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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786923/biodiversity-of-the-human-oral-mycobiome-in-health-and-disease
#1
H M H N Bandara, C P Panduwawala, L P Samaranayake
The organisms that colonize the human body over a lifetime are diverse, extensive and gargantuan. A fair proportion of the microbiota that constitutes this human microbiome live within our oral cavities mostly as harmonious associates causing only sporadic disease. An important core constituent of the microbiome is the mycobiome, representing various fungal genera. Up until recently, only a few species of fungi, mainly Candida species, were thought to constitute the human oral mycobiome. The reasons for this are manifold, although the uncultivable nature of many fungi in conventional laboratory media, and their complex genetic composition seem to be the major factors which eluded their detection over the years...
May 22, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786499/scheffersomyces-stambukii-f-a-sp-nov-a-d-xylose-fermenting-species-isolated-from-rotting-wood
#2
Mariana R Lopes, Thiago M Batista, Glória R Franco, Lucas R Ribeiro, Ana R O Santos, Carolina Furtado, Rennan G Moreira, Aristóteles Goes-Neto, Marcos J S Vital, Luiz H Rosa, Marc-André Lachance, Carlos A Rosa
Two isolates representing a new species of Scheffersomyces were isolated from rotting wood samples collected in an Amazonian forest ecosystem in Brazil. Analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 domains showed that this new species is phylogenetically related to Scheffersomyces NYMU 15730, a species without a formal description, and the two are in an early emerging position with respect to the xylose-fermenting subclade containing Scheffersomyces titanus and Scheffersomyces stipitis. Phylogenomic analyses using 474 orthologous genes placed the new species in an intermediary position between Scheffersomyces species and the larger genus Spathaspora and the Candida albicans/Lodderomyces clade...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785613/neuroinfections-caused-by-fungi
#3
REVIEW
Katarzyna Góralska, Joanna Blaszkowska, Magdalena Dzikowiec
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections of the central nervous system (FIs-CNS) have become significantly more common over the past 2 decades. Invasion of the CNS largely depends on the immune status of the host and the virulence of the fungal strain. Infections with fungi cause a significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts, and the involvement of the CNS may lead to fatal consequences. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five articles on fungal neuroinfection in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were selected for review using the following search words: "fungi and CNS mycoses", CNS fungal infections", "fungal brain infections", " fungal cerebritis", fungal meningitis", "diagnostics of fungal infections", and "treatment of CNS fungal infections"...
May 21, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784839/clonal-spread-in-candida-glabrata-bloodstream-isolates-and-fluconazole-resistance-affected-by-prolonged-exposure-a-12-year-single-center-study-in-belgium
#4
Berdieke Goemaere, Katrien Lagrou, Isabel Spriet, Marijke Hendrickx, Pierre Becker
Candida glabrata is a major cause of candidemia in immunocompromised patients and is characterized by a high-level of fluconazole resistance. In the present study, acquisition of antifungal resistance and potential clonal spread of C. glabrata were explored at a single center over a 12-year period by analyzing 187 independent clinical C. glabrata bloodstream isolates. One strain was found to be micafungin resistant due to a mutation in the FKS2 gene. Fluconazole resistance remained stable throughout the period and was observed in 20 (10...
May 21, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783771/adhesins-in-candida-glabrata
#5
REVIEW
Bea Timmermans, Alejandro De Las Peñas, Irene Castaño, Patrick Van Dijck
The human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is causing more and more problems in hospitals, as this species shows an intrinsic antifungal drug resistance or rapidly becomes resistant when challenged with antifungals. C. glabrata only grows in the yeast form, so it is lacking a yeast-to-hyphae switch, which is one of the main virulence factors of C. albicans . An important virulence factor of C. glabrata is its capacity to strongly adhere to many different substrates. To achieve this, C. glabrata expresses a large number of adhesin-encoding genes and genome comparisons with closely related species, including the non-pathogenic S...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782688/oral-yeast-colonization-in-patients-with-primary-and-secondary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#6
Clarissa Castro Galvão Medeiros, Luiz Gustavo Dos Anjos Borges, Karen Cherubini, Fernanda Gonçalves Salum, Renata Medina da Silva, Maria Antonia Zancanaro de Figueiredo
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the pattern of oral yeast colonization of Sjögren's syndrome patients and its correlation to salivary flow rates, age and time of the disease progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Saliva and swab specimens were obtained from 45 patients (primary Sjögren's syndrome= 15/ secondary Sjögren's syndrome= 15/ healthy controls= 15). Yeast species were identified using culture method through chromogenic medium followed by polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing...
