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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918446/metabolomics-and-its-application-in-the-development-of-discovering-biomarkers-for-osteoporosis-research
#1
REVIEW
Huanhuan Lv, Feng Jiang, Daogang Guan, Cheng Lu, Baosheng Guo, Chileung Chan, Songlin Peng, Baoqin Liu, Wenwei Guo, Hailong Zhu, Xuegong Xu, Aiping Lu, Ge Zhang
Osteoporosis is a progressive skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mass and increased risk of fracture in later life. The incidence and costs associated with treating osteoporosis cause heavy socio-economic burden. Currently, the diagnosis of osteoporosis mainly depends on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers. However, these indexes are not sensitive and accurate enough to reflect the osteoporosis progression. Metabolomics offers the potential for a holistic approach for clinical diagnoses and treatment, as well as understanding of the pathological mechanism of osteoporosis...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918081/st1926-attenuates-steroid-induced-osteoporosis-in-rats-by-inhibiting-inflammation-response
#2
Hong-Xing Zhao, Yuan-Xia Huang, Jin-Gang Tao
Steroid, also known as glucocorticoid, induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in young adults, which has been a challenging disorder for the frequent incidence of collapse of femoral head, leading to dysfunction of hip joint and impairing life quality of human. Bioavailable and less toxic synthetic retinoids, such as the atypical adamantyl retinoid ST1926, have been developed and investigated in clinical trials for many diseases. Serum lipid-related indicators were assessed to elucidate the role of ST1926 in regulating lipid metabolism...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915991/control-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-colorectal-cancer-by-synthetic-vitamin-d-receptor-ligands
#3
Ichiro Takada, Makoto Makishima
Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are associated with an increased risk of cancer, autoimmune disease, inflammation, infection, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease, as well as bone and mineral disorders. The vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a receptor for the active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], and mediates vitamin D regulation of specific target gene expression. The secondary bile acid lithocholic acid, which is produced by intestinal bacteria, is another natural VDR ligand...
December 2, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913900/bone-mineral-density-of-extremities-is-associated-with-coronary-calcification-and-biopsy-verified-vascular-calcification-in-living-donor-renal-transplant-recipients
#4
Zhimin Chen, Jia Sun, Mathias Haarhaus, Peter Barany, Lars Wennberg, Jonaz Ripsweden, Torkel B Brismar, Bengt Lindholm, Annika Wernerson, Magnus Söderberg, Peter Stenvinkel, Abdul Rashid Qureshi
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBD) may lead to low bone mineral density (BMD) and vascular calcification (VC), but links to the latter are unclear. Here we investigated associations between BMD, coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores, and histological signs of VC in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing living-donor kidney transplantation (LD-Rtx). In 66 ESRD patients (median age 45 years, 68% males), BMD (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, DXA), CAC score (by computed tomography, CT; n = 54), and degree of VC score (graded by histological examination of epigastric artery specimens collected at LD-Rtx; n = 55) were assessed at the time of LD-Rtx...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913821/theobromine-upregulates-osteogenesis-by-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro-and-accelerates-bone-development-in-rats
#5
Bret H Clough, Joni Ylostalo, Elizabeth Browder, Eoin P McNeill, Thomas J Bartosh, H Ralph Rawls, Tetsuo Nakamoto, Carl A Gregory
Theobromine (THB) is one of the major xanthine-like alkaloids found in cacao plant and a variety of other foodstuffs such as tea leaves, guarana and cola nuts. Historically, THB and its derivatives have been utilized to treat cardiac and circulatory disorders, drug-induced nephrotoxicity, proteinuria and as an immune-modulator. Our previous work demonstrated that THB has the capacity to improve the formation of hydroxyl-apatite during tooth development, suggesting that it may also enhance skeletal development...
December 2, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908549/noni-leaf-and-black-tea-enhance-bone-regeneration-in-estrogen-deficient-rats
#6
Nor Aijratul Asikin Mohd Shalan, Noordin M Mustapha, Suhaila Mohamed
OBJECTIVE: Black tea and Nonileaf are among the dietary compounds that can benefit patients with bone resorption disorders. Their bone regeneration effects and their mechanisms were studied in estrogen-deficient rats. METHODS: Noni leaves (three doses) and black tea water extracts were fed to ovariectomized rats for 4 mo, and their effects (analyzed via mechanical measurements, micro-computed tomography scan, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction mRNA) were compared with Remifemin (a commercial phytoestrogen product from black cohosh)...
