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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522690/resistance-to-malaria-through-structural-variation-of-red-blood-cell-invasion-receptors
#1
Ellen M Leffler, Gavin Band, George B J Busby, Katja Kivinen, Quang Si Le, Geraldine M Clarke, Kalifa A Bojang, David J Conway, Muminatou Jallow, Fatoumatta Sisay-Joof, Edith C Bougouma, Valentina D Mangano, David Modiano, Sodiomon B Sirima, Eric Achidi, Tobias O Apinjoh, Kevin Marsh, Carolyne M Ndila, Norbert Peshu, Thomas N Williams, Chris Drakeley, Alphaxard Manjurano, Hugh Reyburn, Eleanor Riley, David Kachala, Malcolm Molyneux, Vysaul Nyirongo, Terrie Taylor, Nicole Thornton, Louise Tilley, Shane Grimsley, Eleanor Drury, Jim Stalker, Victoria Cornelius, Christina Hubbart, Anna E Jeffreys, Kate Rowlands, Kirk A Rockett, Chris C A Spencer, Dominic P Kwiatkowski
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum invades human red blood cells via interactions between host and parasite surface proteins. By analyzing genome sequence data from human populations, including 1269 individuals from sub-Saharan Africa, we identify a diverse array of large copy number variants affecting the host invasion receptor genes GYPA and GYPB We find that a nearby association with severe malaria is explained by a complex structural rearrangement involving the loss of GYPB and gain of two GYPB-A hybrid genes, which encode a serologically distinct blood group antigen known as Dantu...
May 18, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441959/serological-measures-to-assess-the-efficacy-of-malaria-control-programme-on-ambae-island-vanuatu
#2
Zulkarnain Md Idris, Chim W Chan, Mubasher Mohammed, Morris Kalkoa, George Taleo, Klara Junker, Bruno Arcà, Chris Drakeley, Akira Kaneko
BACKGROUND: Seroepidemiology can provide evidence for temporal changes in malaria transmission and is an important tool to evaluate the effectiveness of control interventions. During the early 2000s, Vanuatu experienced an acute increase in malaria incidence due to a lapse in funding for vector control. After the distribution of subsidised insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) resumed in 2003, malaria incidence decreased in the subsequent years. This study was conducted to find the serological evidence supporting the impact of ITN on exposure to Anopheles vector bites and parasite prevalence...
April 26, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431115/spatial-distribution-of-falciparum-malaria-infections-in-zanzibar-implications-for-focal-drug-administration-strategies-targeting-asymptomatic-parasite-carriers
#3
Anders Björkman, Jackie Cook, Hugh Sturrock, Mwinyi Msellem, Abdullah Ali, Weiping Xu, Fabrizio Molteni, Roly Gosling, Chris Drakeley, Andreas Mårtensson
Background.: Optimal use of mass/targeted screen-and-treat or mass or focal drug administration as malaria elimination strategies remains unclear. We therefore studied spatial distribution of Plasmodium falciparum infections to compare simulated effects of these strategies on reducing the parasite reservoir in a pre-elimination setting. Methods.: P. falciparum rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and molecular (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) and serological (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) analyses were performed on finger-prick blood samples from a population-based survey in 3 adjacent communities...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401903/impact-of-metric-and-sample-size-on-determining-malaria-hotspot-boundaries
#4
Gillian H Stresman, Emanuele Giorgi, Amrish Baidjoe, Phil Knight, Wycliffe Odongo, Chrispin Owaga, Shehu Shagari, Euniah Makori, Jennifer Stevenson, Chris Drakeley, Jonathan Cox, Teun Bousema, Peter J Diggle
The spatial heterogeneity of malaria suggests that interventions may be targeted for maximum impact. It is unclear to what extent different metrics lead to consistent delineation of hotspot boundaries. Using data from a large community-based malaria survey in the western Kenyan highlands, we assessed the agreement between a model-based geostatistical (MBG) approach to detect hotspots using Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence and serological evidence for exposure. Malaria transmission was widespread and highly heterogeneous with one third of the total population living in hotspots regardless of metric tested...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369085/defining-the-next-generation-of-plasmodium-vivax-diagnostic-tests-for-control-and-elimination-target-product-profiles
#5
Xavier C Ding, Maria Paz Ade, J Kevin Baird, Qin Cheng, Jane Cunningham, Mehul Dhorda, Chris Drakeley, Ingrid Felger, Dionicia Gamboa, Matthias Harbers, Socrates Herrera, Naomi Lucchi, Alfredo Mayor, Ivo Mueller, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Arsène Ratsimbason, Jack Richards, Marcel Tanner, Iveth J González
The global prevalence of malaria has decreased over the past fifteen years, but similar gains have not been realized against Plasmodium vivax because this species is less responsive to conventional malaria control interventions aimed principally at P. falciparum. Approximately half of all malaria cases outside of Africa are caused by P. vivax. This species places dormant forms in human liver that cause repeated clinical attacks without involving another mosquito bite. The diagnosis of acute patent P. vivax malaria relies primarily on light microscopy...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359609/pregnant-women-an-overlooked-asset-to-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-elimination-campaigns
#6
REVIEW
Bronner P Gonçalves, Patrick G Walker, Matthew Cairns, Alfred B Tiono, Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley
Community chemotherapy campaigns to reduce malaria transmission often exclude pregnant women due to safety concerns related to the drugs. However, pregnant women might represent an important source of human-to-mosquito infection due to frequent parasite carriage with higher densities of parasites (often detectable by microscopy), attractiveness to mosquitoes, and modified sleeping behaviour. Accumulating evidence of the safety of artemisinin-based combination therapies for the treatment of malaria during gestation suggests that malaria elimination programmes should reconsider this exclusion...
