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Omalizumab and cytokine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913336/anti-interleukin-5-il-5-and-il-5ra-biological-drugs-efficacy-safety-and-future-perspectives-in-severe-eosinophilic-asthma
#1
REVIEW
Diego Bagnasco, Matteo Ferrando, Gilda Varricchi, Francesca Puggioni, Giovanni Passalacqua, Giorgio Walter Canonica
The definition of asthma has changed considerably in recent years, to the extent that asthma is no longer considered a single disease but a heterogeneous disorder that includes several phenotypes and, possibly, endotypes. A more detailed analysis of the immunological mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of asthma shows interleukin 5 (IL-5) to be a crucial cytokine in several asthma phenotypes. In fact, IL-5 exerts selective action on eosinophils, which, in turn, sustain airway inflammation and worsen asthma symptoms and control...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752720/effects-of-omalizumab-treatment-on-serum-cytokine-concentrations-of-atopic-patients-with-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-a-preliminary-report
#2
A Sellitto, U De Fanis, A Balestrieri, A Savoia, C Astarita, C Romano
Omalizumab has recently obtained indication for chronic spontaneous urticaria both in the US and Europe. However, the mechanism of action of this drug has yet to be fully elucidated. Previous studies have shown elevations in cytokine serum levels in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria, and it is not known whether omalizumab treatment may affect cytokine serum levels in this condition. Besides, a proportion of chronic spontaneous urticaria patients have concomitant atopy, which may be associated, at least in theory, with prevalence of serum Th2-type cytokines...
July 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652400/activation-of-human-basophils-by-a549-lung-epithelial-cells-reveals-a-novel-ige-dependent-response-independent-of-allergen
#3
John T Schroeder, Anja P Bieneman
Evidence for epithelial cell (EC)-derived cytokines (e.g., thymic stromal lymphopoietin [TSLP]) activating human basophils remains controversial. We therefore hypothesize that ECs can directly activate basophils via cell-to-cell interaction. Basophils in medium alone or with IL-3 ± anti-IgE were coincubated with TSLP, IL-33, or IL-25. Analogous experiments cocultured basophils (1-72 h) directly with EC lines. Supernatants were tested for mediators and cytokines. Abs targeting receptors were tested for neutralizing effects...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567072/hyperimmunoglobulin-e-syndrome-genetics-immunopathogenesis-clinical-findings-and-treatment-modalities
#4
REVIEW
Hassan Hashemi, Masoumeh Mohebbi, Shiva Mehravaran, Mehdi Mazloumi, Hamidreza Jahanbani-Ardakani, Seyed-Hossein Abtahi
The hyperimmunoglobulin E syndromes (HIESs) are very rare immunodeficiency syndromes with multisystem involvement, including immune system, skeleton, connective tissue, and dentition. HIES are characterized by the classic triad of high serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), recurrent staphylococcal cold skin abscess, and recurrent pneumonia with pneumatocele formation. Most cases of HIES are sporadic although can be inherited as autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive traits. A fundamental immunologic defect in HIES is not clearly elucidated but abnormal neutrophil chemotaxis due to decreased production or secretion of interferon γ has main role in the immunopathogenesis of syndrome, also distorted Th1/Th2 cytokine profile toward a Th2 bias contributes to the impaired cellular immunity and a specific pattern of infection susceptibility as well as atopic-allergic constitution of syndrome...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303134/bronchial-epithelial-cells-from-asthmatic-patients-display-less-functional-hla-g-isoform-expression
#5
Federico Carlini, Christophe Picard, Céline Garulli, David Piquemal, Pierre Roubertoux, Jacques Chiaroni, Pascal Chanez, Delphine Gras, Julie Di Cristofaro
Not all asthmatic patients adequately respond to current available treatments, such as inhaled corticosteroids or omalizumab(®). New treatments will aim to target the bronchial epithelium-immune response interaction using different pathways. HLA-G is involved in immunomodulation and may promote epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation. HLA-G protein has several isoforms generated by alternative splicing that might have differential functionalities. HLA-G protein expression and genetic polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287273/novel-monoclonal-treatments-in-severe-asthma
#6
Howraman Meteran, Hanieh Meteran, Celeste Porsbjerg, Vibeke Backer
AIM: To provide a general overview of the current biological treatments and discuss their potential anti-asthmatic effects. DATA SOURCES: We reviewed articles in PubMed found using the search words "Asthma/therapy AND antibodies, monoclonal/therapeutic use AND cytokines." STUDY SELECTIONS: Only articles published in English since 2000 were considered. The search identified 29 studies; 8 additional studies were found by hand search, generating 37 studies...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223218/preventative-effect-of-omz-spt-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-and-inflammation-via-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-signaling-in-mice
#7
Ting Wang, Wanru Hou, Zhou Fu
Acute lung injury (ALI) is an early pathophysiologic change in acute respiratory distress syndrome and its management can be challenging. Omalizumab (Xolair™) is a recombinant DNA-derived, humanized antibody. OMZ-SPT is a polypeptide on the heavy chain of omalizumab monoclonal antibody. Here, we found that intramuscular administration of OMZ-SPT significantly improved survival and attenuated lung inflammation in female C57BL/6 mice suffering from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. We also demonstrated that OMZ-SPT can inhibit expression of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 by ELISA in mice suffering from LPS-induced ALI and a mouse macrophage line (RAW264...
