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learned helplessness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633291/p2x7-receptors-drive-spine-synapse-plasticity-in-the-learned-helplessness-model-of-depression
#1
L Otrokocsi, Á Kittel, B Sperlágh
Background: Major depressive disorder is characterized by structural and functional abnormalities of cortical and limbic brain areas, including a decrease in spine synapse number in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Recent studies highlighted that both genetic and pharmacological invalidation of the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2rx7) leads to antidepressant-like phenotype in animal experiments, however, the impact of P2rx7 on depression-related structural changes in the hippocampus is not clarified yet...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617373/-a-psychological-content-of-social-phobia-syndrome
#2
O A Sagalakova, D V Truevtsev, I Ya Stoyanova
AIM: To perform a psychological analysis of social phobia syndrome. The subject area of research is the structure of mental activity and behavior in social activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 32 patients with symptoms of social phobia (ICD-10 F40.1) and 29 healthy people (controls). A complex of psychological methods (questionnaires; pathopsychological experiment) was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Early maladaptive schemes and a tendency to mental rigidity can be a premorbid basis of the syndrome...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585931/the-modulation-of-adult-neuroplasticity-is-involved-in-the-mood-improving-actions-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-an-animal-model-of-depression
#3
M Morais, P Patrício, A Mateus-Pinheiro, N D Alves, A R Machado-Santos, J S Correia, J Pereira, L Pinto, N Sousa, J M Bessa
Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder with an increasing impact in global public health. However, a large proportion of patients treated with currently available antidepressant drugs fail to achieve remission. Recently, antipsychotic drugs have received approval for the treatment of antidepressant-resistant forms of major depression. The modulation of adult neuroplasticity, namely hippocampal neurogenesis and neuronal remodeling, has been considered to have a key role in the therapeutic effects of antidepressants...
June 6, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585544/serotonin-modulates-a-depression-like-state-in-drosophila-responsive-to-lithium-treatment
#4
Ariane-Saskia Ries, Tim Hermanns, Burkhard Poeck, Roland Strauss
Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects millions of patients; however, the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Rodent models have been developed using chronic mild stress or unavoidable punishment (learned helplessness) to induce features of depression, like general inactivity and anhedonia. Here we report a three-day vibration-stress protocol for Drosophila that reduces voluntary behavioural activity. As in many MDD patients, lithium-chloride treatment can suppress this depression-like state in flies. The behavioural changes correlate with reduced serotonin (5-HT) release at the mushroom body (MB) and can be relieved by feeding the antidepressant 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan or sucrose, which results in elevated 5-HT levels in the brain...
June 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585017/laboratory-induced-learned-helplessness-attenuates-approach-motivation-as-indexed-by-posterior-versus-frontal-theta-activity
#5
Samantha J Reznik, Robin Nusslock, Narun Pornpattananangkul, Lyn Y Abramson, James A Coan, Eddie Harmon-Jones
Research suggests that midline posterior versus frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) theta activity (PFTA) may reflect a novel neurophysiological index of approach motivation. Elevated PFTA has been associated with approach-related tendencies both at rest and during laboratory tasks designed to enhance approach motivation. PFTA is sensitive to changes in dopamine signaling within the fronto-striatal neural circuit, which is centrally involved in approach motivation, reward processing, and goal-directed behavior...
June 5, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556813/cognitive-motivational-determinants-of-residents-civic-engagement-and-health-inequities-in-the-context-of-noise-action-planning-a-conceptual-model
#6
Natalie Riedel, Irene van Kamp, Heike Köckler, Joachim Scheiner, Adrian Loerbroks, Thomas Claßen, Gabriele Bolte
The Environmental Noise Directive expects residents to be actively involved in localising and selecting noise abatement interventions during the noise action planning process. Its intervention impact is meant to be homogeneous across population groups. Against the background of social heterogeneity and environmental disparities, however, the impact of noise action planning on exposure to traffic-related noise and its health effects is unlikely to follow homogenous distributions. Until now, there has been no study evaluating the impact of noise action measures on the social distribution of traffic-related noise exposure and health outcomes...
