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Statistical analysis

Anja Stajnko, Ingrid Falnoga, Janja Snoj Tratnik, Darja Mazej, Marta Jagodic, Mladen Krsnik, Alfred B Kobal, Marija Prezelj, Lijana Kononenko, Milena Horvat
BACKGROUND: Urine cadmium (Cd) and renal function biomarkers, mostly analysed in urine spot samples, are well established biomarkers of occupational exposure. Their use and associations at low environmental level are common, but have recently been questioned, particularly in terms of physiological variability and normalisation bias in the case of urine spot samples. AIM: To determine the appropriateness of spot urine and/or blood Cd exposure biomarkers and their relationships with renal function biomarkers at low levels of exposure...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Research
Yanjun Liu, Yanting Liu, Hao Li, Xindi Fu, Hanwen Guo, Ruihong Meng, Wenjing Lu, Ming Zhao, Hongtao Wang
Aromatic compounds (ACs) emitted from landfills have attracted a lot of attention of the public due to their adverse impacts on the environment and human health. This study assessed the health risk impacts of the fugitive ACs emitted from the working face of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in China. The emission data was acquired by long-term in-situ samplings using a modified wind tunnel system. The uncertainty of aromatic emissions is determined by means of statistics and the emission factors were thus developed...
October 19, 2016: Environment International
Allison L Clouthier, Eric R Bohm, John F Rudan, Barbara L Shay, Michael J Rainbow, Kevin J Deluzio
Multicentre studies are rare in three dimensional motion analyses due to challenges associated with combining waveform data from different centres. Principal component analysis (PCA) is a statistical technique that can be used to quantify variability in waveform data and identify group differences. A correction technique based on PCA is proposed that can be used in post processing to remove nuisance variation introduced by the differences between centres. Using this technique, the waveform bias that exists between the two datasets is corrected such that the means agree...
October 13, 2016: Gait & Posture
Baoxin Liu, Yong Li, Jiachen Luo, Liming Dai, Jinlong Zhao, Hongqiang Li, Qiqiang Jie, Dongzhi Wang, Xin Huang, Yidong Wei
OBJECTIVES: To examine plasma protein Z (PZ) levels in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and chronic coronary atherosclerosis disease (CCAD) patients without history of AMI and explore its potential clinical significance. METHODS: Plasma PZ concentrations were measured in 90 AMI patients (Group A), 87 CCAD patients without AMI history who remained free of major clinical events at least one year (Group B), and 88 clinically healthy controls (Group C). RESULTS: PZ was found to be significantly lower (P<0...
October 13, 2016: Thrombosis Research
Cristiane Ávila Santana, Dinorah Machado Vaz Lima, Luis Humberto da Cunha Andrade, Yzel Rondon Súarez, Sandro Marcio Lima
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluorescence of Astyanax lacustris fish scales when excited in the UV-A and blue regions for use as a bioindicator of aquatic ecosystems. This species was firstly defined as Astyanax altiparanae, popularly known as "lambari-do-rabo-amarelo". Currently, abiotic/biotic environmental integrity is generally assessed using limnological and physicochemical parameters related to biological indicators in streams or rivers, which are not sufficient to evaluate the real environmental conditions: in some cases, these parameters can be strongly dependent on local weather conditions...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
J E Correia, C A Christofoletti, A C C Marcato, J F U Marinho, C S Fontanetti
Sugarcane vinasse is one of the main residues generated by the transformation of cane into ethanol. Because of the high organic content (COD), high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), low pH, the large amount that this residue is generated (15l for every liter of ethanol produced) and their use as fertilizer on the sugarcane crop, this residue is potentially polluting to the soil ecossystem and by percolation to water ecossystem too. Thus, this study aimed to assess the toxicity of vinasse by analyzing Oreochromis niloticus gills exposed to different dilutions (1%, 2...
