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Per Martin Arvidsson, Johannes Töger, Marcus Carlsson, Katarina Steding-Ehrenborg, Gianni Pedrizzetti, Einar Heiberg, Hakan Arheden
Intracardiac blood flow is driven by hemodynamic forces that are exchanged between the blood and myocardium. Previous studies have been limited to 2D measurements or investigated only LV forces. Right ventricular forces and their mechanistic contribution to asymmetric redirection of flow in the RV have not been measured. We therefore aimed to quantify three-dimensional hemodynamic forces in both ventricles in a cohort of healthy subjects, using magnetic resonance imaging 4D flow measurements. 25 controls,14 elite endurance athletes, and two patients with left ventricular dyssynchrony were included...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Joseph B Fisher, Audrey Horst, Tina Wan, Min-Su Kim, John Auchampach, John Lough
Tat-interactive protein 60 (Tip60), encoded by the Kat5 gene, is a member of the MYST family of acetyltransferases. Cancer biology studies have shown that Tip60 induces the DNA damage response, apoptosis, and cell-cycle inhibition. Although Tip60 is expressed in the myocardium, its role in cardiomyocytes (CMs) is unclear. Earlier studies here showed that application of cardiac stress to globally targeted Kat5+/-haploinsufficient mice resulted in inhibition of apoptosis and activation of the CM cell-cycle, despite only modest reduction of Tip60 protein levels...
2016: PloS One
Riccardo Toninato, Silvia Scuri, Vincenzo Tarzia, Gino Gerosa, Francesca M Susin
PURPOSE: The gold standard therapy for patients with advanced heart failure is heart transplant. The gap between donors and patients in waiting lists promoted the development of circulatory support devices, such as the total artificial heart (TAH). Focusing on in vitro tests performed with CardioWest™ TAH (CW) driven by the SynCardia Freedom® portable driver (FD) the present study goals are: i) prove the reliability of a hydraulic circuit used as patient simulator to replicate a quasi-physiological scenario for various hydrodynamic conditions, ii) investigate the hydrodynamic performance of the CW FD, iii) help clinicians in possible interpretation of clinical cases outcomes...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Katie M Parkins, Amanda M Hamilton, Ashley V Makela, Yuanxin Chen, Paula J Foster, John A Ronald
Cellular MRI involves sensitive visualization of iron-labeled cells in vivo but cannot differentiate between dead and viable cells. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) measures cellular viability, and thus we explored combining these tools to provide a more holistic view of metastatic cancer cell fate in mice. Human breast carcinoma cells stably expressing Firefly luciferase were loaded with iron particles, injected into the left ventricle, and BLI and MRI were performed on days 0, 8, 21 and 28. The number of brain MR signal voids (i...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Annah Lane, Ling Lee, Donna Traves, Andreas Lee
INTRODUCTION: The antenatal diagnosis of open spina bifida (OSB), a neural tube defect, is predominantly made at the second trimester morphology scan by ultrasound detection of structural abnormalities resulting from the associated Chiari II malformation. Evidence has emerged suggesting that these structural abnormalities can be detected earlier, by examination of the posterior fossa as part of the first trimester nuchal translucency scan. In particular, absence of the intra-cranial translucency (IT) of the fourth ventricle has shown promise as a diagnostic marker of OSB, although the sensitivity and specificity of this finding varies widely in the literature...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Oholi Tovia-Brodie, Bernard Belhassen, Aharon Glick, Haim Shmilovich, Galit Aviram, Raphael Rosso, Yoav Michowitz
INTRODUCTION: A new imaging software (CARTO® Segmentation Module, Biosense Webster) allows pre-procedural 3-D reconstruction of all heart chambers based on cardiac CT. We describe our initial experience with the new module during ablation of ventricular arrhythmias. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen consecutive patients with idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias or ischemic ventricular tachycardia (VT) were studied. In the latter group, a combined endocardial and epicardial ablation was performed...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Suresh Chengode
The left ventricle, with its thickened myocardial walls, unlike the right ventricle has no measurable geometric shape. It has a conical apex and its function quantification, needs intensive, 2D, 3D and M mode transesophageal echocardiography, which is described in this review.
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Aneeta Bhatia
The tricuspid is the lost valve and the pulmonary being the most anterior, is not visualized well on TEE; The Pulmonary valve is a semilunar valve that separates the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery. It is situated anterior and superior to the aortic valve, almost at right angle to the aortic valve and parallel to the beam of the ultrasound.
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Candice Morrissey
Diastolic dysfunction ranging from impaired relaxation of the left ventricle to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a common finding in the cardiac surgery population. It is important for the peri-operative echocardiographer to have a developed understanding of the pathophysiology of diastolic dysfunction and the echocardiographic features that determine where on the spectrum of diastolic function and dysfunction a patient lies.
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Charanjit Kaur, Eng-Ang Ling
Transitory cavities associated with the ventricular system represent probably one of the most unique features in the developing mammalian brain. In rodents, the cavities exist transiently in the developing brain and do not appear to be associated with any pathological events. Among the various cavities, the pyramidal-shaped cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) located beneath the corpus callosum and between the lateral ventricles is most well defined. In addition to the CSP are the bilateral subependymal cysts that are consistently associated with the third and fourth ventricles as well as the aqueduct...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Sen Li, Wenhui Gong, Quan Qi, Zezhe Yuan, Anqing Chen, Jun Liu, Junfeng Cai, Mi Zhou, Zhe Wang, Xiaofeng Ye, Qiang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Currently, off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) grafting has been the standard procedure for surgical revascularization in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to examine the safety and applicability of OPCAB compared with on-pump coronary artery bypass (ONCAB) in patients with severely dilated left ventricle. METHODS: A retrospective study of giant left ventricle patients [left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD) ≥ VE mm] undergoing coronary bypass grafting from 2009 through 2015 at a single center was conducted...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Seiko Ohno
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is characterized by degeneration of the right ventricle and ventricular tachycardia originating from the right ventricle. Additionally, the disease is an inherited cardiomyopathy that mainly follows the autosomal dominant pattern. More than 10 genes have been reported as causative genes for ARVC, and more than half of ARVC patients carry mutations in desmosome related genes. The desmosome is one of the structures involved in cell adhesion and its disruption leads to various diseases, including a skin disease called pemphigus...
