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learned helplessness

Katharina Rathmann, Max Herke, Klaus Hurrelmann, Matthias Richter
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between features of class climate and school wellbeing, based on self-rated health and reports of absence from school due to illness among adolescents in secondary schools, by using data from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS). METHODS: Data was obtained from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS). The sample includes (n=7,348) seventh grade students in regular schools (Starting Cohort 3, Wave 3, 2012)...
March 14, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
Rebecca Maymon, Nathan C Hall, Thomas Goetz, Andrew Chiarella, Sonia Rahimi
As technology becomes increasingly integrated with education, research on the relationships between students' computing-related emotions and motivation following technological difficulties is critical to improving learning experiences. Following from Weiner's (2010) attribution theory of achievement motivation, the present research examined relationships between causal attributions and emotions concerning academic computing difficulties in two studies. Study samples consisted of North American university students enrolled in both traditional and online universities (total N = 559) who responded to either hypothetical scenarios or experimental manipulations involving technological challenges experienced in academic settings...
2018: PloS One
Sara S Fernandes, André P Koth, Gustavo M Parfitt, Marcos F Cordeiro, Carolina S Peixoto, Andréa Soubhia, Fernanda P Moreira, Carolina D Wiener, Jean P Oses, Erikson Kaszubowski, Daniela M Barros
Major depressive disorder has a heterogeneous etiology, since it arises from the interaction of multiple factors and different pathophysiological mechanisms are involved in the symptomatology. This study aimed to investigate the role of the cholinergic system in the susceptibility to stress and, consequently, in the depression-like behavior. C57BL/6 mice were treated with Physostigmine (PHYS), an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, and were submitted to the social defeat stress. For the behavioral evaluation of the locomotor activity, anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors the open field, elevated plus maze, sucrose preference, social interaction and forced swim were used...
March 1, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Jodi L Lukkes, Shirisha Meda, Kevin J Norman, Susan L Andersen
Early life adversity increases depressive behavior that emerges during adolescence. Sensitive periods have been associated with fewer GABAergic interneurons, especially parvalbumin (PV), brain derived growth factor, and its receptor, TrkB. Here, maternal separation (MS) and social isolation (ISO) were used to establish a sensitive period for anhedonic depression using the learned helplessness (LH) paradigm. Female Sprague-Dawley rat pups underwent MS for 4-h/day or received typical care (CON) between postnatal days 2-20; for the ISO condition, separate cohorts were individually housed between days 20-40 or served as controls (CON2)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Yuyan Cheng, Sachi Desse, Ana Martinez, Ryan J Worthen, Richard S Jope, Eleonore Beurel
Recovery from major depressive disorder is difficult, particularly in patients who are refractory to antidepressant treatments. To examine factors that regulate recovery, we developed a prolonged learned helplessness depression model in mice. After the induction of learned helplessness, mice were separated into groups that recovered or did not recover within 4 weeks. Comparisons were made between groups in hippocampal proteins, inflammatory cytokines, and blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Compared with mice that recovered and control mice, non-recovered mice displaying prolonged learned helplessness had greater hippocampal activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin-17A, and interleukin-23, increased permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB), and lower levels of the BBB tight junction proteins occludin, ZO1, and claudin-5...
February 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Danny J O'Sullivan, Maura E O'Sullivan, Brendan D O'Connell, Ken O'Reilly, Kiran M Sarma
The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II) and anxiety (BAI)...
2018: PloS One
Sebastian C K Shaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
Bhaskar Roy, Qingzhong Wang, Yogesh Dwivedi
Background: Recent emergence of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in regulating gene expression and thereby modulating physiological functions in brain has manifested their possible role in psychiatric disorders. In this study, the roles of lncRNAs in susceptibility and resiliency to develop stress-induced depression and their response to antidepressant treatment were examined. Methods: Microarray based transcriptome-wide changes in lncRNAs was determined in hippocampus of male Holtzman rats who showed susceptibility (learned helpless; LH) or resiliency (non-learned helpless; NLH) to develop depression...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Amanda J Sales, Sâmia R L Joca
Stress and antidepressant treatment can modulate DNA methylation in promoter region of genes related to neuroplasticity and mood regulation, thus implicating this epigenetic mechanism in depression neurobiology and treatment. Accordingly, systemic administration of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors induces antidepressant-like effects in rodents. DNA methylation is conveyed by DNMT 1, 3a and 3b isoforms, which are differentially expressed in the brain. In order to investigate if the behavioral effects of antidepressants could be associated with changes in DNA methylation and DNMT expression, we investigated the effects induced by acute and repeated antidepressant treatment on DNA methylation and DNMT expression (1, 3a and 3b isoforms) in different brain regions of rats exposed to a stress model of depression, the learned helplessness (LH)...
January 26, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Stefan M Kolata, Kazuhito Nakao, Vivek Jeevakumar, Emily L Farmer-Alroth, Yuko Fujita, Aundrea F Bartley, Sunny Zhihong Jiang, Gregory R Rompala, Robert E Sorge, Dennisse V Jimenez, Keri Martinowich, Yolanda Mateo, Kenji Hashimoto, Lynn E Dobrunz, Kazu Nakazawa
Whereas cortical GAD67 reduction and subsequent GABA level decrease are consistently observed in schizophrenia and depression, it remains unclear how these GABAergic abnormalities contribute to specific symptoms. We modeled cortical GAD67 reduction in mice, in which the Gad1 gene is genetically ablated from ~50% of cortical and hippocampal interneurons. Mutant mice showed a reduction of tissue GABA in the hippocampus and cortex including mPFC, and exhibited a cluster of effort-based behavior deficits including decreased home-cage wheel running and increased immobility in both tail suspension and forced swim tests...
