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cyanotic child

Anilkumar Singhi, Ejaz Ahmed Sheriff, Kothandam Sivakumar
Complex cyanotic congenital heart diseases with left isomerism are sometimes associated with atrioventricular nodal conduction disturbances that may need permanent pacing. Surgical palliation in such anatomy connecting the superior vena cava to the pulmonary artery precludes a transvenous access for an endocardial pacing lead to the ventricles. Epicardial leads in these patients fail if the pacing thresholds are very high. We report transhepatic permanent ventricular lead implantation for a young boy with heterotaxy complicated by complete heart block...
March 2016: Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
Kevser Peker, Julide Ergil, İbrahim Öztürk
Waardenburg syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease that may cause hearing loss, pigmentary abnormalities, neurocristopathy and partial albinism. Incidence is estimated as 2%-3% among the cases of congenital deafness and 1/42,000 of the general population. Children with Waardenburg syndrome usually require anaesthesia for the cochlear implant operation in early age. The features of the syndrome that may bear importance for anaesthetic management are laryngomalacia, multiple muscle contractures, limited neck movements, cyanotic cardiopathy and electrolyte imbalance...
October 2015: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Peter Donnelly, Steven McVea, Christopher Flannigan, Sanjeev Bali
A 6-day-old term neonate who was intubated on day 1 of life for apnoeic episodes, was transferred to the regional paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) for specialist opinion following 3 failed extubations in the neonatal unit. Escherichia coli congenital pneumonia was diagnosed and the child discharged to the local hospital. Chest radiographs and inflammatory markers were in keeping with infection. However, ongoing difficulties with secretions necessitated readmission to the PICU, following a significant cyanotic episode associated with coughing...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Fan Conghai, Zhang Fengchao, Shan Chengjing, Wen Cheng, Wang Yunji, Li Xiaobo
Sevoflurane is shown to be safe and effective in pediatric echocardiography. This study explores the optimum level in pediatric echocardiography. One hundred and twenty children, with an age range of 35 days-3 years, were included in this study. The children with severe cyanotic congenital heart disease or severe pneumonia, which was Grade I or II according to the American College of Physicians Guideline Grading, were excluded. All children received the anesthesia with sevoflurane. The inhalation anesthesia level decreased from 2...
November 2015: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Kelly A Machovec, Robert D B Jaquiss, David D Kaemmer, Warwick A Ames, Hercilia M Homi, Richard J Walczak, Andrew J Lodge, Edmund H Jooste
Hemoglobin SC (HbSC) disease is a hemoglobinopathy that may produce sickling under conditions of hypoxemia, dehydration, and acidosis. We present a case of HbSC disease and tricuspid atresia, type IB. We describe management by cardiopulmonary bypass CPB using exchange transfusion at initiation of bypass and fractionation of collected blood, allowing platelet and plasma apheresis, as an option for patients unable to undergo this procedure off pump.
June 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Olivia L Katz, Ian D Krantz, Sarah E Noon
This report describes a male child with a history of poor feeding and swallowing problems, hypotonia, mild bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, cerebral cortical agenesis, cardiac defects, cyanotic episodes triggered by specific movement, dysmorphic features, and developmental delays. Analysis by CytoScan HD array identified a 12.1 Mb interstitial deletion of 7q22.1q31.1 (98,779,628-110,868,171). We present a comprehensive review of the literature surrounding intermediate 7q deletions that overlap with this child's deletion, and an analysis of candidate genes in the deleted region...
June 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
Pooja Mathur, Arvind Khare, Neena Jain, Priya Verma, Vivek Mathur
D-transposition of great arteries (D-TGA) is the most common cyanotic congenital heart disease diagnosed at birth. There is ventriculoarterial discordance leading to parallel circulation. The postnatal survival depends on intercirculatory mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood at various levels through atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect or patent ductus arteriosus. The anesthesiologist must have an understanding of concepts of shunting and other long-term consequences of transposition of great arteries (TGA) in order to tailor the anesthetic technique to optimize the hemodynamic variables and oxygenation in the perioperative period...
