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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215116/micro-computed-tomography-and-mechanical-evaluation-of-trabecular-bone-structure-in-osteopenic-and-osteoporotic-fractures
#1
Fırat Ozan, Mahmut Pekedis, Şemmi Koyuncu, Taşkın Altay, Hasan Yıldız, Cemil Kayalı
PURPOSE: Osteopenia and osteoporosis are the two most common musculoskeletal disorders in the elderly population. We determined whether osteopenic and osteoporotic patients with fractures exhibit differences in trabecular morphology and biomechanical properties of bone. METHODS: Fourteen osteopenic patients and 28 osteoporotic patients with hip fractures who underwent hemiarthroplasty for proximal femoral fractures caused by low-energy injury were included. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214864/a-comparative-study-of-intravenous-injection-form-and-oral-jelly-form-of-alendronate-sodium-hydrate-for-bone-mineral-disorder-after-gastrectomy
#2
Chikara Kunisaki, Yusaku Tanaka, Takashi Kosaka, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Sho Sato, Hideaki Suematsu, Norio Yukawa, Kei Sato, Yusuke Izumisawa, Hirotoshi Akiyama, Masataka Taguri, Takeharu Yamanaka, Itaru Endo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Osteoporosis is found to have high prevalence after gastrectomy and therefore, it is important to prevent this condition by means of effective medication, such as alendronate sodium hydrate. METHODS: A total number of 48 gastric cancer patients diagnosed with osteoporosis after R0 gastrectomy was registered in this study between December 2013 and August 2014. Twenty-three patients received intravenous (i.v.) alendronate sodium hydrate and 25 patients received the drug in an oral jelly form...
February 18, 2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211980/constitutional-bone-impairment-in-noonan-syndrome
#3
Giuseppina Baldassarre, Alessandro Mussa, Diana Carli, Cristina Molinatto, Giovanni Battista Ferrero
Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant trait characterized by genotypic and phenotypic variability. It belongs to the Ras/MAPK pathway disorders collectively named Rasopathies or neurocardiofaciocutaneous syndromes. Phenotype is characterized by short stature, congenital heart defects, facial dysmorphisms, skeletal and ectodermal anomalies, cryptorchidism, mild to moderate developmental delay/learning disability, and tumor predisposition. Short stature and skeletal dysmorphisms are almost constant and several studies hypothesized a role for the RAS pathway in regulating bone metabolism...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210985/lumbar-disc-degeneration-was-not-related-to-spine-and-hip-bone-mineral-densities-in-chinese-facet-joint-osteoarthritis-may-confound-the-association
#4
Jianjiang Pan, Xuan Lu, Ge Yang, Yongmei Han, Xiang Tong, Yue Wang
: A sample of 512 Chinese was studied and we observed that greater disc degeneration on MRI was associated with greater spine DXA BMD. Yet, this association may be confounded by facet joint osteoarthritis. BMD may not be a risk factor for lumbar disc degeneration in Chinese. PURPOSE: Evidence suggested that lumbar vertebral bone and intervertebral disc interact with each other in multiple ways. The current paper aims to determine the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and lumbar disc degeneration using a sample of Chinese...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196895/intrinsically-disordered-proteins-drive-enamel-formation-via-an-evolutionarily-conserved-self-assembly-motif
#5
Tomas Wald, Frantisek Spoutil, Adriana Osickova, Michaela Prochazkova, Oldrich Benada, Petr Kasparek, Ladislav Bumba, Ophir D Klein, Radislav Sedlacek, Peter Sebo, Jan Prochazka, Radim Osicka
The formation of mineralized tissues is governed by extracellular matrix proteins that assemble into a 3D organic matrix directing the deposition of hydroxyapatite. Although the formation of bones and dentin depends on the self-assembly of type I collagen via the Gly-X-Y motif, the molecular mechanism by which enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) assemble into the organic matrix remains poorly understood. Here we identified a Y/F-x-x-Y/L/F-x-Y/F motif, evolutionarily conserved from the first tetrapods to man, that is crucial for higher order structure self-assembly of the key intrinsically disordered EMPs, ameloblastin and amelogenin...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196789/the-relationship-of-disordered-eating-attitudes-with-stress-level-bone-turnover-markers-and-bone-mineral-density-in-obese-adolescents
#6