December 6, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
S D Mills, D Azizoddin, S Gholizadeh, G Z Racaza, P M Nicassio
Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that can result in disability and psychological distress. Although pain has been associated with depressive symptomatology and stress in SLE, a paucity of theoretical models have been used to explain the relationship between pain and psychological distress in this population. Thus, the present study examined helplessness as a mediator of the relationship between pain and psychological distress among patients with SLE. Methods Multiple mediation analysis was used to examine the hypothesis that learned helplessness mediates the relationship between pain and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress in a sample of patients with SLE ( N = 136) receiving medical care at Cedars Sinai Medical Center...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
Lanxiang Liu, Xinyu Zhou, Yuqing Zhang, Juncai Pu, Lining Yang, Shuai Yuan, Libo Zhao, Chanjun Zhou, Hanping Zhang, Peng Xie
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous and multi-factorial disorder, and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. However, many studies have indicated that the molecular mechanisms underlying depression in response to different stress may differ. After screening, 28-30 rats were included in each model of depression (chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS); learned helplessness (LH); chronic restraint stress (CRS); or social defeat (SD)). Non-targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to profile the metabolic changes in the hippocampus...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Connor R Fais, Catherine J Lutz-Zois, Jackson A Goodnight
The current study aims to understand mediators and moderators of the relationship between stalking victimization and depression. Based on the reformulated learned helplessness theory, which emphasizes the role of internal, global, and stable attributions for negative events in the development of depression, we predicted that the association between stalking victimization and depression would be mediated by attributions for the stalking and characterological self-blame. We predicted that the association between stalking victimization and helplessness attributions or characterological self-blame, in turn, would be moderated by gender, sex-role identity, and length of stalking...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Je-Bog Yoo, Jennie C De Gagne, Seung-Hyeon S Jeong, Chan-Woo Jeong
Atopic dermatitis (AD), a common childhood skin disorder, can limit a child's learning and physical activities. South Korean mothers, as primary caregivers, experience anxiety and helplessness when caring for their ill children. The aim of this study was to develop a hybrid AD education programme (consisting of a face-to-face session followed by 8 online sessions) and evaluate its effects on anxiety, caregiving efficacy and caregiving behaviour among mothers of children with AD. Twenty mothers of patients with AD treated in a South Korean hospital received one on-site session and 8 weekly online modules...
March 13, 2018: Acta Dermato-venereologica
Terri Lea Gibson, Susan L Lloyd
Nurses and unlicensed assistive personnel on 2 medical-surgical units were asked about their perceptions regarding patient falls. Their responses reflect learned helplessness and a lack of nurse empowerment that are relevant findings as nurse executives work to decrease patient falls.
January 2018: Journal of Nursing Administration
Pengwei Xing, Yuan Chen, Jun Gao, Lianyang Bai, Zheming Yuan
Selecting informative genes, including individually discriminant genes and synergic genes, from expression data has been useful for medical diagnosis and prognosis. Detecting synergic genes is more difficult than selecting individually discriminant genes. Several efforts have recently been made to detect gene-gene synergies, such as dendrogram-based I(X1 ; X2 ; Y) (mutual information), doublets (gene pairs) and MIC(X1 ; X2 ; Y) based on the maximal information coefficient. It is unclear whether dendrogram-based I(X1 ; X2 ; Y) and doublets can capture synergies efficiently...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
W Yan, J-F Liu, Y Han, W Zhang, Y-X Luo, Y-X Xue, W-L Zhu, C Yang, W-H Chen, H-L Guo, Y-N Ma, K Yuan, J-S Wang, J Shi, L Lu
Neuronal atrophy and alterations of synaptic structure and function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. The protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ), a brain-specific atypical protein kinase C isoform, is important for maintaining long-term potentiation and storing memory. In the present study, we explored the role of PKMζ in mPFC in two rat models of depression, chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) and learned helplessness...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
Jianyang Dong, Qinji Zhou, Zhisheng Wei, Shi Yan, Fangfang Sun, Xiang Cai
BACKGROUND: Clinical reports have shown that scopolamine produces a rapid (3-4 d) and potent anti-depressive response without severe adverse effects. Animal experiments have proven that scopolamine induces mTOR pathway activation in an AMPAR dependent manner. The present study aimed to determine the role of PKA in scopolamine-induced potentiation of AMPAR, as well as in mTOR pathway activation and rapid antidepressant effects. METHODS: We utilized electrophysiological recording, Western blotting, and behavior tests to examine the effects of scopolamine, the selective M2 cholinergic receptor antagonist methoctramine, and H89, a PKA specific inhibitor on AMPAR potentiation, mTOR pathway activation, and behavioral responses in a rat depression model of learned helplessness...
February 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Lisa Shiels, Pratish Majmundar, Aleksander Zywot, John Sobotka, Christine S M Lau, Tuula O Jalonen
BACKGROUND: With an aging American population, the burden of neurologic disease is intensifying and the decline in neurology residents and practicing neurologists is leaving these patients helpless and unable to find care. 'Neurophobia', a chronic illness that begins early in medical school, has been identified as a cause for the low number of neurology residents. METHODS: A longitudinal study surveyed medical students at the beginning of their first year (M1) and then again at the beginning of their second year (M2)...
November 21, 2017: BMC Medical Education
Yukihiko Shirayama, Kenji Hashimoto
Background: (R)-Ketamine exhibits rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in animal models of depression. It is stereoselectively metabolized to (R)-norketamine, and subsequently to (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK) in the liver. The metabolism of ketamine to HNK was recently demonstrated to be essential for ketamine's antidepressant actions. However, no study has compared the antidepressant effects of these three compounds in animal models of depression. Methods: The effects of a single intraperitoneal injection of (R)-ketamine, (R)-norketamine, and (2R,6R)-HNK in a rat learned helplessness (LH) model were examined...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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