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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931205/assessment-of-near-visual-acuity-in-0-13-year-olds-with-normal-and-low-vision-a-systematic-review
#1
Bianca Huurneman, F Nienke Boonstra
BACKGROUND: The inclusion for rehabilitation of visually impaired children is partly based on the measurement of near vision, but guidelines for near visual acuity assessment are currently lacking. The twofold purpose of this systematic review was to: (i) provide an overview of the impact of the chart design on near visual acuity measured, and (ii) determine the method of choice for near vision assessments in children of different developmental ages. METHODS: A literature search was conducted by using the following electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE...
December 8, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928725/the-efficacy-of-the-ketogenic-diet-in-infants-and-young-children-with-refractory-epilepsies-using-a-formula-based-powder
#2
Mahmoud Reza Ashrafi, Seyed Ahmad Hosseini, Gholam Reza Zamani, Mahmoud Mohammadi, Alireza Tavassoli, Reza Shervin Badv, Morteza Heidari, Parviz Karimi, Reza Azizi Malamiri
To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a classic 4:1 ketogenic diet using a formula-based powder in infants and children with refractory seizures who are reluctant to eat homemade foods. We conducted an open label trial and administered a ketogenic diet using formula-based power (Ketocal(®)). Twenty-seven infants and children aged between 12 months and 5 years were enrolled who had refractory seizures and were reluctant to eat homemade foods. Of 27 children, 5 were lost to follow-up and 22 were remained at the end of the study...
December 7, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924668/parenting-of-children-with-down-syndrome-compared-to-fragile-x-syndrome
#3
Audra Sterling, Steven F Warren
Children with Down syndrome (DS) and fragile X syndrome (FXS) struggle with language development. Parenting variables, such as responsiveness to children's communication attempts (Maternal Responsivity), and techniques used to support and teach appropriate behavior (Behavior Management) are known to have a significant impact on early child development. We examined these two aspects of parenting style via coded, videotaped parent-child interactions in two groups of participants matched on child age (2-5 years) and child expressive language level: mothers of children with DS and mothers of children with FXS...
December 7, 2016: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924109/care-of-newborn-in-the-community-and-at-home
#4
REVIEW
S B Neogi, J Sharma, M Chauhan, R Khanna, M Chokshi, R Srivastava, P K Prabhakar, A Khera, R Kumar, S Zodpey, V K Paul
India has contributed immensely toward generating evidence on two key domains of newborn care: Home Based Newborn Care (HBNC) and community mobilization. In a model developed in Gadchiroli (Maharashtra) in the 1990s, a package of Interventions delivered by community health workers during home visits led to a marked decline in neonatal deaths. On the basis of this experience, the national HBNC program centered around Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) was introduced in 2011, and is now the main community-level program in newborn health...
December 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920351/effects-of-pediatric-anticipatory-guidance-on-mothers-of-young-children
#5
Hui-Chin Hsu, Shih-Yu Lee, Chin-Man Lai, Wan-Ling Tsai, Hsiao-Tung Chiu
Provision of anticipatory guidance to parents during well-child visits is a defining component of pediatric primary care. Using nationally representative data from the 2000 U.S. National Survey of Early Childhood Health, this study addressed the questions of whether, how, and what mothers of children below age 3 with different ethnic/racial background could benefit from anticipatory guidance. Structural equation modeling results showed that across ethnic/racial groups, guidance was directly associated with decreased maternal stress and directly and indirectly associated with effective parenting practices in child development, discipline, and safety...
December 5, 2016: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917765/safeguarding-maternal-and-child-health-in-south-africa-by-starting-the-child-support-grant-before-birth-design-lessons-from-pregnancy-support-programmes-in-27-countries
#6
M F Chersich, S Luchters, D Blaauw, F Scorgie, E Kern, A Van den Heever, H Rees, E Peach, S Kharadi, S Fonn
BACKGROUND: Deprivation during pregnancy and the neonatal period increases maternal morbidity, reduces birth weight and impairs child development, with lifelong consequences. Many poor countries provide grants to mitigate the impact of poverty during pregnancy. South Africa (SA) offers a post-delivery Child Support Grant (CSG), which could encompass support during pregnancy, informed by lessons learnt from similar grants. OBJECTIVES: To review design and operational features of pregnancy support programmes, highlighting features that promote their effectiveness and efficiency, and implications thereof for SA...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908287/is-mid-life-social-participation-associated-with-cognitive-function-at-age-50-results-from-the-british-national-child-development-study-ncds
#7
Ann Bowling, Jitka Pikhartova, Brian Dodgeon
BACKGROUND: Some studies have indicated that social engagement is associated with better cognitive outcomes. This study aimed to investigate associations between life-course social engagement (civic participation) and cognitive status at age 50, adjusting for social networks and support, behavioural, health, social and socio-economic characteristics. METHODS: The vehicle for the study was the National Child Development Study (1958 Birth Cohort Study), which is a general population sample in England, Scotland and Wales (9119: 4497 men and 4622 women) participating in nationally representative, prospective birth cohort surveys...
