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Differential diagnosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356376/boosting-art-uptake-and-retention-among-hiv-infected-pregnant-and-breastfeeding-women-and-their-infants-the-promise-of-innovative-service-delivery-models
#1
Meena Srivastava, David Sullivan, B Ryan Phelps, Surbhi Modi, Laura N Broyles
INTRODUCTION: With the rapid scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the "Treat All" era, there has been increasing emphasis on using differentiated models of HIV service delivery. The gaps within the clinical cascade for mothers and their infants suggest that current service delivery models are not meeting families' needs and prompt re-consideration of how services are provided. This article will explore considerations for differentiated care and encourage the ongoing increase of ART coverage through innovative strategies while also addressing the unique needs of mothers and infants...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356323/layered-aggregation-with-steric-effect-morphology-homogeneous-semiconductor-mos2-as-an-alternative-2d-probe-for-visual-immunoassay
#2
Bang Lin Li, Li Yu Peng, Hao Lin Zou, Ling Jie Li, Hong Qun Luo, Nian Bing Li
Liquid-phase exfoliation routes unavoidably generate 2D nanostructures with inhomogeneous morphologies. Herein, thickness-dependent sorting of exfoliated nanostructures is achieved via a treatment of differential-zone centrifugation in the surfactant aqueous phase. With this approach, homogeneous MoS2 nanosheets are obtained, and due to the intrinsic semiconducting characteristics, those 2D nanosheets are endowed with desired optical properties, rivaling classic gold nanoparticles in sensing applications. Furthermore, MoS2 nanosheets with high uniformity and chemical inertness are coupled with proteins, exhibiting high performance in stability and anti-interferences for bioanalysis...
January 22, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356226/-i-know-i-m-not-invincible-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis-of-thyroid-cancer-in-young-people
#3
Stephanie Smith, Virginia Eatough, James Smith, Radu Mihai, Andrew Weaver, Gregory P Sadler
OBJECTIVE: Thyroid cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting young people and carries an excellent prognosis. Little is known about the psychosocial issues that face young people diagnosed with a treatable cancer. This study explored how young people experienced diagnosis, treatment, and how they made sense of an experience which challenged their views on what it means to have cancer. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight young people diagnosed with either papillary or follicular thyroid cancer, and analysed with interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA)...
January 22, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356090/useful-information-provided-by-graphic-displays-of-automated-cell-counter-in-hematological-malignancies
#4
Monica Gupta, Kriti Chauhan, Tanvi Singhvi, Manisha Singh, Rajesh Kumar Grover
BACKGROUND: Automated cell counters have become more and more sophisticated with passing years. The numerical and graphic data both provide useful clues for suspecting a diagnosis especially when the workload is very high. AIM: We present our experience of useful information provided by graphic displays of an automated cell counter in hematological malignancies in a cancer hospital where a large number of complete blood count (CBC) requests are received either before or during chemotherapy...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355911/the-brain-health-assessment-for-detecting-and-diagnosing-neurocognitive-disorders
#5
Katherine L Possin, Tacie Moskowitz, Sabrina J Erlhoff, Kirsten M Rogers, Erica T Johnson, Natasha Z R Steele, Joseph J Higgins, Jordan Stiver, Andrea G Alioto, Sarah T Farias, Bruce L Miller, Katherine P Rankin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Brief cognitive screens lack the sensitivity to detect mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or support differential diagnoses. The objective of this study was to validate the 10-minute, tablet-based University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Brain Health Assessment (BHA) to overcome these limitations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: UCSF Memory and Aging Center. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults (N = 347) (neurologically healthy controls (n = 185), and individuals diagnosed with MCI (n = 99), dementia (n = 42), and as normal with concerns (n = 21))...
January 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355401/lesions-without-borders-scrotal-lesions-that-involve-both-the-intratesticular-and-extratesticular-regions
#6
Massihullah Hamidi, Paul Nikolaidis, Frank H Miller, David D Casalino, Nancy A Hammond, Jeanne M Horowitz, Helena Gabriel
OBJECTIVE: Differentiation of scrotal lesions is often dictated by whether they are intraor extratesticular. However, these regions are not entirely isolated, and disease processes can span both spaces. We review a variety of lesions that can involve both regions, describe the relevant anatomy, and illustrate their imaging appearances. CONCLUSION: Identification of involvement of both intra- and extratesticular regions by a single process can narrow the differential considerations and help arrive at the correct diagnosis...
February 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355334/schizophrenia-narrative-and-neurocognition-the-utility-of-life-stories-in-understanding-social-problem-solving-skills
#7
Aubrey M Moe, Nicholas J K Breitborde, Kyle J Bourassa, Colin J Gallagher, Mohammed K Shakeel, Nancy M Docherty
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia researchers have focused on phenomenological aspects of the disorder to better understand its underlying nature. In particular, development of personal narratives-that is, the complexity with which people form, organize, and articulate their "life stories"-has recently been investigated in individuals with schizophrenia. However, less is known about how aspects of narrative relate to indicators of neurocognitive and social functioning. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of linguistic complexity of life-story narratives to measures of cognitive and social problem-solving abilities among people with schizophrenia...