October 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Hasan Terzi, Pinar Solmaz Hasdemir, Alper Biler, Ahmet Kale, Fatih Sendag
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether uterine weight has a deleterious effect on the operation time, complication rates, length of hospital stay and incidence of intraoperative haemorrhage during total laparoscopic hysterectomy operation. METHODS: A total of 282 patients who underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign gynaecologic indications were retrospectively analyzed. The median operation time of 70 min was accepted as an index number, and a cut-off point of ≥300 g was calculated for uterine weight by using reciever operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Zi-Qi Shen, Shan-Yan Gao, Shawn Xiang Li, Tie-Ning Zhang, Cai-Xia Liu, Hai-Chen Lv, Yuan Zhang, Ting-Ting Gong, Xin Xu, Chao Ji, Qi-Jun Wu, Da Li
AIM: To perform a meta-analysis of available cohort studies on the association between sertraline use by pregnant women in the first trimester and the findings of congenital anomalies in infants. METHODS: A comprehensive search of articles published from the index date through December 31, 2015 investigating the aforementioned associations was conducted on PubMed and Web of Science. Mesh headings used included the terms "serotonin reuptake inhibitor," "sertraline," "congenital anomalies" and "obstetrical outcome...
October 22, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Huma Siddiqui, Tsute Chen, Ardita Aliko, Piotr M Mydel, Roland Jonsson, Ingar Olsen
BACKGROUND: Reduced salivation is considered a major clinical feature of most but not all cases of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Reduced saliva flow may lead to changes in the salivary microbiota. These changes have mainly been studied with culture that typically recovers only 65% of the bacteria present. OBJECTIVE: This study was to use high throughput sequencing, covering both cultivated and not-yet-cultivated bacteria, to assess the bacterial microbiota of whole saliva in pSS patients with normal salivation...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
U Waldenström, S Cnattingius, L Vixner, M Norman
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether advanced maternal age is associated with preterm birth, irrespective of parity. DESIGN: Population-based registry study. SETTING: Swedish Medical Birth Register. POPULATION: First, second, and third live singleton births to women aged 20 years or older in Sweden, from 1990 to 2011 (n = 2 009 068). METHODS: Logistic regression analysis was used in each parity group to estimate risks of very and moderately preterm births to women at 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, and 40 years or older, using 25-29 years as the reference group...
October 21, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Riikka Homanen
This article discusses practices of parental support in the maternity healthcare provided by the welfare state. Drawing on ethnographic material from clinics in Finland, I discuss maternity healthcare practices and processes as the specific contexts of subjectification to parenthood in the Nordic welfare state. The analysis shows that in both nurses' (work) experience-based knowledge and population-statistical knowledge, parental competence is achieved largely through the 'natural' process of experiencing pregnant life...
October 22, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
M Elnaghy, S E Elsaka
AIM: To compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of WaveOne Gold (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK, USA) and Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) reciprocating instruments during immersion in sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and saline solutions at body temperature. METHODOLOGY: A total of 180 new WaveOne Gold primary size 25, .07 taper, and Reciproc size 25, .08 taper were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1: no immersion (control, air); Group 2: immersion in saline at 37°C ± 1°C; and Group 3: immersion in 5% NaOCl at 37°C ± 1°C...
October 21, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
Motahare Soufi, Alireza Kamali-Asl, Parham Geramifar, Arman Rahmim
PURPOSE: Determination of intra-tumor high-uptake area using 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is an important consideration for dose painting in radiation treatment applications. The aim of our study was to develop a framework towards automated segmentation and labeling of homogeneous vs. heterogeneous tumors in clinical lung [(18)F]FDG-PET with the capability of intra-tumor high-uptake region delineation. PROCEDURES: We utilized and extended a fuzzy random walk PET tumor segmentation algorithm to delineate intra-tumor high-uptake areas...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Chi-Liang Cheng, Nai-Jen Liu, Jui-Hsiang Tang, Yen-Lin Kuo, Hsiang-Ling Hung, Yi-Ning Tsui, Bai-Ping Lee, Cheng-Hui Lin
BACKGROUND: A 3-l polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution provided better bowel cleansing quality than a 2-l solution for outpatient colonoscopy. Predictors of suboptimal preparation using a 3-l PEG have not been previously reported. AIMS: To investigate the possible predictors of suboptimal bowel preparation using 3-l of PEG. METHODS: We analyzed a database of 1404 consecutive colonoscopies during a 27-month period at a community hospital. A split-dose PEG regimen was provided for morning colonoscopies, and a same-day PEG regimen was provided for afternoon colonoscopies...
