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Benny O Manin, Heather M Ferguson, Indra Vythilingam, Kim Fornace, Timothy William, Steve J Torr, Chris Drakeley, Tock H Chua
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the primate malaria Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged in human populations throughout South East Asia, with the largest hotspot being in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Control efforts are hindered by limited knowledge of where and when people get exposed to mosquito vectors. It is assumed that exposure occurs primarily when people are working in forest areas, but the role of other potential exposure routes (including domestic or peri-domestic transmission) has not been thoroughly investigated...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Matthew Drakeley, Peter J Hurh, Shanti M Pinto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
John Rek, Shereen Katrak, Hannah Obasi, Patience Nayebare, Agaba Katureebe, Elijah Kakande, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Joaniter I Nankabirwa, Prasanna Jagannathan, Chris Drakeley, Sarah G Staedke, David L Smith, Teun Bousema, Moses Kamya, Philip J Rosenthal, Grant Dorsey, Bryan Greenhouse
BACKGROUND: Parasite prevalence is a key metric used to quantify the burden of malaria and assess the impact of control strategies. Most published estimates of parasite prevalence are based on microscopy and likely underestimate true prevalence. METHODS: Thick smear microscopy was performed in cohorts of children (aged 6 month to 10 years) and adults every 90 days over 2 years, at three sites of varying transmission intensity in Uganda. Microscopy-negative samples were tested for sub-microscopic parasitaemia using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)...
2016: Malaria Journal
Sedigheh Zakeri, Lotus Leonie van den Hoogen, Akram Abouie Mehrizi, Fatemh Karimi, Ahmad Raeisi, Chris Drakeley
BACKGROUND: Iran has achieved a substantial decline in malaria incidence over the past decades. A common feature of malaria-endemic settings is the requirement for more sensitive techniques to describe levels of low transmission. In this study, serological and parasitological methods were used to measure transmission levels of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax during an elimination programme (2012) in Chabahar District, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, south-eastern Iran. METHODS: Participants were randomly selected from 64 different geographical clusters in Chabahar city and surrounding villages...
2016: Malaria Journal
Hayley L Brant, Robert M Ewers, Indra Vythilingam, Chris Drakeley, Suzan Benedick, John D Mumford
BACKGROUND: Malaria cases caused by Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques, are increasing rapidly in Sabah, Malaysia. One hypothesis is that this increase is associated with changes in land use. A study was carried out to identify the anopheline vectors present in different forest types and to observe the human landing behaviour of mosquitoes. METHODS: Mosquito collections were carried out using human landing catches at ground and canopy levels in the Tawau Division of Sabah...
2016: Malaria Journal
Jonathan B Parr, Connor Belson, Jaymin C Patel, Irving F Hoffman, Portia Kamthunzi, Francis Martinson, Gerald Tegha, Isaac Thengolose, Chris Drakeley, Steven R Meshnick, Veronica Escamillia, Michael Emch, Jonathan J Juliano
Estimates of malaria transmission intensity (MTI) typically rely upon microscopy or rapid diagnostic testing (RDT). However, these methods are less sensitive than nucleic acid amplification techniques and may underestimate parasite prevalence. We compared microscopy, RDT, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia as part of an MTI study of 800 children and adults conducted in Lilongwe, Malawi. PCR detected more cases of parasitemia than microscopy or RDT. Age less than 5 years predicted parasitemia detected by PCR alone (adjusted odds ratio = 1...
August 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Amrish Y Baidjoe, Jennifer Stevenson, Philip Knight, William Stone, Gillian Stresman, Victor Osoti, Euniah Makori, Chrispin Owaga, Wycliffe Odongo, Pauline China, Shehu Shagari, Simon Kariuki, Chris Drakeley, Jonathan Cox, Teun Bousema
BACKGROUND: The East African highlands are fringe regions between stable and unstable malaria transmission. What factors contribute to the heterogeneity of malaria exposure on different spatial scales within larger foci has not been extensively studied. In a comprehensive, community-based cross-sectional survey an attempt was made to identify factors that drive the macro- and micro epidemiology of malaria in a fringe region using parasitological and serological outcomes. METHODS: A large cross-sectional survey including 17,503 individuals was conducted across all age groups in a 100 km(2) area in the Western Kenyan highlands of Rachuonyo South district...