January 22, 2018: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355067/an-attempt-to-measure-the-diametric-relationship-between-slow-and-quick-phases-of-nystagmus
#8
Yuji Kanazawa, Kazuo Funabiki, Akiko Taura, Takumi Imai, Hiroko Torii, Hideaki Ogita, Takayuki Okano, Juichi Ito, Koichi Omori
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether our original method can precisely evaluate the angle between slow and quick phases of nystagmus (vector angle) and to determine whether vector angle analysis is helpful in differentiating between horizontal nystagmus and mixed nystagmus with horizontal and vertical components. METHODS: We included 20 healthy volunteers, 17 patients with horizontal nystagmus, and 15 patients with mixed nystagmus. Caloric nystagmus was recorded in healthy volunteers; positional nystagmus was recorded in each patient...
January 21, 2018: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354930/-skin-needle-embedding-for-obese-impaired-glucose-tolerance
#9
Jinghua Liang, Zhendi Feng, Shengkui Feng, Shude Bao, Kejia Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect difference between the skin needle embedding therapy and western medication for obese impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). METHODS: A total of 300 cases of obese IGT were assigned into an embedding group and a western medication group by random number table, 150 cases in each one. Standardized diagnosis and treatment programs were applied to reduce blood pressure, lipid, weight, and exercise and scientific diet management were used...
January 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354924/-discussion-on-the-clinical-treatment-of-infantile-cerebral-palsy-with-the-differentiated-intervention-of-meridian-points-on-the-spine-and-back
#10
Cheng Zhang, Xuefeng Wang, Guangliang Jia, Tian Yang
In view of the literature study and clinical practice, the rules of the distribution, the general function and the indication of the meridians points on the spine and back were explored. The TCM mechanism on the rehabilitation of infantile cerebral palsy was studied. The rules of acupoint combination on the spine and back were summarized with meridians, main points and supplementary points involved in the TCM rehabilitation of infantile cerebral palsy. In view of the theoretic study, the advantages on the early infantile motor function, such as body turning, sitting, standing and walking, were analyzed with the long-term intervention of meridian points on the spine and back...
September 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354684/optimizing-olfactory-testing-for-the-diagnosis-of-parkinson-s-disease-item-analysis-of-the-university-of-pennsylvania-smell-identification-test
#11
James F Morley, Abigail Cohen, Laura Silveira-Moriyama, Andrew J Lees, David R Williams, Regina Katzenschlager, Christopher Hawkes, Julie P Shtraks, Daniel Weintraub, Richard L Doty, John E Duda
The 40-item University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) is an effective instrument to detect olfactory dusfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). It is not clear, however, whether tests of this length are necessary to detect such dysfunction. Several studies have suggested that detection of certain odors is selectively compromised in PD, and that a test comprised of these odors could be shorter and more specific for this purpose. Therefore, we attempted to identify a subset of UPSIT odors that distinguish PD from controls with similar or improved test characteristics compared to the full test...
2018: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354591/unusual-complications-caused-by-lipoma-of-the-tongue
#12
Serena Cocca, Massimo Viviano, Stefano Parrini
Lipoma is the most common, benign, soft tissue, mesenchymal tumour and is composed of mature adipose tissue. It is infrequent in the oral cavity (approximately 0.3% of all tongue neoplasias). We describe the case of a 68-year-old man with a swelling at the tongue edge and tongue dysesthesia. Medical history, clinical assessment, radiographic images, and cytological analysis enabled specialists to classify this neoplasia as a lipoma. The patient recovered fully after surgical excision of the affected area, and the neuralgic symptoms regressed...
December 2017: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354484/shortness-of-breath-in-clinical-practice-a-case-for-left-atrial-function-and-exercise-stress-testing-for-a-comprehensive-diastolic-heart-failure-workup
#13
REVIEW
Pupalan Iyngkaran, Nagesh S Anavekar, Christopher Neil, Liza Thomas, David L Hare
The symptom cluster of shortness of breath (SOB) contributes significantly to the outpatient workload of cardiology services. The workup of these patients includes blood chemistry and biomarkers, imaging and functional testing of the heart and lungs. A diagnosis of diastolic heart failure is inferred through the exclusion of systolic abnormalities, a normal pulmonary function test and normal hemoglobin, coupled with diastolic abnormalities on echocardiography. Differentiating confounders such as obesity or deconditioning in a patient with diastolic abnormalities is difficult...
December 26, 2017: World Journal of Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354244/intraparenchymal-atypical-meningioma-in-basal-ganglia-region-in-a-child-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Xiaowei Liu, Yuekang Zhang, Si Zhang, Chuanyuan Tao, Yan Ju
Intraparenchymal meningiomas without dural attachment are extremely rare, especially when they occur in basal ganglia region in child. An 8-year-old boy was admitted at our hospital, complaining of recurrent headache and vomiting for 3 months. Neurological examination showed impaired vision and mild paresis of the left extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a lesion located in the right basal ganglia region extending to superasellar cistern with solid, multiple cystic and necrotic components. Computed tomography revealed calcification within the mass...
