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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183299/avidity-of-anti-malarial-antibodies-inversely-related-to-transmission-intensity-at-three-sites-in-uganda
#1
Isaac Ssewanyana, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Joaniter I Nankabirwa, Adoke Yeka, Richard Sullivan, Moses R Kamya, Philip J Rosenthal, Grant Dorsey, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Chris Drakeley, Bryan Greenhouse, Kevin K A Tetteh
BACKGROUND: People living in malaria endemic areas acquire protection from severe malaria quickly, but protection from clinical disease and control of parasitaemia is acquired only after many years of repeated infections. Antibodies play a central role in protection from clinical disease; however, protective antibodies are slow to develop. This study sought to investigate the influence of Plasmodium falciparum exposure on the acquisition of high-avidity antibodies to P. falciparum antigens, which may be associated with protection...
February 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126001/serology-reveals-heterogeneity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission-in-northeastern-south-africa-implications-for-malaria-elimination
#2
Joseph Biggs, Jaishree Raman, Jackie Cook, Khumbulani Hlongwana, Chris Drakeley, Natashia Morris, Ishen Serocharan, Eunice Agubuzo, Philip Kruger, Aaron Mabuza, Alpheus Zitha, Elliot Machaba, Maureen Coetzee, Immo Kleinschmidt
BACKGROUND: It is widely acknowledged that modifications to existing control interventions are required if South Africa is to achieve malaria elimination. Targeting indoor residual spraying (IRS) to areas where cases have been detected is one strategy currently under investigation in northeastern South Africa. This seroprevalence baseline study, nested within a targeted IRS trial, was undertaken to provide insights into malaria transmission dynamics in South Africa and evaluate whether sero-epidemiological practices have the potential to be routinely incorporated into elimination programmes...
January 26, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108199/freedom-from-infection-confirming-interruption-of-malaria-transmission
#3
REVIEW
Gillian Stresman, Angus Cameron, Chris Drakeley
The global reductions in disease burden and the continued spread of drug and insecticide resistance make malaria elimination both viable and imperative, although this may be more easily achieved in some settings compared to others. Whilst the focus has been on optimal approaches to achieve elimination, less attention has been paid to how to measure the absence of malaria. Measuring the absence of transmission poses a specific challenge in that it involves proving a negative. The concept of freedom from infection, routinely used in veterinary epidemiology, can provide quantitative and reproducible estimates that, if infections were present above a predefined (low) threshold, they would be detected with a known uncertainty...
January 17, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068925/effectiveness-of-a-serological-tool-to-predict-malaria-transmission-intensity-in-an-elimination-setting
#4
Rajika Lasanthi Dewasurendra, Janaka Nandana Dias, Nuno Sepulveda, Geethika Sharmini Abayaweera Gunawardena, Naduviladath Chandrasekharan, Chris Drakeley, Nadira Dharshani Karunaweera
BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka achieved the WHO certificate as a malaria free country in September 2016, thus monitoring of malaria transmission using sensitive and effective tools is an important need. Use of age-specific antibody prevalence as a serological tool to predict transmission intensity is proven to be a cost effective and reliable method under elimination settings. This paper discusses the correlation of four anti-malarial antibodies against vivax and falciparum malaria with the declining transmission intensities in two previously high malaria endemic districts i...
January 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067620/characterisation-of-the-opposing-effects-of-g6pd-deficiency-on-cerebral-malaria-and-severe-malarial-anaemia
#5
Geraldine M Clarke, Kirk Rockett, Katja Kivinen, Christina Hubbart, Anna E Jeffreys, Kate Rowlands, Muminatou Jallow, David J Conway, Kalifa A Bojang, Margaret Pinder, Stanley Usen, Fatoumatta Sisay-Joof, Giorgio Sirugo, Ousmane Toure, Mahamadou A Thera, Salimata Konate, Sibiry Sissoko, Amadou Niangaly, Belco Poudiougou, Valentina D Mangano, Edith C Bougouma, Sodiomon B Sirima, David Modiano, Lucas N Amenga-Etego, Anita Ghansah, Kwadwo A Koram, Michael D Wilson, Anthony Enimil, Jennifer Evans, Olukemi K Amodu, Subulade Olaniyan, Tobias Apinjoh, Regina Mugri, Andre Ndi, Carolyne M Ndila, Sophie Uyoga, Alexander Macharia, Norbert Peshu, Thomas N Williams, Alphaxard Manjurano, Nuno Sepúlveda, Taane G Clark, Eleanor Riley, Chris Drakeley, Hugh Reyburn, Vysaul Nyirongo, David Kachala, Malcolm Molyneux, Sarah J Dunstan, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Nguyen Ngoc Quyen, Cao Quang Thai, Tran Tinh Hien, Laurens Manning, Moses Laman, Peter Siba, Harin Karunajeewa, Steve Allen, Angela Allen, Timothy Me Davis, Pascal Michon, Ivo Mueller, Síle F Molloy, Susana Campino, Angeliki Kerasidou, Victoria J Cornelius, Lee Hart, Shivang S Shah, Gavin Band, Chris Ca Spencer, Tsiri Agbenyega, Eric Achidi, Ogobara K Doumbo, Jeremy Farrar, Kevin Marsh, Terrie Taylor, Dominic P Kwiatkowski
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is believed to confer protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the precise nature of the protective effecthas proved difficult to define as G6PD deficiency has multiple allelic variants with different effects in males and females, and it has heterogeneous effects on the clinical outcome of P. falciparum infection. Here we report an analysis of multiple allelic forms of G6PD deficiency in a large multi-centre case-control study of severe malaria, using the WHO classification of G6PD mutations to estimate each individual's level of enzyme activity from their genotype...
