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hydrocephalus AND pediatric

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933461/arrested-hydrocephalus-in-childhood-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Yannick Hurni, Andrea Poretti, Jacques Schneider, Raphael Guzman, Gian Paolo Ramelli
INTRODUCTION:  Hydrocephalus can be progressive or spontaneously arrested. In arrested hydrocephalus, the balance between production and absorption of the cerebrospinal fluid is restored. Patients are mostly asymptomatic, and no surgical treatment is necessary for them. METHODS:  We performed a two-center consecutive case series study, aimed at investigating the safety of nonsurgical management of hydrocephalus in selected pediatric patients. We retrospectively selected all consecutive patients, suspected to suffer from arrested hydrocephalus and referred to our two institutions between January 2011 and December 2013...
June 22, 2018: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932369/autologous-cervical-fascia-duraplasty-in-123-children-and-adults-with-chiari-malformation-type-i-surgical-technique-and-complications
#2
Brian J Dlouhy, Arnold H Menezes
OBJECT Techniques for combined extradural and intradural decompression with expansile duraplasty for Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) have been well described, with various allogenic and autologous materials used for duraplasty. However, the approach and surgical technique used for duraplasty in our treatment of CM-I and developed by the senior author in the 1990s has not been described. METHODS A prospective database was initiated in March 2003 to denote the use of cervical fascia for duraplasty and incorporate an ongoing detailed record of complications during the surgical treatment of children and adults with CM-I with and without syringomyelia...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920393/treating-pediatric-hydrocephalus-at-the-neurosurgery-education-and-development-institute-the-reality-in-the-zanzibar-archipelago-tanzania
#3
Andreas Leidinger, Jose Piquer, Eliana E Kim, Hadia Nahonda, Mahmood M Qureshi, Paul H Young
BACKGROUND: Pediatric hydrocephalus is a health burden for East African countries with an estimated incidence of 6000 new cases per year. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology and surgical outcomes of patients treated for pediatric hydrocephalus in the single neurosurgical center of Zanzibar. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From December 2016 to December 2017, we prospectively collected data on all patients admitted with the diagnosis of hydrocephalus...
June 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911246/circulating-serum-oncologic-mirna-in-pediatric-juvenile-pilocytic-astrocytoma-patients-predicts-mural-nodule-volume
#4
Markus Bookland, Min Tang-Schomer, Eileen Gillan, Antonina Kolmakova
BACKGROUND: Juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas represent the largest group of pediatric brain tumors. The ideal management for these tumors is early, total surgical resection. To detect and track treatment response, a screening tool is needed to identify patients for surgical evaluation and assess the quality of treatment. The identification of aberrant miRNA profiles in the sera of juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma patients could provide such a screening tool. METHODS: The authors reviewed the serum profiles of 84 oncologically relevant miRNAs in pediatric juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma patients via qPCR screening...
June 18, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899776/endovascular-retrieval-of-detached-ventriculoatrial-shunt-into-pulmonary-artery-in-pediatric-patient-case-report
#5
Mohammed Aloddadi, Safar Alshahrani, Ibrahim Alnaami
The management of hydrocephalus represents a neurosurgical challenge. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts are usually the treatment of choice for hydrocephalus. However, when VP shunt is not an option, ventriculoatrial (VA) shunt becomes a second choice. VA shunts have special complications such as postoperative neck hematomas, shunt nephritis, and migration of the distal segment. There are two main techniques for the retrieval of migrated VA shunt: either by retrieval of the broken segment by thoracotomy, which is highly invasive, or by transvenous approach...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882488/orbital-and-nasal-meningoencephaloceles-secondary-to-chronic-hydrocephalus-a-rare-cause-of-bilateral-proptosis
#6
Zachary B Jenner, Nuruddin Husein, Roy Riascos, Yoshua Esquenazi
Introduction Orbital meningoencephalocele formation is primarily a result of congenital defects in the pediatric population and trauma of the anterior cranial fossa in adults. We present a unique case of nontraumatic nasal and orbital meningoencephaloceles presenting as bilateral proptosis with exotropia secondary to chronic hydrocephalus. Clinical presentation A 20-year-old male with a history of tuberous sclerosis, X-linked intellectual disability, and epilepsy presented to the emergency department with two days of nausea, emesis, seizures, and two months of progressive proptosis...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877908/evaluation-of-ventricle-size-measurements-in-infants-by-pediatric-emergency-medicine-physicians
#7
Brunhild M Halm, Tina A Leone, Lindsey T Chaudoin, Kenneth W McKinley, Carrie Ruzal-Shapiro, Adrian A Franke, Daniel S Tsze
OBJECTIVES: The identification of hydrocephalus in infants by pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians using cranial point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has not been evaluated. We aimed to conduct a pilot/proof-of-concept study to evaluate whether PEM physicians can identify hydrocephalus (anterior horn width >5 mm) in 15 infants (mean 69 ± 42 days old) from the neonatal intensive care unit using POCUS. Our exploratory aims were to determine the test characteristics of cranial POCUS performed by PEM physicians for diagnosing hydrocephalus and the interrater reliability between measurements made by the PEM physicians and the radiologist...