March 27, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345507/plasmodium-knowlesi-invasion-following-spread-by-infected-mosquitoes-macaques-and-humans
#7
Laith Yakob, Alun L Lloyd, Rowland R Kao, Heather M Ferguson, Patrick M Brock, Chris Drakeley, Michael B Bonsall
Plasmodium knowlesi is increasingly recognized as a major cause of malaria in Southeast Asia. Anopheles leucosphyrous group mosquitoes transmit the parasite and natural hosts include long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques. Despite early laboratory experiments demonstrating successful passage of infection between humans, the true role that humans play in P. knowlesi epidemiology remains unclear. The threat posed by its introduction into immunologically naïve populations is unknown despite being a public health priority for this region...
March 27, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289025/age-weight-and-cyp2d6-genotype-are-major-determinants-of-primaquine-pharmacokinetics-in-african-children
#8
Bronner P Gonçalves, Helmi Pett, Alfred B Tiono, Daryl Murry, Sodiomon B Sirima, Mikko Niemi, Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley, Rob Ter Heine
Low-dose primaquine is recommended to prevent Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in areas threatened by artemisinin resistance and areas aiming for malaria elimination. Community treatment campaigns with artemisinin-based combination therapy in combination with the gametocytocidal primaquine dose target all age groups, but no studies thus far have assessed the pharmacokinetics of this gametocytocidal drug in African children. We recruited 40 children participating in a primaquine efficacy trial in Burkina Faso to study primaquine pharmacokinetics...
May 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270152/a-systematic-review-on-malaria-sero-epidemiology-studies-in-the-brazilian-amazon-insights-into-immunological-markers-for-exposure-and-protection
#9
Pedro M Folegatti, André M Siqueira, Wuelton M Monteiro, Marcus Vinícius G Lacerda, Chris J Drakeley, Érika M Braga
BACKGROUND: Considerable success in reducing malaria incidence and mortality has been achieved in Brazil, leading to discussions over the possibility of moving towards elimination. However, more than reporting and counting clinical cases, elimination will require the use of efficient tools and strategies for measuring transmission dynamics and detecting the infectious reservoir as the primary indicators of interest for surveillance and evaluation. Because acquisition and maintenance of anti-malarial antibodies depend on parasite exposure, seroprevalence rates could be used as a reliable tool for assessing malaria endemicity and an adjunct measure for monitoring transmission in a rapid and cost-effective manner...
March 7, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253867/the-shape-of-the-iceberg-quantification-of-submicroscopic-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-parasitaemia-and-gametocytaemia-in-five-low-endemic-settings-in-ethiopia
#10
Fitsum G Tadesse, Lotus van den Hoogen, Kjerstin Lanke, Jodie Schildkraut, Kevin Tetteh, Abraham Aseffa, Hassen Mamo, Robert Sauerwein, Ingrid Felger, Chris Drakeley, Endalamaw Gadissa, Teun Bousema
BACKGROUND: The widespread presence of low-density asymptomatic infections with concurrent gametocytes may be a stumbling block for malaria elimination. This study investigated the asymptomatic reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in schoolchildren from five settings in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in June and November 2015, enrolling 551 students from five schools and 294 students from three schools, respectively...