January 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056979/malaria-epidemiology-in-central-myanmar-identification-of-a-multi-species-asymptomatic-reservoir-of-infection
#6
Isaac Ghinai, Jackie Cook, Teddy Tun Win Hla, Hein Myat Thu Htet, Tom Hall, Inke Nd Lubis, Rosanna Ghinai, Therese Hesketh, Ye Naung, Mya Mya Lwin, Tint Swe Latt, David L Heymann, Colin J Sutherland, Chris Drakeley, Nigel Field
BACKGROUND: The spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum is a global health concern. Myanmar stands at the frontier of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum. Myanmar also has the highest reported malaria burden in Southeast Asia; it is integral in the World Health Organization's plan to eliminate malaria in Southeast Asia, yet few epidemiological data exist for the general population in Myanmar. METHODS: This cross-sectional, probability household survey was conducted in Phyu township, Bago Region (central Myanmar), during the wet season of 2013...
January 5, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955677/spatio-temporal-analysis-of-malaria-vector-density-from-baseline-through-intervention-in-a-high-transmission-setting
#7
Victor A Alegana, Simon P Kigozi, Joaniter Nankabirwa, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Ruth Kigozi, Henry Mawejje, Maxwell Kilama, Nick W Ruktanonchai, Corrine W Ruktanonchai, Chris Drakeley, Steve W Lindsay, Bryan Greenhouse, Moses R Kamya, David L Smith, Peter M Atkinson, Grant Dorsey, Andrew J Tatem
BACKGROUND: An increase in effective malaria control since 2000 has contributed to a decline in global malaria morbidity and mortality. Knowing when and how existing interventions could be combined to maximise their impact on malaria vectors can provide valuable information for national malaria control programs in different malaria endemic settings. Here, we assess the effect of indoor residual spraying on malaria vector densities in a high malaria endemic setting in eastern Uganda as part of a cohort study where the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) was high...
December 12, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923945/mass-drug-administration-for-malaria-a-means-to-what-end
#8
EDITORIAL
Ingrid Chen, Roly Gosling, Chris Drakeley, Teun Bousema
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895271/examination-of-antibody-responses-as-a-measure-of-exposure-to-malaria-in-the-indigenous-batwa-and-their-non-indigenous-neighbors-in-southwestern-uganda
#9
Manisha A Kulkarni, Gala Garrod, Lea Berrang-Ford, Isaac Ssewanyana, Sherilee L Harper, Nestor Baraheberwa, Blanaid Donnelly, Kaitlin Patterson, Didacus B Namanya, Shuaib Lwasa, Chris Drakeley
Understanding variations in malaria transmission and exposure is critical to identify populations at risk and enable better targeting of interventions. The indigenous Batwa of southwestern Uganda have a disproportionate burden of malaria infection compared with their non-indigenous neighbors. To better understand the individual- and community-level determinants of malaria exposure, a seroepidemiological study was conducted in 10 local council cells in Kanungu District, Uganda, in April 2014. The Batwa had twice the odds of being seropositive to two Plasmodium falciparum-specific antigens, apical membrane antigen-1 and merozoite surface protein-119, compared with the non-indigenous Bakiga (odds ratio = 2...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852258/allele-specific-antibodies-to-plasmodium-vivax-merozoite-surface-protein-1-prevalence-and-inverse-relationship-to-haemoglobin-levels-during-infection
#10
Nuno Sepúlveda, Cristiane Guimarães Morais, Luiza Carvalho Mourão, Matheus França Freire, Cor Jesus F Fontes, Marcus Vinícius G Lacerda, Chris J Drakeley, Érika Martins Braga
BACKGROUND: Antigenic polymorphisms are considered as one of the main strategies employed by malaria parasites to escape from the host immune responses after infections. Merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) of Plasmodium vivax, a promising vaccine candidate, is a highly polymorphic protein whose immune recognition is not well understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: The IgG responses to conserved (MSP-119) and polymorphic (block 2 and block 10) epitopes of PvMSP-1 were evaluated in 141 P...