April 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942351/therapeutic-interventions-in-severe-asthma
#8
REVIEW
Giorgio Walter Canonica, Gianenrico Senna, Patrick D Mitchell, Paul M O'Byrne, Giovanni Passalacqua, Gilda Varricchi
The present paper addresses severe asthma which is limited to 5-10% of the overall population of asthmatics. However, it accounts for 50% or more of socials costs of the disease, as it is responsible for hospitalizations and Emergency Department accesses as well as expensive treatments. The recent identification of different endotypes of asthma, based on the inflammatory pattern, has led to the development of tailored treatments that target different inflammatory mediators. These are major achievements in the perspective of Precision Medicine: a leading approach to the modern treatment strategy...
2016: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906698/ige-and-eosinophils-as-therapeutic-targets-in-asthma
#9
REVIEW
Tanvi R Patel, Sanjiv Sur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by reversible airflow obstruction, which is being more widely recognized as a broad-spectrum disease that encompasses multiple patient characteristics and pathophysiologic mechanisms. Suboptimal asthma control leads to increasing burden of healthcare costs and loss of productivity to society. Biologic therapies targeted at IgE and eosinophils can be used in poorly controlled allergic and eosinophilic asthma, respectively...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864676/anti-ige-and-biologic-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-asthma
#10
REVIEW
Patrick D Mitchell, Amani I El-Gammal, Paul M O'Byrne
Current asthma treatments are effective for the majority of patients with mild-to-moderate disease. However, in those with more severe refractory asthma, agents other than inhaled corticosteroids and beta-agonists are needed both to better manage this group of patients and to avoid the side effects of high-dose corticosteroids and the social and personal hardship endured. Several biological pathways have been targeted over the last 20 years, and this research has resulted in pharmacological approaches to attempt to better treat patients with severe refractory asthma...
2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834175/severe-asthma-anti-ige-or-anti-il-5
#11
REVIEW
Evgenia Papathanassiou, Stelios Loukides, Petros Bakakos
Severe asthma is a discrete clinical entity characterised by recurrent exacerbations, reduced quality of life and poor asthma control as ordinary treatment regimens remain inadequate. Difficulty in managing severe asthma derives partly from the multiple existing phenotypes and our inability to recognise them. Though the exact pathogenetic pathway of severe allergic asthma remains unclear, it is known that numerous inflammatory cells and cytokines are involved, and eosinophils represent a key inflammatory cell mediator...
2016: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694038/targeting-mast-cells-uncovering-prolific-therapeutic-role-in-myriad-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Jatinder Singh, Ramanpreet Shah, Dhandeep Singh
The mast cells are integral part of immune system and they have pleiotropic physiological functions in our body. Any type of abnormal stimuli causes the mast cells receptors to spur the otherwise innocuous mast cells to degranulate and release inflammatory mediators like histamine, cytokines, chemokines and prostaglandins. These mediators are involved in various diseases like allergy, asthma, mastocytosis, cardiovascular disorders, etc. Herein, we describe the receptors involved in degranulation of mast cells and are broadly divided into four categories: G-protein coupled receptors, ligand gated ion channels, immunoreceptors and pattern recognition receptors...
November 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582399/using-periostin-as-a-biomarker-in-the-treatment-of-asthma
#13
REVIEW
Kenji Izuhara, Shoichiro Ohta, Junya Ono
Periostin acts both as an extracellular matrix protein belonging to the fasciclin family and as a matricellular protein functioning in cell activation by binding to its receptors on the cell surface. It has been established that periostin is a downstream molecule of interleukin (IL)-13, a signature type 2 cytokine, and that periostin plays an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, including asthma. Based on these findings, much attention has been paid to periostin as a biomarker useful in the treatment of asthma...