January 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354218/evolution-of-short-cognitive-test-performance-in-stroke-patients-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-vascular-dementia-baseline-evaluation-and-follow-up
#15
Nilton Custodio, Rosa Montesinos, David Lira, Eder Herrera-Perez, Yadira Bardales, Lucia Valeriano-Lorenzo
There is limited evidence about the progression of cognitive performance during the post-stroke stage. Objective: To assess the evolution of cognitive performance in stroke patients without vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), patients with vascular mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patients with vascular dementia (VD). Methods: A prospective cohort of stroke outpatients from two secondary medical centers in Lima, Peru was studied. We performed standardized evaluations at definitive diagnosis (baseline evaluation), and control follow-ups at 6 and 12 months, including a battery of short cognitive tests: Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE), and INECO Frontal Screening (IFS)...
October 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354214/a-panel-of-clinical-and-neuropathological-features-of-cerebrovascular-disease-through-the-novel-neuroimaging-methods
#16
Gilberto Sousa Alves, Luiza de Amorim de Carvalho, Felipe Kenji Sudo, Lucas Briand, Jerson Laks, Eliasz Engelhardt
The last decade has witnessed substantial progress in acquiring diagnostic biomarkers for the diagnostic workup of cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Advanced neuroimaging methods not only provide a strategic contribution for the differential diagnosis of vascular dementia (VaD) and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), but also help elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms ultimately leading to small vessel disease (SVD) throughout its course. Objective: In this review, the novel imaging methods, both structural and metabolic, were summarized and their impact on the diagnostic workup of age-related CVD was analysed...
October 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354002/cerebrospinal-fluid-dynamics-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-the-role-of-phase-contrast-mri-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-active-and-chronic-disease
#17
Serkan Öner, Ayşegül Sağır Kahraman, Cemal Özcan, Zeynep Maraş Özdemir, Serkan Ünlü, Özden Kamışlı, Zülal Öner
Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease characterized by demyelinating plaques in the white matter. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has been proposed as a new hypothesis for the etiopathogenesis of MS disease. MS-CCSVI includes a significant decrease of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow through the cerebral aqueduct secondary to an impaired venous outflow from the central nervous system. This study aimed to determine whether CSF flow dynamics are affected in MS patients and the contributions to differential diagnosis in active and chronic disease using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI)...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353880/differential-effect-of-disease-associated-st8sia2-haplotype-on-cerebral-white-matter-diffusion-properties-in-schizophrenia-and-healthy-controls
#18
REVIEW
Janice M Fullerton, Paul Klauser, Rhoshel K Lenroot, Alex D Shaw, Bronwyn Overs, Anna Heath, Murray J Cairns, Joshua Atkins, Rodney Scott, Peter R Schofield, Cyndi Shannon Weickert, Christos Pantelis, Alex Fornito, Thomas J Whitford, Thomas W Weickert, Andrew Zalesky
Brain white matter abnormalities are evident in individuals with schizophrenia, and also their first-degree relatives, suggesting that some alterations may relate to underlying genetic risk. The ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 2 (ST8SIA2) gene, which encodes the alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 8B enzyme that aids neuronal migration and synaptic plasticity, was previously implicated as a schizophrenia susceptibility gene. This study examined the extent to which specific haplotypes in ST8SIA2 influence white matter microstructure using diffusion-weighted imaging of individuals with schizophrenia (n = 281) and healthy controls (n = 172), recruited across five Australian sites...
January 22, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353854/-a-case-of-duodenal-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-composed-of-small-and-large-cell-types
#19
Mizue Muto, Kazuhiko Ichiki, Momotaro Muto, Chisato Ishikawa, Mitsutaka Inoue, Junichi Goto, Satoshi Inaba, Takanori Aoki, Keisuke Sato
A 78-year-old man underwent a detailed examination by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for the complaint of epigastric pain. The examination revealed a hemicircumferential type 2 tumor in the descending duodenum. A subsequent biopsy led to a diagnosis of neuroendocrine carcinoma. Subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. The lesion was composed of small- and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. The large-cell type component was positive for both caudal homeobox protein 2 and the cluster of differentiation 138, whereas the small-cell type component was negative for both...
2018: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353715/peering-beneath-the-surface-juxtacortical-tumors-of-bone-part-ii
#20
REVIEW
Ali Gholamrezanezhad, Kyle Basques, Christos Kosmas
Juxtacortical or surface tumors of bone are neoplasms arising from or just outside the cortex, and are composed of different histologic types. Although the imaging appearances of these lesions have similarities to their intramedullary counterparts, their location alters their radiographic and MR characteristics, creating difficulties in diagnosis. Meanwhile, several non-neoplastic lesions, such as stress reaction/stress fracture and indolent infectious processes, compound the differential diagnosis. Neoplastic juxtacortical lesions of bone have been classified into five categories: cartilaginous, fibrous, lipomatous, osseous, and metastatic tumors...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Imaging
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