: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523303/dissecting-spontaneous-cerebrospinal-fluid-collection
#15
Pierre-Olivier Champagne, Jean-Claude Decarie, Louis Crevier, Alexander G Weil
Hydrocephalus is a common condition in the pediatric population known to have many causes and presentation patterns. We report from the analysis of 2 cases the existence of a new complication of pediatric hydrocephalus. Naming this entity "dissecting intraparenchymal cerebrospinal fluid collection", we advance a hypothesis regarding its pathophysiology and discuss its clinical implications and management.
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521592/factors-associated-with-30-day-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-failure-in-pediatric-and-adult-patients
#16
Ian A Anderson, Louise F Saukila, James M W Robins, Christopher Y Akhunbay-Fudge, John R Goodden, Atul K Tyagi, Nick Phillips, Paul D Chumas
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive benchmark of 30-day ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt failure rates for a single institution over a 5-year study period for both adult and pediatric patients, to compare this with the results in previously published literature, and to establish factors associated with shunt failure. METHODS A retrospective database search was undertaken to identify all VP shunt operations performed in a single, regional neurosurgical unit during a 5-year period. Data were collected regarding patient age, sex, origin of hydrocephalus, and whether the shunt was a primary or secondary shunt...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498601/edema-of-the-optic-tract-in-patients-with-tumors-of-the-sellar-region-clinical-and-visual-implications-in-the-pediatric-population
#17
Aurore Bussat, Maia Proisy, Bertrand Bruneau, Guillaume Bouzillé, Céline Chappé, Laurent Riffaud
OBJECTIVE Tumor-related edema of the optic tract (EOT) corresponds to a preferential posterior distribution of peritumoral edema along the white matter tract of the visual system. To date, the consequences of EOT have never been evaluated specifically in the pediatric population. In this study, the authors attempted to identify clinical and radiological features associated with the development of EOT and the specific influence of this edema on visual function. METHODS A retrospective review was performed of data collected from patients younger than 18 years who underwent surgery for a tumor in the sellar region at the authors' institution between January 2005 and January 2016...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492156/widespread-intra-abdominal-carcinomatosis-from-a-rhabdoid-meningioma-after-placement-of-a-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
N G Jun Jie, Kok Ann Teo, Asim Shabbir, Tseng Tsai Yeo
Intra-abdominal metastasis (IAM) of central nervous system (CNS) tumors via ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) is rare but has been previously reported (e.g., germinomas and medulloblastomas). However, there has been no previous report in the literature involving meningiomas. A case of primary rhabdoid meningioma with widespread intra-abdominal carcinomatosis after placement of a VPS in a 36-year-old man is described. The patient underwent preoperative angioembolization of the tumor, craniotomy, and surgical excision, followed by postoperative gamma knife radiosurgery...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485079/radiation-necrosis-and-white-matter-lesions-in-pediatric-patients-with-brain-tumors-treated-with-pencil-beam-scanning-proton-therapy
#19
Beat Bojaxhiu, Frank Ahlhelm, Marc Walser, Lorenzo Placidi, Ulrike Kliebsch, Lorentzos Mikroutsikos, Petra Morach, Alessandra Bolsi, Tony Lomax, Alessia Pica, Damien C Weber
PURPOSE: To assess the rate of radiation necrosis (RN) and white matter lesions (WMLs) in pediatric patients with primary brain tumors treated with pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy (PT) with or without concomitant chemotherapy at the PSI. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1999 and 2015, 171 pediatric patients (age <18 years) were treated with PT. Median age at diagnosis was 3.3 years (range, 0.3-17.0 years), and the median delivered dose was 54 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) (range, 40...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455408/frequency-and-treatment-of-hydrocephalus-prior-to-and-after-posterior-fossa-tumor-surgery-in-adult-patients
#20
Sascha Marx, Maresa Reinfelder, Marc Matthes, Henry W S Schroeder, Joerg Baldauf
BACKGROUND: There is paucity of information about the frequency of hydrocephalus prior to and after posterior fossa tumor surgery in adult patients and about the best way it should be managed. The present study was conducted to determine the frequency of hydrocephalus prior to and after posterior fossa tumor surgery in adult patients as well as the value of an endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) prior to posterior fossa tumor surgery with regard to the rate of perioperative complications and persistent hydrocephalus...
February 17, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
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