January 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906582/fiat-deletion-increases-bone-mass-but-does-not-prevent-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-complications
#7
Bahareh Hekmatnejad, Vionnie W C Yu, William Addison, Vice Mandic, Martin Pellicelli, Alice Arabian, René St-Arnaud
FIAT (Factor Inhibiting ATF4-mediated Transcription) interacts with ATF4 to repress its transcriptional activity. We performed a phenotypic analysis of Fiat-deficient male mice (Fiat(-/Y)) at 8 and 16 weeks of age. Fiat(-/Y) mice appeared normal at birth and weight gain was comparable between genotypes. μCT analysis of proximal femur demonstrated 46% and 13% age-dependent increases in trabecular bone volume and thickness, respectively, in Fiat(-/Y) mice. Cortical bone measurements at the femoral midshaft revealed a significant increase in cortical thickness in older Fiat(-/Y) mice...
December 1, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900568/control-of-phosphate-balance-by-the-kidney-and-intestine
#8
REVIEW
Ichiro Kaneko, Sawako Tatsumi, Hiroko Segawa, Ken-Ichi Miyamoto
The prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia are major goals of the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD)-bone mineral disorders, and thus, Pi balance requires special attention. Pi balance is maintained by intestinal absorption, renal excretion, and bone accretion. The kidney is mainly responsible for the plasma Pi concentration. In CKD, reduced glomerular filtration rate leads to various Pi metabolism abnormalities, and Pi absorption in the small intestine also has an important role in Pi metabolism...
November 30, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900532/mir-148a-the-epigenetic-regulator-of-bone-homeostasis-is-increased-in-plasma-of-osteoporotic-postmenopausal-women
#9
Ajda Bedene, Simona Mencej Bedrač, Lea Ješe, Janja Marc, Peter Vrtačnik, Janez Preželj, Tomaž Kocjan, Tilen Kranjc, Barbara Ostanek
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a prevalent skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone mineral density and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, resulting in bone fragility and low-trauma fractures. Imaging techniques are routinely used to detect low bone mass; however, they are unable to identify deterioration of bone quality. Recently, microRNAs have emerged as regulators of bone remodelling and potentially also as a new class of sensitive biomarkers of bone health to aid in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of osteoporosis...
November 29, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896453/management-of-phosphorus-load-in-ckd-patients
#10
REVIEW
Yutaka Taketani, Fumihiko Koiwa, Keitaro Yokoyama
Disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The term "renal osteodystrophy" has recently been replaced with "CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD)", which includes vascular calcification as well as bone abnormalities. In Japan, proportions of the aged and long-term dialysis patients are increasing which makes management of vascular calcification and parathyroid function increasingly more important...
November 28, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895088/hormonal-alterations-in-pcos-and-its-influence-on-bone-metabolism
#11
Abhaya Krishnan, Sridhar Muthusami
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs in 4-8% of women worldwide. The prevalence of PCOS in Indian adolescents is 12.2% according to ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) report. National Institute of Health documented that it affects approximately 5 million women of reproductive age in the United States . Hormonal imbalance is the characteristic of many women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. The impact of various endocrine changes in PCOS women and their relevance to bone remains to be documented...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890549/novel-functions-of-circulating-klotho
#12
REVIEW
Julia M Hum, Linda O'Bryan, Rosamund C Smith, Kenneth E White
A significant portion of the key biological functions of αKlotho (αKL) and its cognate ligand Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) have been revealed through the study of rare diseases of mineral metabolism. These findings have far reaching implications for common disorders such as chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). αKL's predominant effect on mineral homeostasis is through its actions in the kidney as a co-receptor for FGF23, however emerging data has shed light on its capacity to act as a circulating factor through the cleavage of the transmembrane form of αKL ('mKL') to produce 'cleaved KL' or 'cKL'...
November 23, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887681/bone-accrual-in-males-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Ann M Neumeyer, Natalia Cano Sokoloff, Erin McDonnell, Eric A Macklin, Christopher J McDougle, Madhusmita Misra
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that bone accrual over a 4-year period is reduced in boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with typically developing controls. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-five boys with ASD and 24 controls were assessed for bone outcomes. Fourteen boys with ASD and 11 controls were assessed both at baseline and after 4 years. The mean subject age was 11.0 ± 1.6 years at study initiation and 14.9 ± 1.6 years at follow-up. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the spine, hip, and whole body using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and normalized for age, race, and sex (BMD z-scores)...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882481/assessment-criteria-for-vitamin-d-deficiency-insufficiency-in-japan-proposal-by-an-expert-panel-supported-by-the-research-program-of-intractable-diseases-ministry-of-health-labour-and-welfare-japan-the-japanese-society-for-bone-and-mineral-research-and-the
#14
Ryo Okazaki, Keiichi Ozono, Seiji Fukumoto, Daisuke Inoue, Mika Yamauchi, Masanori Minagawa, Toshimi Michigami, Yasuhiro Takeuchi, Toshio Matsumoto, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
Vitamin D is indispensable for the maintenance of bone and mineral health. Inadequate vitamin D action increases the risk for various musculoskeletal/mineral events including fracture, fall, secondary hyperparathyroidism, diminished response to antiresorptives, rickets/osteomalacia, and hypocalcemia. Its most common cause in recent years is vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, clinically defined by a low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level. Guidelines for vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency defined by serum 25(OH)D concentrations have been published all over the world...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881259/lifestyle-related-metabolic-disorders-osteoporosis-and-fracture-risk-in-asia-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Toshitsugu Sugimoto, Masayo Sato, Francis C Dehle, Alan J M Brnabic, Adele Weston, Russel Burge
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of both lifestyle-related metabolic disorders and osteoporosis is increasing in Asia. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of the published literature to identify studies examining disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism (type 2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome [MetS], and atherosclerosis) as risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture in Asian populations. Studies examining the relationship between metabolic disorders and bone mineral density (BMD) were also included...