December 2, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896644/the-effects-of-musical-training-on-child-development-a-randomized-trial-of-el-sistema-in-venezuela
#8
Xiomara Alemán, Suzanne Duryea, Nancy G Guerra, Patrick J McEwan, Rodrigo Muñoz, Marco Stampini, Ariel A Williamson
: Many studies have explored the links between music and children's outcomes; however, study designs have not been sufficiently rigorous to support causal findings. This study aims to assess the effects of a large-scale music program on children's developmental functioning in the context of high rates of exposure to violence. The paper describes the results of an experimental evaluation of Venezuela's National System of Youth and Children's Orchestras. The curriculum of the program, better known as "El Sistema," emphasizes social interactions through group instruction and group performances...
November 28, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896564/children-s-gender-typed-toy-interests-does-propulsion-matter
#9
Lisa M Dinella, Erica S Weisgram, Megan Fulcher
Children's toy play is at the foundation of child development. However, gender differentiation in early play experiences may result in gender differences in cognitive abilities, social interactions, and vocational choices. We investigated gender-typing of toys and toys' propulsive properties (e.g., wheels, forward motion) as possible factors impacting children's toy interests, perceptions of other children's interests, and children's actual toy choices during free play. In Studies 1 and 2, 82 preschool children (42 boys, 40 girls; mean age = 4...
November 28, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894371/pervasive-influence-of-maternal-and-paternal-criminal-offending-on-early-childhood-development-a-population-data-linkage-study
#10
K R Laurens, S Tzoumakis, M Kariuki, M J Green, M Hamde, F Harris, V J Carr, K Dean
BACKGROUND: Parental criminal offending is an established risk factor for offending among offspring, but little evidence is available indicating the impact of offending on early childhood functioning. We used data from a large Australian population cohort to determine associations between exposure to parental offending and a range of developmental outcomes at age 5 years. METHOD: Multi-generation data in 66 477 children and their parents from the New South Wales Child Development Study were combined using data linkage...
November 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890796/temporal-profiles-of-plasma-proteome-during-childhood-development
#11
Chih-Wei Liu, Lisa Bramer, Bobbie-Jo Webb-Robertson, Kathleen Waugh, Marian J Rewers, Qibin Zhang
Human blood plasma proteome reflects physiological changes associated with a child's development as well as development of disease states. While age-specific normative values are available for proteins routinely measured in clinical practice, there is paucity of comprehensive longitudinal data regarding changes in human plasma proteome during childhood. We applied TMT-10plex isobaric labeling-based quantitative proteomics to longitudinally profile the plasma proteome in 10 healthy children during their development, each with 9 serial time points from 9months to 15years of age...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890781/promoting-early-brain-and-child-development-perceived-barriers-and-the-utilization-of-resources-to-address-them
#12
Andrew S Garner, Amy Storfer-Isser, Moira Szilagyi, Ruth E K Stein, Cori M Green, Bonnie D Kerker, Karen G O'Connor, Kimberly E Hoagwood, Sarah McCue Horwitz
OBJECTIVE: Efforts to promote early brain and child development (EBCD) include initiatives to support healthy parent-child relationships, tools to identify family social-emotional risk factors, and referrals to community programs to address family risk factors. We sought to examine if pediatricians perceive barriers to implementing these activities, and if they utilize resources to address those barriers. METHOD: Data were analyzed from 304 non-trainee pediatricians who practice general pediatrics and completed a 2013 American Academy of Pediatrics Periodic Survey...
November 24, 2016: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886192/phytanic-acid-attenuates-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-activity-via-nitric-oxide-mediated-%C3%AE-secretase-activation-in-rat-aortic-smooth-muscle-cells-possible-implications-for-pathogenesis-of-infantile-refsum-disease
#13
Gursev S Dhaunsi, Mayra Alsaeid, Saghir Akhtar
BACKGROUND: Infantile Refsum disease (IRD), a peroxisomal disease with defective phytanic acid oxidation, causes neurological impairment and development delay. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) regulates child development and to understand molecular mechanism(s) of IRD, we examined the effect of PA on IGF-1 activity. METHODS: BrdU incorporation was measured in rat aortic smooth muscle cell (SMC) cultures following treatment with fetal bovine serum (FBS), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or IGF-1 in the absence or presence of PA...