Aslı Okbay Güneş, Müjgan Alikaşifoğlu, Ezgi Şen Demirdöğen, Ethem Erginöz, Türkay Demir, Mine Kucur, Oya Ercan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of stress caused by disordered eating attitudes on bone health in obese adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study comprising 80 obese adolescents was performed from November 2013 to September 2014. Twenty-four-hour urinary free cortisol levels were measured as a biological marker of stress. Bone turnover was evaluated using bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide measurements. Bone mineral density was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194446/knockin-mouse-with-mutant-g%C3%AE-11-mimics-human-inherited-hypocalcemia-and-is-rescued-by-pharmacologic-inhibitors
#7
Kelly L Roszko, Ruiye Bi, Caroline M Gorvin, Hans Bräuner-Osborne, Xiao-Feng Xiong, Asuka Inoue, Rajesh V Thakker, Kristian Strømgaard, Thomas Gardella, Michael Mannstadt
Heterotrimeric G proteins play critical roles in transducing extracellular signals generated by 7-transmembrane domain receptors. Somatic gain-of-function mutations in G protein α subunits are associated with a variety of diseases. Recently, we identified gain-of-function mutations in Gα11 in patients with autosomal-dominant hypocalcemia type 2 (ADH2), an inherited disorder of hypocalcemia, low parathyroid hormone (PTH), and hyperphosphatemia. We have generated knockin mice harboring the point mutation GNA11 c...
February 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186657/association-of-vitamin-d-metabolites-with-parathyroid-hormone-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-calcium-and-phosphorus-in-dogs-with-various-stages-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
V J Parker, L M Harjes, K Dembek, G S Young, D J Chew, R E Toribio
BACKGROUND: Hypovitaminosis D is associated with progression of renal disease, development of renal secondary hyperparathyroidism (RHPT), chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD), and increased mortality in people with CKD. Despite what is known regarding vitamin D dysregulation in humans with CKD, little is known about vitamin D metabolism in dogs with CKD. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to further elucidate vitamin D status in dogs with different stages of CKD and to relate it to factors that affect the development of CKD-MBD, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), calcium, and phosphorus concentrations...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176358/renal-calcium-oxalate-deposits-induce-a-pro-atherosclerotic-and-pro-osteoporotic-response-in-mice
#9
Kirsten Kusumi, Evan Barr-Beare, Vijay Saxena, Fayez Safedi, Andrew Schwaderer
BACKGROUND: Urinary stone disease (USD) is increasing in adult and pediatric populations Adult and pediatric studies have demonstrated decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture rates. USD has also been independently linked to increased rates of myocardial infarction and cerebral vascular accidents. Although USD is a multisystem disorder involving the kidneys, bone and vasculature, the molecular mechanisms linking these three organs remain unknown. METHODS: Calcium oxalate nephropathy was induced in C57BL/6J mice with intra-peritoneal (ip) injection of sodium glyoxolate...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173916/effect-of-mineral-and-bone-metabolism-on-restless-legs-syndrome-in-hemodialysis-patients
#10
Precil D M M Neves, Fabiana G Graciolli, Ivone B Oliveira, Ramaiane A Bridi, Rosa M A Moysés, Rosilene M Elias
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a highly prevalent sleep disease among patients on hemodialysis. The physiopathology is still unclear, and may be multifactorial. Because of the association between iron metabolism and chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBD), we hypothesized that both factors would be associated with RLS. METHODS: We have evaluated hemodialysis patients, in a face-to-face interview for the diagnosis and severity of RLS, as measured by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161747/low-trauma-fractures-without-osteoporosis
#11
REVIEW
E Lespessailles, B Cortet, E Legrand, P Guggenbuhl, C Roux
In clinical practice, areal bone mineral density (aBMD) is usually measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess bone status in patients with or without osteoporotic fracture. As BMD has a Gaussian distribution, it is difficult to define a cutoff for osteoporosis diagnosis. Based on epidemiological considerations, WHO defined a DXA-based osteoporosis diagnosis with a T-score <-2.5. However, the majority of individuals who have low-trauma fractures do not have osteoporosis with DXA (i.e...