March 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242786/determinants-of-malaria-transmission-at-the-population-level
#11
Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley
Transmission of malaria from man to mosquito defines the human infectious reservoir of malaria. At the population level this is influenced by a variety of human, parasite, and mosquito vector factors some or all of which may vary depending on the epidemiological setting. Here, we review our current state of knowledge related to human infectiousness to mosquitoes and how current malaria control strategies might be adapted to focus on reducing this. While much progress has been made in malaria control, we argue that an improved understanding of human infectivity will allow more effective use of current control tools and make elimination a more feasible goal...
February 27, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183299/avidity-of-anti-malarial-antibodies-inversely-related-to-transmission-intensity-at-three-sites-in-uganda
#12
Isaac Ssewanyana, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Joaniter I Nankabirwa, Adoke Yeka, Richard Sullivan, Moses R Kamya, Philip J Rosenthal, Grant Dorsey, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Chris Drakeley, Bryan Greenhouse, Kevin K A Tetteh
BACKGROUND: People living in malaria endemic areas acquire protection from severe malaria quickly, but protection from clinical disease and control of parasitaemia is acquired only after many years of repeated infections. Antibodies play a central role in protection from clinical disease; however, protective antibodies are slow to develop. This study sought to investigate the influence of Plasmodium falciparum exposure on the acquisition of high-avidity antibodies to P. falciparum antigens, which may be associated with protection...
February 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126001/serology-reveals-heterogeneity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission-in-northeastern-south-africa-implications-for-malaria-elimination
#13
Joseph Biggs, Jaishree Raman, Jackie Cook, Khumbulani Hlongwana, Chris Drakeley, Natashia Morris, Ishen Serocharan, Eunice Agubuzo, Philip Kruger, Aaron Mabuza, Alpheus Zitha, Elliot Machaba, Maureen Coetzee, Immo Kleinschmidt
BACKGROUND: It is widely acknowledged that modifications to existing control interventions are required if South Africa is to achieve malaria elimination. Targeting indoor residual spraying (IRS) to areas where cases have been detected is one strategy currently under investigation in northeastern South Africa. This seroprevalence baseline study, nested within a targeted IRS trial, was undertaken to provide insights into malaria transmission dynamics in South Africa and evaluate whether sero-epidemiological practices have the potential to be routinely incorporated into elimination programmes...
January 26, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108199/freedom-from-infection-confirming-interruption-of-malaria-transmission
#14
REVIEW
Gillian Stresman, Angus Cameron, Chris Drakeley
The global reductions in disease burden and the continued spread of drug and insecticide resistance make malaria elimination both viable and imperative, although this may be more easily achieved in some settings compared to others. Whilst the focus has been on optimal approaches to achieve elimination, less attention has been paid to how to measure the absence of malaria. Measuring the absence of transmission poses a specific challenge in that it involves proving a negative. The concept of freedom from infection, routinely used in veterinary epidemiology, can provide quantitative and reproducible estimates that, if infections were present above a predefined (low) threshold, they would be detected with a known uncertainty...
May 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068925/effectiveness-of-a-serological-tool-to-predict-malaria-transmission-intensity-in-an-elimination-setting
#15
Rajika Lasanthi Dewasurendra, Janaka Nandana Dias, Nuno Sepulveda, Geethika Sharmini Abayaweera Gunawardena, Naduviladath Chandrasekharan, Chris Drakeley, Nadira Dharshani Karunaweera
BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka achieved the WHO certificate as a malaria free country in September 2016, thus monitoring of malaria transmission using sensitive and effective tools is an important need. Use of age-specific antibody prevalence as a serological tool to predict transmission intensity is proven to be a cost effective and reliable method under elimination settings. This paper discusses the correlation of four anti-malarial antibodies against vivax and falciparum malaria with the declining transmission intensities in two previously high malaria endemic districts i...