May 21, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782555/langerin-dcs-regulate-innate-il-17-production-in-the-oral-mucosa-during-candida-albicans-mediated-infection
#7
Florian Sparber, Tamas Dolowschiak, Sarah Mertens, Laura Lauener, Björn E Clausen, Nicole Joller, Patrizia Stoitzner, Roxane Tussiwand, Salomé LeibundGut-Landmann
The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans frequently causes diseases such as oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in immunocompromised individuals. Although it is well appreciated that the cytokine IL-17 is crucial for protective immunity against OPC, the cellular source and the regulation of this cytokine during infection are still a matter of debate. Here, we directly visualized IL-17 production in the infected tongue of experimentally infected mice, thereby demonstrating that this key cytokine is expressed by three complementary subsets of CD90+ leukocytes: RAG-dependent αβ and γδ T cells, as well as RAG-independent ILCs...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781928/interface-fungal-keratitis-after-descemet-stripping-automated-endothelial-keratoplasty-a-review-of-the-literature-with-a-focus-on-outcomes
#8
Elizabeth McElnea, Billy Power, Conor Murphy
PURPOSE: To examine the management and associated outcomes of reported cases of interface fungal infection after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (EK). METHODS: A literature review identified reports of interface fungal infection after Descemet stripping automated EK. Data retrieved from the same included patient demographics, surgical procedure undertaken, donor rim culture result, clinical course, and outcome. A review of the relevant literature was also conducted...
May 16, 2018: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781796/starmerella-reginensis-f-a-sp-nov-and-starmerella-kourouensis-f-a-sp-nov-isolated-from-flowers-in-french-guiana
#9
Tiemele Laurent Simon Amoikon, Cécile Grondin, Théodore N'Dédé Djéni, Noémie Jacques, Serge Casaregola
Analysis of yeasts isolated from various biotopes in French Guiana led to the identification of two strains isolated from flowers and designated CLIB 1634T and CLIB 1707T . Comparison of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU D1/D2) rRNA gene sequences of CLIB 1634T and CLIB 1707T to those in the GenBank database revealed that these strains belong to the Starmerella clade. Strain CLIB 1634T was shown to diverge from the closely related Starmerella apicola type strain CBS 2868T with a sequence divergence of 1...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780979/entropy-connects-water-structure-and-dynamics-in-protein-hydration-layer
#10
Jayangika N Dahanayake, Katie R Mitchell-Koch
The enzyme Candida Antarctica lipase B (CALB) serves here as a model for understanding connections among hydration layer dynamics, solvation shell structure, and protein surface structure. The structure and dynamics of water molecules in the hydration layer were characterized for regions of the CALB surface, divided around each α-helix, β-sheet, and loop structure. Heterogeneous hydration dynamics were observed around the surface of the enzyme, in line with spectroscopic observations of other proteins. Regional differences in the structure of the biomolecular hydration layer were found to be concomitant with variations in dynamics...
May 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780757/huge-candida-albicans-normal-native-tricuspid-valve-endocarditis
#11
Massimiliano Guerriero, Francesco Colasurdo, Anna Maria Pollio
Fungal endocarditis has become an important infection associated with medical progress and the modern lifestyle. In particular, Candida spp. is a rare but important cause of infective endocarditis. We report the case of a 28-year-old woman-quadriplegic and bedridden from birth-who died after repeated episodes of pneumonia treated with different regimens of intravenous antibiotics. A medico legal autopsy was performed, which diagnosed severe Candida native valve infective endocarditis (CIE). This case report illustrates the prolonged use of antibiotic treatment as a possible risk factor for the development of CIE...
April 2018: Autopsy & Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778961/uva-induced-antimicrobial-activity-of-zno-ag-nanocomposite-covered-surfaces
#12
Meeri Visnapuu, Merilin Rosenberg, Egle Truska, Ergo Nõmmiste, Andris Šutka, Anne Kahru, Mihkel Rähn, Heiki Vija, Kaja Orupõld, Vambola Kisand, Angela Ivask
Application of efficient antimicrobial surfaces has been estimated to decrease both, the healthcare-associated infections and the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this paper, we prepared ZnO and ZnO/Ag nanoparticle covered surfaces and evaluated their antimicrobial efficacy towards a Gram-negative bacterial model (Escherichia coli), a Gram-positive bacterial model (Staphylococcus aureus) and a fungal model (Candida albicans) in the dark and under UVA illumination. The surfaces were prepared by spin coating aliquots of ZnO and ZnO/Ag nanoparticle suspensions onto glass substrates...
May 4, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778633/comparative-analysis-of-proteinase-phospholipase-hydrophobicity-and-biofilm-forming-ability-in-candida-species-isolated-from-clinical-specimens
#13
S Dabiri, M Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M Razzaghi-Abyaneh
Candida species are the commensal organisms of human and animal mucosa that cause a wide range of debilitating diseases in immunocompromised patients and other susceptible individuals. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of clinical isolates of various Candida species to produce proteinase and phospholipase, hydrophobicity and biofilm forming ability that assumed to have a vital role in Candida pathogenicity. Eighty-four Candida strains belonged to Candida albicans (44.1%), C. glabrata (5.9%), C...