October 21, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Sandip Sinharay
Tests for a change point (e.g., Chen and Gupta, Parametric statistical change point analysis (2nd ed.). Birkhuser, Boston, 2012; Hawkins et al., J Qual Technol 35:355-366, 2003) have recently been brought into the spotlight for their potential uses in psychometrics. They have been successfully applied to detect an unusual change in the mean score of a sequence of administrations of an international language assessment (Lee and von Davier, Psychometrika 78:557-575, 2013) and to detect speededness of examinees (Shao et al...
October 21, 2016: Psychometrika
Benjamin Kearns, Abdullah Pandor, Matt Stevenson, Jean Hamilton, Duncan Chambers, Mark Clowes, John Graham, M Satish Kumar
As part of its single technology appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the company that manufactures cabazitaxel (Jevtana(®), Sanofi, UK) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of cabazitaxel for treatment of patients with metastatic hormone-relapsed prostate cancer (mHRPC) previously treated with a docetaxel-containing regimen. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG)...
October 22, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
Xiaona Zhang, Xiaoxuan Sun, Junhong Wang, Liou Tang, Anmu Xie
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is thought to be one of the most frequent preceding symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the prevalence of RBD in PD stated in the published studies is still inconsistent. We conducted a meta and meta-regression analysis in this paper to estimate the pooled prevalence. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE and EBSCO up to June 2016 for related articles. STATA 12.0 statistics software was used to calculate the available data from each research...
October 21, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Giovanni Sala, Fernand Gobet
Experts' remarkable ability to recall meaningful domain-specific material is a classic result in cognitive psychology. Influential explanations for this ability have focused on the acquisition of high-level structures (e.g., schemata) or experts' capability to process information holistically. However, research on chess players suggests that experts maintain some reliable memory advantage over novices when random stimuli (e.g., shuffled chess positions) are presented. This skill effect cannot be explained by theories emphasizing high-level memory structures or holistic processing of stimuli, because random material does not contain large structures nor wholes...
October 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
Miriam Krischke, Georg Hempel, Swantje Völler, Nicolas André, Maurizio D'Incalci, Gianni Bisogno, Wolfgang Köpcke, Matthias Borowski, Ralf Herold, Alan V Boddy, Joachim Boos
PURPOSE: Doxorubicin is a key component in many pediatric oncology treatment regimens; still pharmacology data on which current dosing regimens are based are very limited. METHODS: We conducted a multinational pharmacokinetic study investigating age dependency of doxorubicin metabolism and elimination in children with cancer. One hundred and one patients treated with doxorubicin according to a cancer-specific national or European therapeutic trial were recruited...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Yuichi Nishiyama, Hidekazu Kanayama, Hiroshi Mori, Keiji Tada, Yasushi Yamamoto, Takashi Katsube, Haruo Takeshita, Kazunori Kawakami, Hajime Kitagaki
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the usefulness of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for investigating postmortem changes on brain computed tomography (CT). METHODS: This retrospective study included 128 patients (23 - 100 years old) without cerebral abnormalities who underwent unenhanced brain CT before and after death. The antemortem CT (AMCT) scans and postmortem CT (PMCT) scans were spatially normalized using our original brain CT template, and postmortem changes of CT values (in Hounsfield units; HU) were analysed by the SPM technique...
October 21, 2016: European Radiology
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