September 2015: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Ian Richard Barker, Clare McLaren, Emma Stockton
This report details the case of a 2-month-old baby boy with known cyanotic congenital heart disease (double outlet right ventricle with subpulmonary ventricular septal defect, VSD) in whom tracheal stenosis was undetected, being found later on failed intubation while undergoing anaesthesia for an arterial switch operation and VSD closure. As a result, the cardiac surgery was postponed. Such an association between congenital heart disease and tracheal stenosis has been reported but remains exceptionally rare...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
Vinay Marulasiddappa, B S Raghavavendra
Children with uncorrected cyanotic congenital heart diseases can present for non cardiac surgeries. They pose several challenges to the Anaesthesiologist, especially when they are posted for emergency surgery, due to the complex haemodynamic changes secondary to the heart disease. Pentalogy of Fallot (POF) is a rare form of congenital heart disease characterized by the association of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with an atrial septal defect (ASD). TOF is the leading cause of intracardiac right to left shunt and is the commonest type of cyanotic congenital heart disease to cause a brain abscess...
July 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Patricia Barrio Fernández, Javier Pérez Suárez, A Martina Messing-Jünger
BACKGROUND: Intraventricular abscesses are very rare and usually result from secondary rupture of a brain abscess. In the few published cases, clinical presentation was subacute and different pathogens were found. The diagnosis might be mistaken as an intraventricular tumor. CASE REPORT: This is a case of a 10-year-old girl suffering from cyanotic heart disease that was presented with subacute onset of headache, vomiting, and some signs of inflammation. Symptoms lead to early brain imaging (CT/MRI) demonstrating left ventricular horn lesion affecting adjacent brain structures...
December 2015: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Laurence Rozen, David Faraoni, Cristel Sanchez Torres, Ariane Willems, Denis C F Noubouossie, Dragos Barglazan, Philippe Van der Linden, Anne Demulder
BACKGROUND: Although recent studies have assessed tranexamic acid (TXA) pharmacokinetics in different subgroups, the effective concentration of TXA required to completely inhibit fibrinolysis remains to be determined. OBJECTIVE: An in-vitro determination of the effective TXA concentration needed for 95% inhibition (EC95) of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) activated fibrinolysis, using an experimental model designed for thromboelastometry (ROTEM). DESIGN: A prospective interventional study...
December 2015: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Seham F A Azab, Ahmed G Siam, Safaa H Saleh, Mona M Elshafei, Wafaa F Elsaeed, Mohamed A Arafa, Eman A Bendary, Elsayed M Farag, Maha A A Basset, Sanaa M Ismail, Osama M A Elazouni
The mechanism of breath-holding spells (BHS) is not fully understood and most probably multifactorial; so, this study was designed to clarify the pathophysiology of BHS through assessing some laboratory parameters and electrocardiographic (ECG) changes which might be contributing to the occurrence of the attacks. Another aim of the study was to evaluate the differences in the pathophysiology between pallid and cyanotic types of BHS. This was a prospective study performed in Zagazig University Hospitals. Seventy-six children diagnosed with BHS were included as follows: 32 children with cyanotic BHS, 14 children with pallid BHS, and 30 healthy children as a control group...
July 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Amine Mazine, Soha Rached-D'Astous, Thierry Ducruet, Jacques Lacroix, Nancy Poirier
BACKGROUND: Red blood cell transfusion is an important supportive measure after pediatric cardiac operations. However, no clear hemoglobin threshold has been established. This study characterized anemia development and red blood cell transfusions in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) after cardiac operations. METHODS: A prospective, multicenter, 6-month cohort study on the management of anemia in critically ill pediatric patients was conducted in 30 North American PICUs...