2016: Malaria Journal
Daniel Msellemu, Hagai I Namango, Victoria M Mwakalinga, Alex J Ntamatungiro, Yeromin Mlacha, Zacharia J Mtema, Samson Kiware, Neil F Lobo, Silas Majambere, Stefan Dongus, Christopher J Drakeley, Nicodem J Govella, Prosper P Chaki, Gerry F Killeen
BACKGROUND: In the Tanzanian city of Dar es Salaam, high coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), larvicide application (LA) and mosquito-proofed housing, was complemented with improved access to artemisinin-based combination therapy and rapid diagnostic tests by the end of 2012. METHODS: Three rounds of city-wide, cluster-sampled cross-sectional surveys of malaria parasite infection status, spanning 2010 to 2012, were complemented by two series of high-resolution, longitudinal surveys of vector density...
2016: Malaria Journal
Hsiao-Han Chang, Elamaran Meibalan, Justin Zelin, Rachel Daniels, Alice C Eziefula, Evan C Meyer, Fitsum Tadesse, Lynn Grignard, Regina C Joice, Chris Drakeley, Dyann F Wirth, Sarah K Volkman, Caroline Buckee, Teun Bousema, Matthias Marti
Artemisinin resistance is rapidly spreading in Southeast Asia. The efficacy of artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) continues to be excellent across Africa. We performed parasite transcriptional profiling and genotyping on samples from an antimalarial treatment trial in Uganda. We used qRT-PCR and genotyping to characterize residual circulating parasite populations after treatment with either ACT or ACT-primaquine. Transcripts suggestive of circulating ring stage parasites were present after treatment at a prevalence of >25% until at least 14 days post initiation of treatment...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sobia Wahid, Gillian H Stresman, Syed Sajid Kamal, Nuno Sepulveda, Immo Kleinschmidt, Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley
BACKGROUND: Afghan refugees in northern Pakistan have been resident for over 30 years and current information on malaria in this population is sparse. Understanding malaria risk and distribution in refugee camps is important for effective management both in camps and on return to Afghanistan. METHODS: Cross-sectional malariometric surveys were conducted in five Afghan refugee camps to determine infection and exposure to both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax...
2016: Malaria Journal
David Tiga Kangoye, Abdisalan Noor, Janet Midega, Joyce Mwongeli, Dora Mkabili, Polycarp Mogeni, Christine Kerubo, Pauline Akoo, Joseph Mwangangi, Chris Drakeley, Kevin Marsh, Philip Bejon, Patricia Njuguna
BACKGROUND: Targeted malaria control interventions are expected to be cost-effective. Clinical, parasitological and serological markers of malaria transmission have been used to detect malaria transmission hotspots, but few studies have examined the relationship between the different potential markers in low transmission areas. The present study reports on the relationships between clinical, parasitological, serological and entomological markers of malaria transmission in an area of low transmission intensity in Coastal Kenya...
2016: Malaria Journal
Teun Bousema, Gillian Stresman, Amrish Y Baidjoe, John Bradley, Philip Knight, William Stone, Victor Osoti, Euniah Makori, Chrispin Owaga, Wycliffe Odongo, Pauline China, Shehu Shagari, Ogobara K Doumbo, Robert W Sauerwein, Simon Kariuki, Chris Drakeley, Jennifer Stevenson, Jonathan Cox
BACKGROUND: Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous, generating malaria hotspots that can fuel malaria transmission across a wider area. Targeting hotspots may represent an efficacious strategy for reducing malaria transmission. We determined the impact of interventions targeted to serologically defined malaria hotspots on malaria transmission both inside hotspots and in surrounding communities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twenty-seven serologically defined malaria hotspots were detected in a survey conducted from 24 June to 31 July 2011 that included 17,503 individuals from 3,213 compounds in a 100-km2 area in Rachuonyo South District, Kenya...
April 2016: PLoS Medicine
Jackie Cook, Lynn Grignard, Samira Al-Eryani, Mustafa Al-Selwei, Abraham Mnzava, Hafed Al-Yarie, Alison Rand, Immo Kleinschmidt, Chris Drakeley
BACKGROUND: Yemen remains the country with the highest malaria transmission within the Arabian Peninsula and a source of imported cases to neighbouring countries. METHODS: This study collected samples from individuals resident in a valley in Western Yemen as a baseline to examine infection prevalence for a future trial. As well as rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and microscopy, a filter paper blood spot was collected for molecular and serological analyses. RESULTS: Samples were collected from 2261 individuals from 12 clusters across a study area of approximately 100 km(2)...