February 4, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161223/genetic-polymorphisms-in-the-esr1-and-vdr-genes-do-not-correlate-with-osteoporosis-in-patients-with-familial-dysautonomia
#12
David Cheishvili, Channa Maayan, Daniel M Sapozhnikov, Elad Lax, Rivka Dresner-Pollak
One of the major clinical manifestations of familial dysautonomia (FD)-a rare, neurodegenerative, autosomal-recessive disorder-is a high incidence and early onset of osteoporotic bone fractures. Early diagnosis is essential to initiate preventative therapy in at-risk patients and thus improve quality of life. However, the current lack of understanding of the complex relationship between FD and osteoporosis etiology precludes early diagnosis, and as such, accurate predictors of osteoporosis development in FD patients remain to be determined...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160246/hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism-in-males-with-glycogen-storage-disease-type-1
#13
Evelyn M Wong, Anna Lehman, Philip Acott, Jane Gillis, Daniel L Metzger, Sandra Sirrs
BACKGROUND: Glycogen storage disease type 1 is an autosomal recessive disorder with an incidence of 1 in 100,000. Long-term complications include chronic blood glucose lability, lactic academia, short stature, osteoporosis, delayed puberty, gout, progressive renal insufficiency, systemic or pulmonary hypertension, hepatic adenomas at risk for malignant transformation, anemia, vitamin D deficiency, hyperuricemic nephrocalcinosis, inflammatory bowel syndrome (type 1b), hypertriglyceridemia, and irregular menstrual cycles...
February 4, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152049/differentially-expressed-mir-3680-5p-is-associated-with-parathyroid-hormone-regulation-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#14
Sohyun Jeong, Jung Mi Oh, Kook-Hwan Oh, In-Wha Kim
Mineral and bone disorder (MBD) is observed universally in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Detrimental MBD-related skeletal changes include increased prevalence of fracture, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as useful biomarkers in various diseases, and the aim of this study was to identify miRNAs associated with parathyroid hormone level in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Fifty-two PD patients were enrolled and grouped by their intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level; 11 patients had low iPTH (<150 pg/mL) and 41 patients had high iPTH (≥150 pg/mL)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151909/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-adjacent-segment-disease-following-posterior-decompression-and-instrumented-fusion-for-degenerative-lumbar-disorders
#15
Hui Wang, Lei Ma, Dalong Yang, Tao Wang, Sen Liu, Sidong Yang, Wenyuan Ding
The purpose of this study was to explore incidence and risk factors of adjacent segment disease (ASD) following posterior decompression and instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar disorders, and hope to provide references in decision making and surgical planning for both spinal surgeon and surgically treated patients.By retrieving the medical records from January 2011 to December 2013 in our hospital, 237 patients were retrospectively reviewed. According to the occurrence of ASD at follow up, patients were divided into 2 groups: ASD and N-ASD group...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131126/the-role-of-the-osteocyte-in-bone-and-nonbone-disease
#16
REVIEW
Lynda F Bonewald
When normal physiologic functions go awry, disorders and disease occur. This is universal; even for the osteocyte, a cell embedded within the mineralized matrix of bone. It was once thought that this cell was simply a placeholder in bone. Within the last decade, the number of studies of osteocytes has increased dramatically, leading to the discovery of novel functions of these cells. With the discovery of novel physiologic functions came the discoveries of how these cells can also be responsible for not only bone diseases and disorders, but also those of the kidney, heart, and potentially muscle...