May 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544869/restoring-agency-to-the-human-actor
#7
William B Swann, Jolanda Jetten
A cursory read of the social psychological literature suggests that when people find themselves in strong situations, they fail to display agency. The early classic studies of conformity, obedience, and bystander intervention, for example, are renowned for showing that when challenged by strong situational pressures, participants acquiesced-even if it meant abandoning their moral principles or disregarding their own sensory data. Later studies of learned helplessness, ego depletion, and stereotype threat echoed this "power of the situation" theme, demonstrating that exposure to (or the expectation of) a frustrating or unpleasant experience suppressed subsequent efforts to actualize goals and abilities...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544554/concept-analysis-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#8
Bikram Sekhon
PURPOSE: Mental health nursing is not the same as psychiatry, so it is important for nurses to have an understanding of the defining attributes, antecedents, consequences, model cases, and empirical referents of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: Walker and Avant's (2005) method is used to guide this concept analysis of PTSD. FINDINGS: Four attributes arise from this concept analysis, which are addressed through both the DSM-IV and DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, /): triggering event or events, re-experiencing, fear, and helplessness...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Knowledge
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532277/temporal-parameters-of-post-stress-prophylactic-glucose-treatment-in-rats
#9
M A Conoscenti, E E Hart, N J Smith, T R Minor
Acute trauma can lead to life-long changes in susceptibility to psychiatric disease, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Rats given free access to a concentrated glucose solution for 24 h beginning immediately after trauma failed to show stress-related pathology in the learned helplessness model of PTSD and comorbid major depression. We assessed effective dosing and temporal constraints of the glucose intervention in three experiments. We exposed 120 male Sprague-Dawley rats to 100, 1 mA, 3-15 s, inescapable and unpredictable electric tail shocks (over a 110-min period) or simple restraint in the learned helplessness procedure...
June 20, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499915/early-life-stress-and-later-peer-distress-on-depressive-behavior-in-adolescent-female-rats-effects-of-a-novel-intervention-on-gaba-and-d2-receptors
#10
Jodi L Lukkes, Shirisha Meda, Britta S Thompson, Nadja Freund, Susan L Andersen
Early life adversity (ELA) increases the risk of depression during adolescence that may result from a decline in parvalbumin (PVB) secondary to increased neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigated depressive-like behavior following exposure to two different types of stressors that are relevant for their developmental period: 1) chronic ELA (maternal separation; MS) and 2) an acute emotional stressor during adolescence (witnessing their peers receive multiple shocks; WIT), and their interaction. We also determined whether reducing inflammation by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition would prevent the onset of depressive-like behavior...
May 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488329/phosphodiesterase-1b-deletion-confers-depression-like-behavioral-resistance-separate-from-stress-related-effects-in-mice
#11
J R Hufgard, M T Williams, C V Vorhees
Phosphodiesterase-1b (Pde1b) is highly expressed in striatum, dentate gyrus, CA3 and substantia nigra. In a new Floxed Pde1b × Cre(CMV) global knockout (KO) mouse model, we show an immobility-resistance phenotype that recapitulates that found in constitutive Pde1b KO mice. We use this new mouse model to show that the resistance to acute stress-induced depression-like phenotype is not the product of changes in locomotor activity or reactivity to other stressors (learned helplessness, novelty suppressed feeding or dexamethasone suppression), and is not associated with anhedonia using the sucrose preference test...
May 10, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479937/consequences-of-learned-helplessness-and-recognition-of-the-state-of-cognitive-exhaustion-in-persons-with-mild-intellectual-disability
#12
Michał Gacek, Tomasz Smoleń, Władysława Pilecka
Persons with intellectual disability are a group at risk of being exposed to overly demanding problem-solving situations, which may produce learned helplessness. The research was based on the informational model of learned helplessness. The consequences of exposure to an unsolvable task and the ability to recognize the symptoms of cognitive exhaustion were tested in 120 students with mild intellectual disability. After the exposure to the unsolvable task, persons in the experimental group obtained lower results than the control group in the escape/avoidance learning task, but a similar result was found in the divergent thinking fluency task...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465137/hippocampal-neurogenesis-of-wistar-kyoto-rats-is-congenitally-impaired-and-correlated-with-stress-resistance
#13
Kyohei Kin, Takao Yasuhara, Masahiro Kameda, Takashi Agari, Tatsuya Sasaki, Jun Morimoto, Mihoko Okazaki, Michiari Umakoshi, Ken Kuwahara, Ittetsu Kin, Naoki Tajiri, Isao Date
The hippocampus is thought to be an important region for depression. However, the relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and depression is still controversial. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats are frequently used as a depression model. WKY rats are known to show physiologically abnormal features, and these features resemble abnormalities seen in depressed patients. However, the neurogenesis of WKY rats is still unknown. In this study, we first evaluated the neurogenesis of WKY rats and compared it to that of Wistar (WIS) rats...