August 2015: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
S Jancevska, M Kitanovski, N Laban, D Danilovski, V Tasic, Z S Gucev
Multiple congenital anomalies and craniofacial dysmorphism are characterizing the so-called Emanuel or supernumerary der(22)t(11;22) syndrome (OMIM609029). Mental and developmental retardation are major clinical features. The der(22) may arise from a parental balanced t(11;22)(q23;q11.2) or can be created de novo. Here we present a 2 years old boy with normal prenatal history, cyanotic at delivery and with ear anomalies, a preauricular tag, high-arched palate and micrognathia. There were neither microcephaly, nor heart or kidney defects...
2015: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
Robert A Palermo, Michael C Monge, Joel Charrow, John M Costello, Conrad L Epting
We report the case of a child with both propionic acidemia and cyanotic congenital heart disease. The presence of an underlying inborn error of metabolism confounded the management of this patient in the postoperative period, resulting in therapeutic misdirection until the true etiology of hyperlactemia was recognized.
April 2015: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Jesus Vallejo Montero, Esther Moreno Nieto, Inmaculada Rubio Vallejo, Sergio Vallejo Montero
The case of a 2-month-old boy with previously diagnosed tetralogy of Fallot who was brought to the emergency department with a hypercyanotic spell is described. Because partly of the difficulty of intravenous placement, especially in an infant crying with marked hypernea and deeply cyanotic, intranasal midazolam was administered. Before 3 minutes of hypernea terminated increasing the oxygen saturation successfully and intravenous line was easily placed with the baby remaining in calm. Sedation is an important step in the management of patients with cyanotic spells...
April 2015: Pediatric Emergency Care
C M Bloor, J F Keefe, M J Browne
Thirty-five cases of congenital heart disease were investigated for the frequency and size of intercoronary anastomoses. Studies of control hearts showed normal intercoronary anastomoses to range to 74 μ in diameter. In those congenital hearts not subjected to surgical procedures, the anastomoses did not differ in size from the control group, even in the presence of anemia, cardiac hypertrophy, and cyanosis. However, the mean age of the cyanotic group was significantly less than the acyanotic group. Even though the size and frequency of the anastomoses were significantly increased in the operated group, surgical trauma alone was an unlikely stimulus, since the size and frequency of anastomoses in those dying within 48 hours of operation and in those surviving for more than 5 weeks were similar...
February 1966: Circulation
M C Seghaye
Myocardial remodeling in pediatric congenital cardiac diseases is related to myocardial dysfunction and increases morbidity and mortality. The complex mechanisms that characterize this state involve inflammatory-, growth- and death signaling. The studies we have conducted in infants with hemodynamic overload of the right ventricle, associated or not with hypoxemia, show that mechanical stress related to pressure overload of the right ventricle leads to myocardial expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β et IL-6, mainly via the activation of p38MAPK signaling...
2014: Revue Médicale de Liège
Marta Hernández CH, Natalia Esquivel P, Mauricio López E
INTRODUCTION: Emotional apneas (EA) are non-epileptic paroxysmal events affecting 5% of healthy children. The diagnosis is based on a stereotyped sequence of clinical events that start with tears caused by emotional stimulus, resulting in an autonomic nervous system alteration with transient color change, pale or cyanotic. 15% of the cases are associated with loss of consciousness, changes in tone or tonic-clonic movements secondary to hypoxia. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of severe EA and to review the differential diagnosis and preventive treatments...
July 2014: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Michael J Luceri, Joana A Tala, Constance G Weismann, Cicero T Silva, E Vincent S Faustino
BACKGROUND: As the survival of children with cardiac disease increases, chronic complications of deep venous thrombosis from cardiac catheterization, particularly post-thrombotic syndrome, may be important to monitor for and treat, if needed. We aimed to determine the prevalence of this syndrome in children who underwent cardiac catheterization. PROCEDURE: We conducted a cross-sectional study of children <18 years old at least 1 year from first catheterization through the femoral vein...
July 2015: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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