November 16, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825738/the-gametocytocidal-efficacy-of-different-single-doses-of-primaquine-with-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-in-asymptomatic-parasite-carriers-in-the-gambia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Joseph Okebe, Teun Bousema, Muna Affara, Gian Luca Di Tanna, Edgard Dabira, Abdoulaye Gaye, Frank Sanya-Isijola, Henry Badji, Simon Correa, Davis Nwakanma, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden, Chris Drakeley, Umberto D'Alessandro
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic low-density gametocyte carriers represent the majority of malaria-infected individuals. However, the impact of recommended treatment with single low dose of primaquine and an artemisinin-based combination therapy to reduce transmission in this group is unknown. METHODS: This was a four-arm, open label, randomized controlled trial comparing the effect of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHAP) alone or combined with single dose of primaquine (PQ) at 0...
November 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824885/measures-of-malaria-burden-after-long-lasting-insecticidal-net-distribution-and-indoor-residual-spraying-at-three-sites-in-uganda-a-prospective-observational-study
#12
Agaba Katureebe, Kate Zinszer, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, John Rek, Elijah Kakande, Katia Charland, Ruth Kigozi, Maxwell Kilama, Joaniter Nankabirwa, Adoke Yeka, Henry Mawejje, Arthur Mpimbaza, Henry Katamba, Martin J Donnelly, Philip J Rosenthal, Chris Drakeley, Steve W Lindsay, Sarah G Staedke, David L Smith, Bryan Greenhouse, Moses R Kamya, Grant Dorsey
BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) are the primary vector control interventions used to prevent malaria in Africa. Although both interventions are effective in some settings, high-quality evidence is rarely available to evaluate their effectiveness following deployment by a national malaria control program. In Uganda, we measured changes in key malaria indicators following universal LLIN distribution in three sites, with the addition of IRS at one of these sites...
November 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821171/comparison-of-molecular-quantification-of-plasmodium-falciparum-gametocytes-by-pfs25-qrt-pcr-and-qt-nasba-in-relation-to-mosquito-infectivity
#13
Helmi Pett, Bronner P Gonçalves, Alassane Dicko, Issa Nébié, Alfred B Tiono, Kjerstin Lanke, John Bradley, Ingrid Chen, Halimatou Diawara, Almahamoudou Mahamar, Harouna M Soumare, Sekou F Traore, Ibrahima Baber, Sodiomon B Sirima, Robert Sauerwein, Joelle Brown, Roly Gosling, Ingrid Felger, Chris Drakeley, Teun Bousema
BACKGROUND: Quantifying gametocyte densities in natural malaria infections is important to estimate malaria transmission potential. Two molecular methods (Pfs25 mRNA quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and Pfs25 mRNA quantitative nucleic acid sequence based amplification (QT-NASBA)) are commonly used to determine gametocyte densities in clinical and epidemiological studies and allow gametocyte detection at densities below the microscopic threshold for detection. Here, reproducibility of these measurements and the association between estimated gametocyte densities and mosquito infection rates were compared...