June 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424990/proteomic-analysis-of-the-hippocampus-in-mouse-models-of-trigeminal-neuralgia-and-inescapable-shock-induced-depression
#14
Qing-Huan Guo, Qing-He Tong, Ning Lu, Hong Cao, Liu Yang, Yu-Qiu Zhang
To investigate the behavioral and biomolecular similarity between neuralgia and depression, a trigeminal neuralgia (TN) mouse model was established by constriction of the infraorbital nerve (CION) to mimic clinical trigeminal neuropathic pain. A mouse learned helplessness (LH) model was developed to investigate inescapable foot-shock-induced psychiatric disorders like depression in humans. Mass spectrometry was used to assess changes in the biomolecules and signaling pathways in the hippocampus from TN or LH mice...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374949/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-beyond-an-overview-of-rodent-stress-models
#15
REVIEW
Johanna Schöner, Andreas Heinz, Matthias Endres, Karen Gertz, Golo Kronenberg
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder of high prevalence and major socioeconomic impact. Patients suffering from PTSD typically present intrusion and avoidance symptoms and alterations in arousal, mood and cognition that last for more than 1 month. Animal models are an indispensable tool to investigate underlying pathophysiological pathways and, in particular, the complex interplay of neuroendocrine, genetic and environmental factors that may be responsible for PTSD induction. Since the 1960s, numerous stress paradigms in rodents have been developed, based largely on Seligman's seminal formulation of 'learned helplessness' in canines...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360786/interaction-of-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-and-neuropeptide-y-on-behavior-in-the-central-nervous-system
#16
Aynur Müdüroğlu Kirmizibekmez, Murat Mengi, Ertan Yurdakoş
INTRODUCTION: In the central nervous system, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) 55-102 peptide is localized in areas, such as the ventral tegmental area, amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus, where emotional activity is regulated. Studies on the effects of the intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of CART peptide on behavior remain limited. The findings from these studies suggest that this neuropeptide has anxiogenic-like effects. In the central nervous system, neuropeptide Y (NPY) has similar localization as CART...
June 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322276/identifying-fast-onset-antidepressants-using-rodent-models
#17
M J Ramaker, S C Dulawa
Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and a major contributor to the burden of suicide. A major limitation of classical antidepressants is that 2-4 weeks of continuous treatment is required to elicit therapeutic effects, prolonging the period of depression, disability and suicide risk. Therefore, the development of fast-onset antidepressants is crucial. Preclinical identification of fast-onset antidepressants requires animal models that can accurately predict the delay to therapeutic onset. Although several well-validated assay models exist that predict antidepressant potential, few thoroughly tested animal models exist that can detect therapeutic onset...
May 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315756/interleukin-4-is-a-participant-in-the-regulation-of-depressive-like-behavior
#18
Simone Wachholz, Alexandra Knorr, Leonie Mengert, Jennifer Plümper, Rainer Sommer, Georg Juckel, Astrid Friebe
Inflammatory immune activation has been frequently associated with the development of major depression. Microglia might serve as an important interface in this immune system-to-brain communication. Interleukin-4, the major Th2 type cytokine, might be protective against depression due to its ability to counter-regulate inflammation and to inhibit serotonin transporter activity. By using an Interferon-α mouse model, we show that a decreased IL-4 responsiveness of microglia was specifically related to the development of depressive-like behavior...
March 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197083/balb-c-mice-can-learn-touchscreen-visual-discrimination-and-reversal-tasks-faster-than-c57bl-6-mice
#19
Karly M Turner, Christopher G Simpson, Thomas H J Burne
Touchscreen technology is increasingly being used to characterize cognitive performance in rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Researchers are attracted to the automated system and translational potential for touchscreen-based tasks. However, training time is extensive and some mouse strains have struggled to learn touchscreen tasks. Here we compared the performance of commonly used C57BL/6 mice against the BALB/c mice, which are considered a poor performing strain, using a touchscreen task. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were trained to operate the touchscreens before learning a visual discrimination (VD) and reversal task...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191986/studies-of-learned-helplessness-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-ligustica
#20
Christopher W Dinges, Christopher A Varnon, Lisa D Cota, Stephen Slykerman, Charles I Abramson
The current study reports 2 experiments investigating learned helplessness in the honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica). In Experiment 1, we used a traditional escape method but found the bees' activity levels too high to observe changes due to treatment conditions. The bees were not able to learn in this traditional escape procedure; thus, such procedures may be inappropriate to study learned helplessness in honey bees. In Experiment 2, we used an alternative punishment, or passive avoidance, method to investigate learned helplessness...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
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