November 25, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885311/mediating-pathways-in-the-socio-economic-gradient-of-child-development-evidence-from-children-6-42-months-in-bogota
#14
Marta Rubio-Codina, Orazio Attanasio, Sally Grantham-McGregor
Research has previously shown a gap of near 0.5 of a standard deviation (SD) in cognition and language development between the top and bottom household wealth quartile in children aged 6-42 months in a large representative sample of low- and middle-income families in Bogota, using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. The gaps in fine motor and socio-emotional development were about half that size. Developmental deficits increased with age. The current study explored the associations amongst child development, household socio-economic status (SES), and a set of potential mediating variables-parental characteristics, child biomedical factors, and the quality of the home environment-in this sample...
November 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884535/-developmental-approach-of-executive-functions-from-infancy-to-adolescence
#15
P Fourneret, V des Portes
Given the importance of the relationship between executive function (EF) and many aspects of child development - including the development of reasoning, emotion regulation, school performance, and wider self-regulation itself - research on the development of EF from infancy to the end of adolescence has become one of the scientific priorities of the last decade. Improving our knowledge on the maturative trajectory of EF and the functional weight of different internal and environmental factors, supposed to optimize their efficiency, can only promote a better understanding of EF and its role in the normal development of the child as well as of those at risk of poor outcome either because of neurodevelopmental disorders or psychopathological disorders...
November 21, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876321/an-exploration-of-how-mexican-american-wic-mothers-obtain-information-about-behaviors-associated-with-childhood-obesity-risk
#16
Rachel E Davis, Suzanne M Cole, Shannon J McKenney-Shubert, Sonya J Jones, Karen E Peterson
OBJECTIVE: To explore how a sample of Mexican American mothers with preschool-aged children recruited from a Midwestern Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic obtained information about 4 behaviors associated with childhood obesity risk: eating, physical activity, screen time, and sleep. DESIGN: One-on-one structured interviews in which participants were asked how they communicated with family, learned to take care of their first infant, and obtained information about the 4 targeted behaviors for their preschool-aged child...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872512/a-systematic-review-of-research-on-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-sub-saharan-africa
#17
REVIEW
Amina Abubakar, Derrick Ssewanyana, Charles R Newton
The burden of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is not well known. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to identify published work from SSA. We have systematically searched four databases, namely, Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Child Development & Adolescent Studies, through EBSCO and identified studies from across SSA. Based on predefined inclusion criteria, 47 studies were included in this review. Most of the identified studies (74%) were conducted in only 2 African countries, that is, South Africa and Nigeria...
2016: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872376/the-multi-component-nature-of-statistical-learning
#18
REVIEW
Joanne Arciuli
The central argument presented in this paper is that statistical learning (SL) is an ability comprised of multiple components that operate largely implicitly. Components relating to the stimulus encoding, retention and abstraction required for SL may include, but are not limited to, certain types of attention, processing speed and memory. It is likely that individuals vary in terms of the efficiency of these underlying components, and in patterns of connectivity among these components, and that SL tasks differ from one another in how they draw on certain underlying components more than others...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872374/what-s-statistical-about-learning-insights-from-modelling-statistical-learning-as-a-set-of-memory-processes
#19
REVIEW
Erik D Thiessen
Statistical learning has been studied in a variety of different tasks, including word segmentation, object identification, category learning, artificial grammar learning and serial reaction time tasks (e.g. Saffran et al. 1996 Science 274: , 1926-1928; Orban et al. 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: , 2745-2750; Thiessen & Yee 2010 Child Development 81: , 1287-1303; Saffran 2002 Journal of Memory and Language 47: , 172-196; Misyak & Christiansen 2012 Language Learning 62: , 302-331). The difference among these tasks raises questions about whether they all depend on the same kinds of underlying processes and computations, or whether they are tapping into different underlying mechanisms...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870433/sex-differences-in-nonhuman-primate-behavioral-development
#20
REVIEW
Elizabeth V Lonsdorf
Sex differences in behavior and developmental trajectories in human children are of great interest to researchers in a variety of fields, and a persistent topic of discussion and debate is the relative contribution of biological vs. social influences to such differences. Given the potentially large effects of cultural and social influences on human child development, nonhuman primates are important model species for investigating the biological and evolutionary roots of sex differences in human development...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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