November 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741235/investigating-the-contribution-of-peri-domestic-transmission-to-risk-of-zoonotic-malaria-infection-in-humans
#14
Benny O Manin, Heather M Ferguson, Indra Vythilingam, Kim Fornace, Timothy William, Steve J Torr, Chris Drakeley, Tock H Chua
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the primate malaria Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged in human populations throughout South East Asia, with the largest hotspot being in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Control efforts are hindered by limited knowledge of where and when people get exposed to mosquito vectors. It is assumed that exposure occurs primarily when people are working in forest areas, but the role of other potential exposure routes (including domestic or peri-domestic transmission) has not been thoroughly investigated...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673152/poster-400-the-role-of-onabotulinum-toxin-a-in-a-comprehensive-treatment-approach-in-a-patient-with-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-a-case-report
#15
Matthew Drakeley, Peter J Hurh, Shanti M Pinto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628178/characterizing-microscopic-and-submicroscopic-malaria-parasitaemia-at-three-sites-with-varied-transmission-intensity-in-uganda
#16
John Rek, Shereen Katrak, Hannah Obasi, Patience Nayebare, Agaba Katureebe, Elijah Kakande, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Joaniter I Nankabirwa, Prasanna Jagannathan, Chris Drakeley, Sarah G Staedke, David L Smith, Teun Bousema, Moses Kamya, Philip J Rosenthal, Grant Dorsey, Bryan Greenhouse
BACKGROUND: Parasite prevalence is a key metric used to quantify the burden of malaria and assess the impact of control strategies. Most published estimates of parasite prevalence are based on microscopy and likely underestimate true prevalence. METHODS: Thick smear microscopy was performed in cohorts of children (aged 6 month to 10 years) and adults every 90 days over 2 years, at three sites of varying transmission intensity in Uganda. Microscopy-negative samples were tested for sub-microscopic parasitaemia using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)...
2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448606/anti-malarial-seroprevalence-assessment-during-an-elimination-programme-in-chabahar-district-south-eastern-iran
#17
Sedigheh Zakeri, Lotus Leonie van den Hoogen, Akram Abouie Mehrizi, Fatemh Karimi, Ahmad Raeisi, Chris Drakeley
BACKGROUND: Iran has achieved a substantial decline in malaria incidence over the past decades. A common feature of malaria-endemic settings is the requirement for more sensitive techniques to describe levels of low transmission. In this study, serological and parasitological methods were used to measure transmission levels of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax during an elimination programme (2012) in Chabahar District, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, south-eastern Iran. METHODS: Participants were randomly selected from 64 different geographical clusters in Chabahar city and surrounding villages...
2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430261/vertical-stratification-of-adult-mosquitoes-diptera-culicidae-within-a-tropical-rainforest-in-sabah-malaysia
#18
Hayley L Brant, Robert M Ewers, Indra Vythilingam, Chris Drakeley, Suzan Benedick, John D Mumford
BACKGROUND: Malaria cases caused by Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques, are increasing rapidly in Sabah, Malaysia. One hypothesis is that this increase is associated with changes in land use. A study was carried out to identify the anopheline vectors present in different forest types and to observe the human landing behaviour of mosquitoes. METHODS: Mosquito collections were carried out using human landing catches at ground and canopy levels in the Tawau Division of Sabah...
2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325802/estimation-of-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission-intensity-in-lilongwe-malawi-by-microscopy-rapid-diagnostic-testing-and-nucleic-acid-detection
#19
Jonathan B Parr, Connor Belson, Jaymin C Patel, Irving F Hoffman, Portia Kamthunzi, Francis Martinson, Gerald Tegha, Isaac Thengolose, Chris Drakeley, Steven R Meshnick, Veronica Escamillia, Michael Emch, Jonathan J Juliano
Estimates of malaria transmission intensity (MTI) typically rely upon microscopy or rapid diagnostic testing (RDT). However, these methods are less sensitive than nucleic acid amplification techniques and may underestimate parasite prevalence. We compared microscopy, RDT, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia as part of an MTI study of 800 children and adults conducted in Lilongwe, Malawi. PCR detected more cases of parasitemia than microscopy or RDT. Age less than 5 years predicted parasitemia detected by PCR alone (adjusted odds ratio = 1...
August 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27259286/factors-associated-with-high-heterogeneity-of-malaria-at-fine-spatial-scale-in-the-western-kenyan-highlands
#20
Amrish Y Baidjoe, Jennifer Stevenson, Philip Knight, William Stone, Gillian Stresman, Victor Osoti, Euniah Makori, Chrispin Owaga, Wycliffe Odongo, Pauline China, Shehu Shagari, Simon Kariuki, Chris Drakeley, Jonathan Cox, Teun Bousema
BACKGROUND: The East African highlands are fringe regions between stable and unstable malaria transmission. What factors contribute to the heterogeneity of malaria exposure on different spatial scales within larger foci has not been extensively studied. In a comprehensive, community-based cross-sectional survey an attempt was made to identify factors that drive the macro- and micro epidemiology of malaria in a fringe region using parasitological and serological outcomes. METHODS: A large cross-sectional survey including 17,503 individuals was conducted across all age groups in a 100 km(2) area in the Western Kenyan highlands of Rachuonyo South district...
2016: Malaria Journal
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