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hydrocephalus AND pediatric

Matthias Gmeiner, Helga Wagner, Christoph Zacherl, Petra Polanski, Christian Auer, Willem J R van Ouwerkerk, Kurt Holl
PURPOSE: Very long-term follow-up and outcome are rare for pediatric patients with hydrocephalus and shunt operations. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term mortality rates in these patients. METHODS: Pediatric patients with first shunt operation between 1982 and 1992 were included. For each patient, time and cause of death were determined. Further, patients with first operation from 1982 to 1987 were compared to those first operated from 1988 to 1992...
October 20, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
J A Bohn, B M Kassaye, D Record, B C Chou, I L Kraft, J C Purdy, K A Hilton, D A Miller, S Getachew, A Addissie, J A Robison
BACKGROUND: Global childhood mortality rates remain high. Millennium Development Goal 4 focused efforts on reducing rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In Ethiopia, child mortality rates dropped 71 % from 1990 to 2015, however it is estimated that 184,000 Ethiopian children die each year. There is limited information about pediatric hospital admissions in Ethiopia. Our aims were to examine the temporal relationship of mortality to admission, describe the demographics, and identify cause mortality of children admitted to the Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Volkan Etus, Gokmen Kahilogullari, Hakan Karabagli, Agahan Unlu
AIM: Neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) usually results in posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH). This multicenter study describes the approach of early neuroendoscopic ventricular irrigation for the treatment of IVH/PHH and compares the results with the cases that have been initially treated only with conventional temporary CSF diversion techniques. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data of total 74 neonatal PHH cases that have been treated at three pediatric neurosurgery centers were retrospectively analyzed...
August 30, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
Gamze Ozgurhan, Oznur Vermezoglu, Didem Ocal Topcu, Adem Karbuz, Aysel Vehapoglu, Bulent Hacihamdioglu
Although rotavirus gastroenteritis is quite common in the pediatric population, secondary bacterial sepsis following rotavirus infection is a rare clinical entity. Gram-negative bacilli are the fifth most common cause of meningitis in infants but this infection rarely occurs after gastroenteritis. Here, we report a 2.5-month-old infant who developed Escherichia coli (E. coli) meningitis after acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. The 2.5-month-old male infant with fever, vomiting, and watery diarrhea that started 1 day earlier was admitted to the hospital...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Weihong Yuan, Artur Meller, Joshua S Shimony, Tiffany Nash, Blaise V Jones, Scott K Holland, Mekibib Altaye, Holly Barnard, Jannel Phillips, Stephanie Powell, Robert C McKinstry, David D Limbrick, Akila Rajagopal, Francesco T Mangano
Neuroimaging research in surgically treated pediatric hydrocephalus patients remains challenging due to the artifact caused by programmable shunt. Our previous study has demonstrated significant alterations in the whole brain white matter structural connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and graph theoretical analysis in children with hydrocephalus prior to surgery or in surgically treated children without programmable shunts. This study seeks to investigate the impact of brain injury on the topological features in the left hemisphere, contratelateral to the shunt placement, which will avoid the influence of shunt artifacts and makes further group comparisons feasible for children with programmable shunt valves...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Curtis Hanba, Peter F Svider, Mahdi A Shkoukani, Anthony Sheyn, Jeffrey T Jacob, Jean Anderson Eloy, Adam J Folbe
BACKGROUND: Although there has been extensive study evaluating adult pituitary surgery, there has been scant analysis among children. Our objective was to evaluate a population-based resource to characterize nationwide trends in surgical approach, hospital stay, and complications among children undergoing pituitary surgery. METHODS: The Kids' Inpatient-Database (KID) files (2009/2012) were evaluated for pituitary gland excisions. Procedure, patient demographics, length of inpatient stay, inpatient costs, hospital setting, and surgical complications were analyzed...
September 14, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Aldrich Leung, Clare Bleakley, Adrian Loh, Kelly Saran, S Evelyn Stewart
We present the case of an 11 year-old boy with a previous history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), who experienced a dramatic and acute worsening of OCD symptoms in temporal association with obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to a tectal low-grade glioma. Management and resolution of the hydrocephalus was temporally associated with an improvement in his OCD compulsion symptoms. The present case does not establish proof of cause and effect, but highlights potential multifactorial influences on OCD onset and clinical course...