May 16, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777804/towards-an-affordable-enzymatic-production-of-biopolyols-comparing-the-immobilization-of-lipases-by-two-optimized-techniques
#14
Milda Šulcienė, Boris Kolvenbach, Erik Ammann, Inga Matijošytė
The production of biopolyols (sustainable, renewable and biodegradable precursors), is exclusively focused on the conventional chemical synthesis pathways, and currently, no polyols are produced by enzymatic processes at an industrial scale, because they are not competitive when compared to petrochemically based polyols due to the overall cost for their production. This can be mainly attributed to the high costs of commercial enzymes used in this process and their use is limited by their lack of stability during the bioprocess...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777669/repair-of-thoracic-and-thoracoabdominal-mycotic-aneurysms-and-infected-aortic-grafts-using-allograft
#15
Joel S Corvera, David Blitzer, Hannah Copeland, Daniel Murphy, Philip J Hess, Saila T Pillai, John W Fehrenbacher
BACKGROUND: Mycotic aneurysm of the thoracic or thoracoabdominal aorta and infection of thoracic or thoracoabdominal aortic grafts are challenging problems with high mortality. In-situ reconstruction with cryopreserved allograft(CPA) avoids placement of prosthetic material in an infected field and avoids suppressive antibiotics or autologous tissue coverage. METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients with infection of a thoracic or thoracoabdominal aortic graft or mycotic aneurysm underwent resection and replacement with CPA from 2006 to 2016...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777096/the-first-isolate-of-candida-auris-in-china-clinical-and-biological-aspects
#16
Xiaojuan Wang, Jian Bing, Qiushi Zheng, Feifei Zhang, Jingbo Liu, Huizhen Yue, Li Tao, Han Du, Yina Wang, Hui Wang, Guanghua Huang
The emerging human fungal pathogen Candida auris has been recognized as a multidrug resistant species and is associated with high mortality. This fungus was first described in Japan in 2009 and has been reported in at least 18 countries on five continents. In this study, we report the first isolate of C. auris from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of a hospitalized woman in China. Interestingly, this isolate is susceptible to all tested antifungals including amphotericin B, fluconazole, and caspofungin...
May 18, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776932/-cg-med3-affects-cell-size-and-budding-index-to-coordinate-candida-glabrata-cell-growth
#17
Hui Liu, Lulin Kong, Yanli Qi, Xiulai Chen, Liming Liu
Candida glabrata is a promising microorganism for the production of organic acids. Here, we report deletion and quantitative expression approaches to elucidate the role of Cg Med3AB, a subunit of the mediator transcriptional co-activator, in regulating cell growth. Deletion of Cg Med3AB caused an 8.6% decrease in final biomass based on growth curve plots and 10.5% lower cell viability. Based on transcriptomics data, the reason for this growth defect was attributable to changes in expression of genes involved in pyruvate and acetyl-CoA-related metabolism in the Cgmed3abΔ strain...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775695/pulsatilla-decoction-inhibits-candida-albicans-proliferation-and-adhesion-in-a-mouse-model-of-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-via-the-dectin-1-signaling-pathway
#18
Lilin Yang, Haiwang Wu, Weiyu Qiu, Longyi Guo, Xin Du, Qingying Yu, Jie Gao, Songping Luo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pulsatilla decoction (PD) is a classical prescription in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and has been reported to have inhibitory effects on Candida albicans proliferation. STUDY AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effects of PD in the treatment of Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and elucidate the potential mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female BALB/c mice (N=90) were randomized to six treatment groups, including the Control group, Model group, three PD groups and Fluconazole group which served as a positive control (20mg/kg weekly)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775686/the-comparative-efficacy-of-antiseptics-against-candida-auris-biofilms
#19
Ryan Kean, Emily McKloud, Eleanor M Townsend, Leighann Sherry, Christopher Delaney, Brian L Jones, Craig Williams, Gordon Ramage
Candida auris has emerged as a significant clinical entity due to its ability to cause outbreaks within the healthcare setting. A key feature of its nosocomial lifestyle is its ability to transfer between patients, yet little is known about the mechanisms behind this. A panel of C. auris clinical isolates was screened for their planktonic and sessile susceptibilities to skin disinfection challenge using povidone iodine, chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide. C. auris biofilms displayed increased tolerance to these strategies compared to planktonic cells...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774605/mixed-infections-are-a-critical-factor-in-the-treatment-of-superficial-mycoses
#20
A Gawaz, G Weisel
BACKGROUND: Superficial fungal infections of the skin, nails and hair are common with Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans being the main pathogens. Yet, in some patients, mycological cultures show growth of more than one fungal agent in the same anatomical region. OBJECTIVE: This study analyses prevalence, frequency and fungal agents found in superficial fungal mixed infections and discusses consequences for diagnostics and treatment. METHODS: Mycological data obtained between January 2006 to December 2015 from clinical specimens from a total cohort of 7733 patients with suspected fungal infections were retrospectively analysed...
May 17, 2018: Mycoses
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