June 5, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876643/a-new-mri-tag-based-method-to-non-invasively-visualize-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow
#8
Matthew Borzage, Skorn Ponrartana, Benita Tamrazi, Wende Gibbs, Marvin D Nelson, J Gordon McComb, Stefan Blüml
PURPOSE: Abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics can produce a number of significant clinical problems to include hydrocephalus, loculated areas within the ventricles or subarachnoid spaces as well as impairment of normal CSF movement between the cranial and spinal compartments that can result in a cerebellar ectopia and hydrosyringomyelia. Thus, assessing the patency of fluid flow between adjacent CSF compartments non-invasively by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has definite clinical value...
June 6, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808320/outcome-of-single-trajectory-rigid-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-and-biopsy-in-the-management-algorithm-of-pineal-region-tumors-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Mahmoud Abbassy, Khaled Aref, Ahmed Farhoud, Anwar Hekal
BACKGROUND: Tumors within the pineal region represent 1.5 to 8.5% of the pediatric brain tumors and 1.2% of all brain tumors. A management algorithm has been proposed in several publications. The algorithm includes endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and biopsy in cases presenting with hydrocephalus. In this series, we are presenting the efficacy of a single-trajectory approach for both ETV and biopsy. METHODS: Eleven cases were admitted to Alexandria main university hospital from 2013 to 2016 presenting with pineal region tumors and hydrocephalus...
May 28, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788980/treatment-of-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-infection-and-ventriculitis-caused-by-acinetobacter-baumannii-a-case-report
#10
Gebre Teklemariam Demoz, Minyahil Alebachew, Yirga Legesse, Belete Ayalneh
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) infections are a recognized problem in healthcare, causing ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection and ventriculitis. Such infections are serious intracranial infection that can lead to serious complication and death. Treatment of infection caused by A. baumannii becomes difficult because of its inclination to develop pandrug resistance to the universally used antibiotics. In this case, we focused on pediatric ventriculitis/shunt infection caused by A...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777888/primary-intracranial-rhabdomyosarcoma-in-the-cerebellopontine-angle-resected-after-preoperative-embolization
#11
Keisuke Yoshida, Tomoru Miwa, Takenori Akiyama, Masaaki Nishimoto, Dai Kamamoto, Kazunari Yoshida
BACKGROUND: Primary intracranial rhabdomyosarcoma is a very rare malignant tumor. Due to moderately vascular and firm characteristics of the tumor, complete removal without complications is often difficult. Moreover, in pediatric patients, the volume of total blood is less than adults and minimal intraoperative hemorrhage is desirable. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 6-year-old boy presented with ataxia and was found to have a large cerebellopontine angle tumor and hydrocephalus...
May 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766265/surgery-for-subependymal-giant-cell-astrocytomas-in-children-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#12
Martine Fohlen, Sarah Ferrand-Sorbets, Olivier Delalande, Georg Dorfmüller
OBJECTIVE: Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are low-grade intraventricular glial tumors that develop in 10-15% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex; they often cause hydrocephalus and are potentially accessible to a surgical treatment. Our aim is to evaluate morbidity and results after surgery in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. METHOD: We present a retrospective series of 18 pediatric patients operated on for SEGA between 2006 and 2016 at our institution...