September 8, 2016: Pediatrics
Gokmen Kahilogullari, Volkan Etus, Guler Tugba Morali, Karabagli Hakan, Unlu Agahan
AIM: To evaluate the effect of shunt selection on the rate of shunt revision due to early shunt com-plications in neonatal myelomeningocele-associated hydrocephalus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data of a total of 157 neonatal myelomeningocele cases in three pediatric neurosurgery centers (Ankara University, Kocaeli University, Selcuk University) who underwent shunt surgery at the time of myelomeningocele repair between 2000 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical features of the patients shunt types used, and early shunt complications within the first three months were recorded...
July 28, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
Shyamal C Bir, Devi Prasad Patra, Tanmoy K Maiti, Hai Sun, Bharat Guthikonda, Christina Notarianni, Anil Nanda
OBJECTIVE Adult-onset hydrocephalus is not commonly discussed in the literature, especially regarding its demographic distribution. In contrast to pediatric hydrocephalus, which is related to a primary CSF pathway defect, its development in adults is often secondary to other pathologies. In this study, the authors investigated the epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus as it pertains to different etiologies and in reference to age, sex, and race distributions. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical notes of 2001 patients with adult-onset hydrocephalus who presented to Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center within a 25-year span...
September 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
Albert M Isaacs, Yarema B Bezchlibnyk, Heather Yong, Dilip Koshy, Geberth Urbaneja, Walter J Hader, Mark G Hamilton
OBJECTIVE The efficacy of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) for the treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus has been extensively reported in the literature. However, ETV-related long-term outcome data are lacking for the adult hydrocephalus population. The objective of the present study was to assess the role of ETV as a primary or secondary treatment for hydrocephalus in adults. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective chart review of all adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) with symptomatic hydrocephalus treated with ETV in Calgary, Canada, over a span of 20 years (1994-2014)...
September 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
Zinat Taiwo, Sabrina Na, Tricia Z King
OBJECTIVE: Prior research has demonstrated the reliability and validity of the Neurological Predictor Scale (NPS) in relation to intelligence and adaptive functioning in survivors of pediatric brain tumors. To extend these findings, this study examined the relationship between the NPS and core neurocognitive skills hypothesized to underlie broad outcome measures of IQ and adaptive functioning. METHOD: Sixty-one adulthood survivors of childhood brain cancers (Mage = 24 years, SD = 6) on average 16 years after diagnosis completed neuropsychological assessments examining attention (Wechsler Memory Scale Digit Span Forward), processing speed (Symbol Digit Modalities Test), and working memory (Auditory Consonant Trigrams)...
August 27, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Christopher Bismarck Eke, Enoch Ogbonnaya Uche, Josephat Maduabuchi Chinawa, Ikechukwu Emmanuel Obi, Herbert Anayo Obu, Roland Chidi Ibekwe
BACKGROUND: Congenital anomalies, including those of the central nervous system (CNS), are among the leading causes of morbidity, mortality, and fetal loss. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and associated factors of CNS congenital anomalies in children. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective study of children managed with CNS anomalies was undertaken. Relevant clinical data of identified cases based on standard case definitions were retrieved from their case record files...
July 2016: Annals of African Medicine
Michael A Galgano, David J Padalino, Joseph Fullmer, Satish Krishnamurthy
Pilocytic astrocytomas are histologically benign tumors, generally found in the pediatric population. Onset of symptoms is generally insidious, predominantly stemming from mass effect upon nearby structures. Patients harboring a pilocytic astrocytoma may present with gait disturbance, headaches, cranial nerve deficits, as well as hydrocephalus, depending on the exact location. Although cases of adult pilocytic astrocytomas in the adult population are described, they are quite uncommon. We present a case of an adult female presenting with acute neurological compromise resulting from an acutely hemorrhagic posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytoma...