May 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869739/perinatal-risk-factors-and-genu-valgum-conducive-to-the-onset-of-growing-pains-in-early-childhood
#16
Angelos Kaspiris, Efstathios Chronopoulos, Elias Vasiliadis
The most prevalent musculoskeletal disorder of childhood with unclear aetiology is growing pains (GPs). Anatomic deformities and factors that change bone turnover are implicated in GP pathophysiology. Perinatal risk factors alter the bone metabolism affecting the bone mineral density and content. The aim of our study was to analyze the relationship between GPs, knock knees and perinatal factors. The examined population consisted of 276 children aged 3-7 years. Among them, ten pairs of dizygotic twins were evaluated...
November 18, 2016: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867890/bone-turnover-markers-emerging-tool-in-the-management-of-osteoporosis
#17
REVIEW
Sahana Shetty, Nitin Kapoor, Joseph Dian Bondu, Nihal Thomas, Thomas Vizhalil Paul
Bone is a dynamic tissue which undergoes constant remodeling throughout the life span. Bone turnover is balanced with coupling of bone formation and resorption at various rates leading to continuous remodeling of bone. A study of bone turnover markers (BTMs) provides an insight of the dynamics of bone turnover in many metabolic bone disorders. An increase in bone turnover seen with aging and pathological states such as osteoporosis leads to deterioration of bone microarchitecture and thus contributes to an increase in the risk of fracture independent of low bone mineral density (BMD)...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867189/the-role-of-phosphate-in-kidney-disease
#18
REVIEW
Marc G Vervloet, Siren Sezer, Ziad A Massy, Lina Johansson, Mario Cozzolino, Denis Fouque
The importance of phosphate homeostasis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recognized for decades, but novel insights - which are frequently relevant to everyday clinical practice - continue to emerge. Epidemiological data consistently indicate an association between hyperphosphataemia and poor clinical outcomes. Moreover, compelling evidence suggests direct toxicity of increased phosphate concentrations. Importantly, serum phosphate concentration has a circadian rhythm that must be considered when interpreting patient phosphate levels...
November 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863377/variable-patterns-of-ectopic-mineralization-in-enpp1asj-2j-mice-a-model-for-generalized-arterial-calcification-of-infancy
#19
Sarah Y Siu, Nathaniel A Dyment, David W Rowe, John P Sundberg, Jouni Uitto, Qiaoli Li
Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early onset of extensive mineralization of the cardiovascular system. The classical forms of GACI are caused by mutations in the ENPP1 gene, encoding a membrane-bound pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase that hydrolyzes ATP to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate. The asj-2J mouse harboring a spontaneous mutation in the Enpp1 gene has been characterized as a model for GACI. These mutant mice develop ectopic mineralization in skin and vascular connective tissues as well as in cartilage and collagen-rich tendons and ligaments...
November 14, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862258/raine-syndrome-omim-259775-caused-by-fam20c-mutation-is-congenital-sclerosing-osteomalacia-with-cerebral-calcification-omim-259660
#20
Michael P Whyte, William H McAlister, Michael D Fallon, Mary Ella Pierpont, Vinieth N Bijanki, Shenghui Duan, Ghada A Otaify, William S Sly, Steven Mumm
In 1985, we briefly reported infant sisters with a unique, lethal, autosomal recessive disorder designated congenital sclerosing osteomalacia with cerebral calcification. In 1986, this condition was entered into Mendelian Inheritance In Man (MIM) as osteomalacia, sclerosing, with cerebral calcification (MIM 259660). However, no attestations followed. Instead, in 1989 Raine and colleagues published an affected neonate considering unprecedented the striking clinical and radiographic features. In 1992, "Raine syndrome" entered MIM formally as osteosclerotic bone dysplasia, lethal (MIM #259775)...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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