January 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067620/characterisation-of-the-opposing-effects-of-g6pd-deficiency-on-cerebral-malaria-and-severe-malarial-anaemia
#16
Geraldine M Clarke, Kirk Rockett, Katja Kivinen, Christina Hubbart, Anna E Jeffreys, Kate Rowlands, Muminatou Jallow, David J Conway, Kalifa A Bojang, Margaret Pinder, Stanley Usen, Fatoumatta Sisay-Joof, Giorgio Sirugo, Ousmane Toure, Mahamadou A Thera, Salimata Konate, Sibiry Sissoko, Amadou Niangaly, Belco Poudiougou, Valentina D Mangano, Edith C Bougouma, Sodiomon B Sirima, David Modiano, Lucas N Amenga-Etego, Anita Ghansah, Kwadwo A Koram, Michael D Wilson, Anthony Enimil, Jennifer Evans, Olukemi K Amodu, Subulade Olaniyan, Tobias Apinjoh, Regina Mugri, Andre Ndi, Carolyne M Ndila, Sophie Uyoga, Alexander Macharia, Norbert Peshu, Thomas N Williams, Alphaxard Manjurano, Nuno Sepúlveda, Taane G Clark, Eleanor Riley, Chris Drakeley, Hugh Reyburn, Vysaul Nyirongo, David Kachala, Malcolm Molyneux, Sarah J Dunstan, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Nguyen Ngoc Quyen, Cao Quang Thai, Tran Tinh Hien, Laurens Manning, Moses Laman, Peter Siba, Harin Karunajeewa, Steve Allen, Angela Allen, Timothy Me Davis, Pascal Michon, Ivo Mueller, Síle F Molloy, Susana Campino, Angeliki Kerasidou, Victoria J Cornelius, Lee Hart, Shivang S Shah, Gavin Band, Chris Ca Spencer, Tsiri Agbenyega, Eric Achidi, Ogobara K Doumbo, Jeremy Farrar, Kevin Marsh, Terrie Taylor, Dominic P Kwiatkowski
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is believed to confer protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the precise nature of the protective effecthas proved difficult to define as G6PD deficiency has multiple allelic variants with different effects in males and females, and it has heterogeneous effects on the clinical outcome of P. falciparum infection. Here we report an analysis of multiple allelic forms of G6PD deficiency in a large multi-centre case-control study of severe malaria, using the WHO classification of G6PD mutations to estimate each individual's level of enzyme activity from their genotype...
January 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056979/malaria-epidemiology-in-central-myanmar-identification-of-a-multi-species-asymptomatic-reservoir-of-infection
#17
Isaac Ghinai, Jackie Cook, Teddy Tun Win Hla, Hein Myat Thu Htet, Tom Hall, Inke Nd Lubis, Rosanna Ghinai, Therese Hesketh, Ye Naung, Mya Mya Lwin, Tint Swe Latt, David L Heymann, Colin J Sutherland, Chris Drakeley, Nigel Field
BACKGROUND: The spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum is a global health concern. Myanmar stands at the frontier of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum. Myanmar also has the highest reported malaria burden in Southeast Asia; it is integral in the World Health Organization's plan to eliminate malaria in Southeast Asia, yet few epidemiological data exist for the general population in Myanmar. METHODS: This cross-sectional, probability household survey was conducted in Phyu township, Bago Region (central Myanmar), during the wet season of 2013...
January 5, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955677/spatio-temporal-analysis-of-malaria-vector-density-from-baseline-through-intervention-in-a-high-transmission-setting
#18
Victor A Alegana, Simon P Kigozi, Joaniter Nankabirwa, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Ruth Kigozi, Henry Mawejje, Maxwell Kilama, Nick W Ruktanonchai, Corrine W Ruktanonchai, Chris Drakeley, Steve W Lindsay, Bryan Greenhouse, Moses R Kamya, David L Smith, Peter M Atkinson, Grant Dorsey, Andrew J Tatem
BACKGROUND: An increase in effective malaria control since 2000 has contributed to a decline in global malaria morbidity and mortality. Knowing when and how existing interventions could be combined to maximise their impact on malaria vectors can provide valuable information for national malaria control programs in different malaria endemic settings. Here, we assess the effect of indoor residual spraying on malaria vector densities in a high malaria endemic setting in eastern Uganda as part of a cohort study where the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) was high...
December 12, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923945/mass-drug-administration-for-malaria-a-means-to-what-end
#19
EDITORIAL
Ingrid Chen, Roly Gosling, Chris Drakeley, Teun Bousema
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895271/examination-of-antibody-responses-as-a-measure-of-exposure-to-malaria-in-the-indigenous-batwa-and-their-non-indigenous-neighbors-in-southwestern-uganda
#20
Manisha A Kulkarni, Gala Garrod, Lea Berrang-Ford, Isaac Ssewanyana, Sherilee L Harper, Nestor Baraheberwa, Blanaid Donnelly, Kaitlin Patterson, Didacus B Namanya, Shuaib Lwasa, Chris Drakeley
Understanding variations in malaria transmission and exposure is critical to identify populations at risk and enable better targeting of interventions. The indigenous Batwa of southwestern Uganda have a disproportionate burden of malaria infection compared with their non-indigenous neighbors. To better understand the individual- and community-level determinants of malaria exposure, a seroepidemiological study was conducted in 10 local council cells in Kanungu District, Uganda, in April 2014. The Batwa had twice the odds of being seropositive to two Plasmodium falciparum-specific antigens, apical membrane antigen-1 and merozoite surface protein-119, compared with the non-indigenous Bakiga (odds ratio = 2...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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