2016: Malaria Journal
Richard T Sullivan, Isaac Ssewanyana, Samuel Wamala, Felistas Nankya, Prasanna Jagannathan, Jordan W Tappero, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Mary K Muhindo, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Moses Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Margaret E Feeney, Eleanor M Riley, Chris J Drakeley, Bryan Greenhouse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Malaria Journal
Caroline A Lynch, Jackie Cook, Sarah Nanyunja, Jane Bruce, Amit Bhasin, Chris Drakeley, Cally Roper, Richard Pearce, John B Rwakimari, Tarekegn A Abeku, Patrick Corran, Jonathan Cox
Serological markers, combined with spatial analysis, offer a comparatively more sensitive means by which to measure and detect foci of malaria transmission in highland areas than traditional malariometric indicators. Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence, seroprevalence, and seroconversion rate to P. falciparum merozoite surface protein-119 (MSP-119) were measured in a cross-sectional survey to determine differences in transmission between altitudinal strata. Clusters of P. falciparum parasite prevalence and high antibody responses to MSP-119 were detected and compared...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Bronner P Gonçalves, Alfred B Tiono, Alphonse Ouédraogo, Wamdaogo M Guelbéogo, John Bradley, Issa Nebie, Débé Siaka, Kjerstin Lanke, Alice C Eziefula, Amidou Diarra, Helmi Pett, Edith C Bougouma, Sodiomon B Sirima, Chris Drakeley, Teun Bousema
BACKGROUND: A single low dose (0.25 mg/kg) of primaquine is recommended as a gametocytocide in combination with artemisinin-based combination therapies for Plasmodium falciparum but its effect on post-treatment gametocyte circulation and infectiousness to mosquitoes has not been quantified. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 360 asymptomatic parasitaemic children aged 2-15 years were enrolled and assigned to receive: artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and a dose of placebo; AL and a 0...
2016: BMC Medicine
Chen Xu, Sichao Zhang, Jinhai Shao, Bing-Rui Lu, Reyad Mehfuz, Stacey Drakeley, Fumin Huang, Yifang Chen
In this paper, a novel nanolens with super resolution, based on the photon nanojet effect through dielectric nanostructures in visible wavelengths, is proposed. The nanolens is made from plastic SU-8, consisting of parallel semi-cylinders in an array. This paper focuses on the lens designed by numerical simulation with the finite-difference time domain method and nanofabrication of the lens by grayscale electron beam lithography combined with a casting/bonding/lift-off transfer process. Monte Carlo simulation for injected charge distribution and development modeling was applied to define the resultant 3D profile in PMMA as the template for the lens shape...
April 22, 2016: Nanotechnology
Richard T Sullivan, Isaac Ssewanyana, Samuel Wamala, Felistas Nankya, Prasanna Jagannathan, Jordan W Tappero, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Mary K Muhindo, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Moses Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Margaret E Feeney, Eleanor M Riley, Chris J Drakeley, Bryan Greenhouse, Richard Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Repeated exposure to Plasmodium falciparum is associated with perturbations in B cell sub-set homeostasis, including expansion atypical memory B cells. However, B cell perturbations immediately following acute malaria infection have been poorly characterized, especially with regard to their relationship with immunity to malaria. METHODS: To better understand the kinetics of B cell sub-sets following malaria, the proportions of six B cell sub-sets were assessed at five time points following acute malaria in four to 5 years old children living in a high transmission region of Uganda...
2016: Malaria Journal
Matthew J Grigg, Bridget E Barber, Jutta Marfurt, Mallika Imwong, Timothy William, Elspeth Bird, Kim A Piera, Ammar Aziz, Usa Boonyuen, Christopher J Drakeley, Jonathan Cox, Nicholas J White, Qin Cheng, Tsin W Yeo, Sarah Auburn, Nicholas M Anstey
BACKGROUND: Malaria caused by zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi is an emerging threat in Eastern Malaysia. Despite demonstrated vector competency, it is unknown whether human-to-human (H-H) transmission is occurring naturally. We sought evidence of drug selection pressure from the antimalarial sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as a potential marker of H-H transmission. METHODS: The P. knowlesi dihdyrofolate-reductase (pkdhfr) gene was sequenced from 449 P. knowlesi malaria cases from Sabah (Malaysian Borneo) and genotypes evaluated for association with clinical and epidemiological factors...
2016: PloS One
Sumudu Britton, Qin Cheng, Matthew J Grigg, Catherine B Poole, Cielo Pasay, Timothy William, Kimberley Fornace, Nicholas M Anstey, Colin J Sutherland, Chris Drakeley, James S McCarthy
INTRODUCTION: Plasmodium vivax malaria has a wide geographic distribution and poses challenges to malaria elimination that are likely to be greater than those of P. falciparum. Diagnostic tools for P. vivax infection in non-reference laboratory settings are limited to microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests but these are unreliable at low parasitemia. The development and validation of a high-throughput and sensitive assay for P. vivax is a priority. METHODS: A high-throughput LAMP assay targeting a P...
February 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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