2016: Curēus
Sara Iglesias, Bienvenido Ros, Álvaro Martín, Antonio Carrasco, Miguel Segura, Andrea Delgado, Francisca Rius, Miguel Ángel Arráez
PURPOSE: Surgical outcome after shunt insertion in pediatric hydrocephalus can vary greatly. Although first shunt survival rates and complications have been studied by several teams, much less is known about survival and complications of subsequent systems. The goals of this study were to evaluate the surgical outcome in a series of pediatric patients followed for a long time and establish the differences between first and subsequent extracranial shunt survival and complications. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective study in pediatric patients treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunts between 2000 and 2015 at our institution...
August 5, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Dani O Gonzalez, Justin B Mahida, Lindsey Asti, Erica J Ambeba, Brian Kenney, Lance Governale, Katherine J Deans, Peter C Minneci
BACKGROUND: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement, the mainstay of treatment for hydrocephalus, can place a substantial burden on patients and health care systems because of high complication and revision rates. We aimed to identify factors associated with 30-day VP shunt failure in children undergoing either initial placement or revision. METHODS: VP shunt placements performed on patients in the 2012-2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) Pediatric were identified...
August 5, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Nathalie Strazielle, Jean-François Ghersi-Egea
The blood-brain interfaces restrict the cerebral bioavailability of pharmacological compounds. Various drug delivery strategies have been developed to improve drug penetration into the brain. Most strategies target the microvascular endothelium forming the blood-brain barrier proper. Targeting the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier formed by the epithelium of the choroid plexuses in addition to the blood-brain barrier may offer added-value for the treatment of central nervous system diseases. For instance, targeting the CSF spaces, adjacent tissue, or the choroid plexuses themselves is of interest for the treatment of neuroinflammatory and infectious diseases, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, selected brain tumors, hydrocephalus or neurohumoral dysregulation...
July 26, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Stergios Zacharoulis, Andres Morales La Madrid, Pratiti Bandopadhayay, Susan N Chi, Peter Manley, Nicole N J Ullrich, Karen Marcus, Liliana Goumnerova, Robert M Scott, Mark Proctor, Tina Young-Poussaint, Umberto De Girolami, Mark W Kieran
BACKGROUND: Central neurocytomas (CN) are rare pediatric CNS tumors most often with a benign clinical course. Occasionally, these tumors occur outside the ventricles and are called extraventricular neurocytomas (EVN). We present a retrospective institutional analysis of children with neurocytoma with prolonged follow-up. PROCEDURE: Twelve patients were diagnosed with neurocytoma at our institution between 1993 and 2004. RESULTS: Six patients were male and the median age at diagnosis was 12 years (1...
August 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Reid Hoshide, Mark Calayag, Hal S Meltzer, Michael L Levy, David D Gonda
INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is an established and effective treatment for obstructive hydrocephalus. In its most common application, surgeons plan their entry point and endoscope trajectory for the procedure based on anatomic landmarks, then free-handedly control the endoscope. We have introduced the Rosa robot assistance to our ETV procedure to stereotactically optimize endoscope trajectories, to reduce risk of traction on neural structures by the endoscope, and to provide a stable mechanical holder of the endoscope...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
Aditya Vedantam, Rory R Mayer, Kristen A Staggers, Dominic A Harris, I-Wen Pan, Sandi K Lam
PURPOSE: The multicenter National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (NSQIP-P) database maintained by the American College of Surgeons was used to describe 30-day outcomes following Chiari type 1 decompression in children and to identify risk factors for readmission, reoperation, and perioperative complications. METHODS: We identified patients aged 0-18 years who underwent posterior cranial fossa decompression for Chiari type 1 malformation in 2012, 2013, and 2014 in the NSQIP-Pediatric database...
July 8, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Daniel Hansen, Aditya Vedantam, Valentina Briceño, Sandi K Lam, Thomas G Luerssen, Andrew Jea
OBJECTIVE The emphasis on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes is increasing, along with an emphasis on evidence-based medicine. However, there is a notable paucity of validated HRQOL instruments for the pediatric population. Furthermore, no standardization or consensus currently exists concerning which HRQOL outcome measures ought to be used in pediatric neurosurgery. The authors wished to identify HRQOL outcomes used in pediatric neurosurgery research over the past 10 years, their frequency, and usage trends...
June 24, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
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