November 2016: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499538/hypersensitivity-and-immunologic-reactions-to-biologics-opportunities-for-the-allergist
#14
REVIEW
David A Khan
OBJECTIVE: There has been a great expanse in the use of biological agents during the past decade. However, there are significant differences between biologics and typical pharmaceutical drugs. This review focuses on 3 separate types of adverse reactions to biologics, namely high cytokine reactions, hypersensitivity reactions, and secondary immunodeficiency. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed literature search restricted to the previous 10 years using combinations of search terms, including omalizumab, rituximab, TGN1412, biologic agent, anaphylaxis, hypogammaglobulinemia, desensitization, and cytokine storm, was performed...
August 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435350/the-effect-of-omalizumab-on-eosinophilic-inflammation-of-the-respiratory-tract-in-patients-with-allergic-asthma
#15
REVIEW
Izabela Kupryś-Lipińska, Katarzyna Molińska, Piotr Kuna
Bronchial asthma is characterised by high levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukins IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5 needed for, amongst other things, the production of IgE and the differentiation, maturation, migration and survival of eosinophils. Eosinophils are one of the most important cells in allergic inflammation. Their presence in tissue is linked to the persistence of inflammatory infiltrate, tissue damage and remodelling. Although these cells are very sensitive to corticosteroids, some asthmatic patients do not respond to high doses of these drugs, even when administered systemically...
2016: Pneumonologia i Alergologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417025/a-humanized-mouse-model-of-anaphylactic-peanut-allergy
#16
Oliver T Burton, Amanda J Stranks, Jaciel M Tamayo, Kyle J Koleoglou, Lawrence B Schwartz, Hans C Oettgen
BACKGROUND: Food allergy is a growing health problem with very limited treatment options. Investigation of the immunologic pathways underlying allergic sensitization to foods in humans has been greatly constrained by the limited availability of intestinal tissue and gut-resident immune cells. Although mouse models have offered insights into pathways of food sensitization, differences between rodent and human immune physiology limit the extension of these findings to our understanding of human disease...
January 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378934/the-therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-cytokine-alarmins-to-treat-allergic-airway-inflammation
#17
REVIEW
Chandler B Sy, Mark C Siracusa
Asthma is a heterogeneous disorder that results in recurrent attacks of breathlessness, coughing, and wheezing that affects millions of people worldwide. Although the precise causes of asthma are unclear, studies suggest that a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental exposure to various allergens and pathogens contribute to its development. Currently, the most common treatment to control asthma is a dual combination of β2-adrenergic receptor agonists and corticosteroids. However, studies have shown that some patients do not respond well to these medications, while others experience significant side effects...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121601/omalizumab-anti-ige-therapy-in-the-asthma-copd-overlap-syndrome-acos-and-its-effects-on-circulating-cytokine-levels
#18
Arzu Didem Yalcin, Betul Celik, Ata Nevzat Yalcin
CONTEXT: The term "asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome" (ACOS) has been applied to the condition, in which a person has clinical features of both asthma and COPD. METHODS: The patients (N = 10) were presented to our clinic with low lung function, limited reversibility of airway obstruction, hyperinflation, abnormal body composition, dyspnea and episodic wheezing. Based on the clinical and laboratory findings, the patients were diagnosed with ACOS...
June 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26895179/pharmacological-therapy-of-bronchial-asthma-the-role-of-biologicals
#19
REVIEW
Sebastian Heck, Juliane Nguyen, Duc-Dung Le, Robert Bals, Quoc Thai Dinh
Bronchial asthma is a heterogeneous, complex, chronic inflammatory and obstructive pulmonary disease driven by various pathways to present with different phenotypes. A small proportion of asthmatics (5-10%) suffer from severe asthma with symptoms that cannot be controlled by guideline therapy with high doses of inhaled steroids plus a second controller, such as long-acting β2 agonists (LABA) or leukotriene receptor antagonists, or even systemic steroids. The discovery and characterization of the pathways that drive different asthma phenotypes have opened up new therapeutic avenues for asthma treatment...
2015: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26595730/the-role-of-type-2-inflammation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-asthma-exacerbations
#20
REVIEW
Eleanor M Dunican, John V Fahy
Asthma exacerbations are an important cause of asthma morbidity. Although viral infection of the upper airway is a common cause of asthma exacerbations, the reasons why some patients with asthma are exacerbation prone and others are exacerbation resistant are not fully understood. In this review, we examine whether Type 2 inflammation modifies airway function to make patients more susceptible to asthma exacerbations. The best data supporting a role for Type 2 inflammation in asthma exacerbations come from clinical trials of inhibitors of Type 2 inflammation in asthma...
November 2015: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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