May 15, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749912/comparative-durability-and-costs-analysis-of-ventricular-shunts
#13
Nitin Agarwal, Ahmed Kashkoush, Michael M McDowell, William R Lariviere, Naveed Ismail, Robert M Friedlander
OBJECTIVE Ventricular shunt (VS) durability has been well studied in the pediatric population and in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus; however, further evaluation in a more heterogeneous adult population is needed. This study aims to evaluate the effect of diagnosis and valve type-fixed versus programmable-on shunt durability and cost for placement of shunts in adult patients. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent implantation of a VS for hydrocephalus at their institution over a 3-year period between August 2013 and October 2016 with a minimum postoperative follow-up of 6 months...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749883/rapid-sequence-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-chiari-i-abnormality
#14
James Pan, Jennifer L Quon, Eli Johnson, Bryan Lanzman, Anjeza Chukus, Allen L Ho, Michael S B Edwards, Gerald A Grant, Kristen W Yeom
OBJECTIVE Fast magnetic resonance imaging (fsMRI) sequences are single-shot spin echo images with fast acquisition times that have replaced CT scans for many conditions. Introduced as a means of evaluating children with hydrocephalus and macrocephaly, these sequences reduce the need for anesthesia and can be more cost-effective, especially for children who require multiple surveillance scans. However, the role of fsMRI has yet to be investigated in evaluating the posterior fossa in patients with Chiari I abnormality (CM-I)...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726796/chronic-encapsulated-intraventricular-hematoma-in-a-pediatric-patient-case-report
#15
Jeremy Wetzel, David Bray, David Wrubel
Chronic encapsulated intraventricular hematoma (CEIVH) is a rare, intraventricular, nonneoplastic mass lesion that can become symptomatic from mass effect or obstructive hydrocephalus. Only 5 cases have been reported in the literature, and only one of these occurred in a pediatric patient and dates back to the pre-modern neuroimaging and pre-microsurgical era of neurosurgery. Imaging features can mimic those of many more common intraventricular lesions, such as choroid plexus tumors or cavernous malformations...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726795/complication-rates-for-preexisting-baclofen-pumps-and-ventricular-shunts-following-scoliosis-correction-a-preliminary-study
#16
Jonathan Dallas, Katherine D Sborov, Bradley S Guidry, Silky Chotai, Christopher M Bonfield
OBJECTIVE Many patients undergoing spinal fusion for neuromuscular scoliosis have preexisting neurosurgical implants, including ventricular shunts (VSs) for hydrocephalus and baclofen pumps (BPs) for spastic cerebral palsy. Recent studies have discussed a possible increase in implant complication rates following spinal fusion, but published data are inconclusive. The authors therefore, sought to investigate: 1) the rate of implant complications following fusion, 2) possible causes of these complications, and 3) factors that place patients at higher risk for implant-related complications...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719303/acute-obstructive-hydrocephalus-due-to-a-giant-posterior-cerebral-artery-aneurysm-in-a-pediatric-patient
#17
Can Sarica, Bahattin Tanrikulu, Yener Sahin, Adnan Dağçınar, Feyyaz Baltacioglu, Yasar Bayri
INTRODUCTION: Intracranial aneurysms are very rare in children. Although subarachnoidal hemorrhage (SAH) is by far the most common presentation of aneurysms in the majority of the pediatric case series, it is not rare for an unruptured aneurysm to present with a mass effect. Acute hydrocephalus is a common finding following aneurysmal SAH. However, this malady may develop even in the absence of SAH but secondary to direct obstruction by a giant aneurysm. This situation is extremely rare in children, with only a few known case reports in the literature...
2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718002/vertebral-artery-dissection-masquerading-as-concussion-in-an-adolescent
#18
Gogi Kumar, Bryan Ludwig, Vipul V Patel
OBJECTIVE: Educate providers about the clinical presentation and consequences of delaying diagnosis of traumatic vertebral artery dissection with thromboembolic ischemic strokes in the pediatric population. Vertebral artery dissection is often difficult to diagnose and can be a potentially devastating cause of ischemic stroke. METHODS: Review of the chart, peer review/discussion, and imaging interpretation. RESULTS: A 16-year-old boy was admitted with confusion after a head and neck trauma was sustained while wrestling...
May 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701543/global-hydrocephalus-epidemiology-and-incidence-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Michael C Dewan, Abbas Rattani, Rania Mekary, Laurence J Glancz, Ismaeel Yunusa, Ronnie E Baticulon, Graham Fieggen, John C Wellons, Kee B Park, Benjamin C Warf
OBJECTIVE Hydrocephalus is one of the most common brain disorders, yet a reliable assessment of the global burden of disease is lacking. The authors sought a reliable estimate of the prevalence and annual incidence of hydrocephalus worldwide. METHODS The authors performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to estimate the incidence of congenital hydrocephalus by WHO region and World Bank income level using the MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases. A global estimate of pediatric hydrocephalus was obtained by adding acquired forms of childhood hydrocephalus to the baseline congenital figures using neural tube defect (NTD) registry data and known proportions of posthemorrhagic and postinfectious cases...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696356/successful-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-in-children-depends-on-age-and-etiology-of-hydrocephalus-outcome-analysis-in-51-pediatric-patients
#20
Soner Duru, Jose L Peiro, Marc Oria, Emrah Aydin, Canan Subasi, Cengiz Tuncer, Harold L Rekate
PURPOSE: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) has become the method of choice in the treatment of hydrocephalus. Age and etiology could determine success rates (SR) of ETV. The purpose of this study is to assess these factors in pediatric population. METHODS: Retrospective study on 51 children with obstructive hydrocephalus that underwent ETV was performed. The patients were divided into three groups per their age at the time of the treatment: < 6, 6-24, and > 24 months of age...
April 25, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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