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130717/impact-of-dietary-intake-on-bone-turnover-in-patients-with-phenylalanine-hydroxylase-deficiency
#17
Kathryn E Coakley, Eric I Felner, Vin Tangpricha, Peter W F Wilson, Rani H Singh
: Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency is a genetic disorder characterized by deficiency of the PAH enzyme. Patients follow a phenylalanine-restricted diet low in intact protein, and must consume synthetic medical food (MF) to supply phenylalanine-free protein. We assessed relationships between dietary intake and nutrient source (food or MF) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTM) in PAH deficiency. Blood from 44 fasted females 11-52 years of age was analyzed for plasma phenylalanine, serum BTM [CTx (resorption), P1NP (formation)], vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone (PTH)...
January 28, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130569/histone-demethylase-utx-counteracts-glucocorticoid-deregulation-of-osteogenesis-by-modulating-histone-dependent-and-independent-pathways
#18
Feng-Sheng Wang, Wei-Shiung Lian, Mel S Lee, Wen-Tsan Weng, Ying-Hsien Huang, Yu-Shan Chen, Yi-Chih Sun, Shing-Long Wu, Pei-Chin Chuang, Jih-Yang Ko
: Excess glucocorticoid administration impairs osteogenic activities, which raises the risk of osteoporotic disorders. Epigenetic methylation of DNA and histone regulates the lineage commitment of progenitor cells. This study was undertaken to delineate the actions of histone lysine demethylase 6a (UTX) with regard to the glucocorticoid impediment of osteogenic differentiation. Osteogenic progenitor cells responded to supraphysiological glucocorticoid by elevating CpG dinucleotide methylation proximal to transcription start sites within Runx2 and osterix promoters and Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) expression concomitant with low UTX expression...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127954/intrafibrillar-mineralization-of-self-assembled-elastin-like-recombinamer-fibrils
#19
Yuping Li, Jose Carlos Rodriguez-Cabello, Conrado Aparicio
Biomineralization of bone, a controlled process where hydroxyapatite nanocrystals preferentially deposit in collagen fibrils, is achieved by the interplay of the collagen matrix and noncollagenous proteins. Mimicking intrafibrillar mineralization in synthetic systems is highly attractive for the development of advanced hybrid materials with elaborated morphologies and outstanding mechanical properties, as well as understanding the mechanisms of biomineralization. Inspired by nature, intrafibrillar mineralization of collagen fibrils has been successfully replicated in vitro via biomimetic systems, where acidic polymeric additives are used as analogue of noncollagenous proteins in mediating mineralization...
February 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127875/molecular-and-clinical-analysis-of-alpl-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-suspicion-of-hypophosphatasia
#20
Jair Tenorio, Ignacio Álvarez, Leyre Riancho-Zarrabeitia, Gabriel Á Martos-Moreno, Giorgia Mandrile, Monserrat de la Flor Crespo, Mikhail Sukchev, Mostafa Sherif, Iza Kramer, María T Darnaude-Ortiz, Pedro Arias, Gema Gordo, Irene Dapía, Julián Martinez-Villanueva, Rubén Gómez, José Manuel Iturzaeta, Ghada Otaify, Mayte García-Unzueta, Alessandro Rubinacci, José A Riancho, Mona Aglan, Samia Temtamy, Mohamed Abdel Hamid, Jesús Argente, Víctor L Ruiz-Pérez, Karen E Heath, Pablo Lapunzina
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare autosomal dominant or recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene (ALPL). To date, over 300 different mutations in ALPL have been identified. Disease severity is widely variable with severe forms usually manifesting during perinatal and/or infantile periods while mild forms are sometimes only diagnosed in adulthood or remain undiagnosed. Common clinical features of HPP are defects in bone and tooth mineralization along with the biochemical hallmark of decreased serum alkaline phosphatase activity...
January 27, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
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