October 2016: Journal of Arrhythmia
Eriko Seo, Toshiyuki Sazi, Morio Togawa, Osamu Nagata, Masataka Murakami, Shigeaki Kojima, Yoshiteru Seo
Infrared photoplethysmogram (IR-PPG) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the Mytilus galloprovincialis heart were obtained simultaneously. Heart rate was varied by changing temperature, aerial exposure and hypoxia. Higher heart rates (35-20 beat min(-1)) were usually observed at 20°C under the aerobic condition, typical IR-PPG represented a single peak (peak v). The upward and downward slopes of the peak v corresponded to the filling and contraction of the ventricle, respectively. A double-peak IR-PPG was observed in a wide range of heart rates (35 to 5 beats min(-1)) under various conditions...
October 19, 2016: Biology Open
Cailei Zhao, Yongxin Li, Weiguo Cao, Kui Xiang, Heye Zhang, Jian Yang, Yungen Gan
To explore the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters in the quantitative assessment of early brain microstructure changes before and after ventriculoperitoneal shunt in children with high intracranial pressure hydrocephalus.Ten patients with communicating hydrocephalus (age: 2-36 months) and 14 age-/gender-matched controls (age: 2-36 months) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent the ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedure. The imaging data were collected before and 3 months after the operation...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kayako Isohashi, Eku Shimosegawa, Sadahiro Naka, Yasukazu Kanai, Genki Horitsugi, Ikuko Mochida, Keiko Matsunaga, Tadashi Watabe, Hiroki Kato, Mitsuaki Tatsumi, Jun Hatazawa
BACKGROUND: In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), positron emission tomography (PET) with 4-borono-2-(18)F-fluoro-phenylalanine (FBPA) is the only method to estimate an accumulation of (10)B to target tumor and surrounding normal tissue after administering (10)B carrier of L-paraboronophenylalanine and to search the indication of BNCT for individual patient. Absolute concentration of (10)B in tumor has been estimated by multiplying (10)B concentration in blood during BNCT by tumor to blood radioactivity (T/B) ratio derived from FBPA PET...
December 2016: EJNMMI Research
Liangyan Gui, Xiaoying Tang, José M F Moura
We propose a geodesic distance on a Grassmannian manifold that can be used to quantify the shape progression patterns of the bilateral hippocampi, amygdalas, and lateral ventricles in healthy control (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 754 subjects (3092 scans in total) were used in this study. Longitudinally, the geodesic distance was found to be proportional to the elapsed time separating the two scans in question. Cross-sectionally, utilizing a linear mixed-effects statistical model, we found that each structure's annualized rate of change in the geodesic distance followed the order of AD > MCI > HC, with statistical significance being reached in every case...
October 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Christopher P Lawrance, Matthew C Henn, Jacob R Miller, Michael A Kopek, Andrew J Zhang, Richard B Schuessler, Ralph J Damiano
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) occurs in 30% of patients with mitral regurgitation referred for surgical intervention. However, the underlying mechanisms in this population are poorly understood. This study examined the effects of acute left atrial volume overload on atrial electrophysiology and the inducibility of AF. METHODS: Ten canines underwent insertion of an atrioventricular shunt between the left ventricle and left atrium. Shunt and aortic flows were calculated, and the shunt was titrated to a shunt fraction to 40% to 50% of cardiac output...
October 15, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Kristin McLeod, Samuel Wall, Ida Skrinde Leren, Jørg Saberniak, Kristina Hermann Haugaa
BACKGROUND: Altered right ventricular structure is an important feature of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (ARVC), but is challenging to quantify objectively. The aim of this study was to go beyond ventricular volumes and diameters and to explore if the shape of the right and left ventricles could be assessed and related to clinical measures. We used quantifiable computational methods to automatically identify and analyse malformations in ARVC patients from Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) images...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Robert R Edelman, Marcos Botelho, Amit Pursnani, Shivraman Giri, Ioannis Koktzoglou
BACKGROUND: Dark blood imaging of the heart is conventionally performed using a breath-hold, dual-inversion Cartesian fast spin-echo pulse sequence. Our aim was to develop a faster, more flexible approach that would be less motion-sensitive and provide better image quality. For this purpose, we implemented a prototype radial balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) pulse sequence. METHODS: The study was approved by the institutional review board. Six healthy volunteers and 27 subjects undergoing clinically-indicated cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) were imaged using dark blood Cartesian fast spin-echo and radial bSSFP...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Mariana Certal, Adriana Vinhas, Aurora Barros-Barbosa, Fátima Ferreirinha, Maria Adelina Costa, Paulo Correia-de-Sá
Nucleotides released during heart injury affect myocardium electrophysiology and remodelling through P2 purinoceptors activation in cardiac myofibroblasts. ATP and UTP endorse [Ca(2) +]i accumulation and growth of DDR-2/a-SMA-expressing myofibroblasts from adult rat ventricles via P2Y4 and P2Y2 receptors activation, respectively. Ventricular myofibroblasts also express ADP-sensitive P2Yi, P2Yi2 and P2Yi3 receptors as demonstrated by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and western blot analysis, but little information exists on ADP effects in these cells...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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