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Sabine Geiselhart, Karin Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Merima Bublin
Tree nuts are considered as part of a healthy diet due to their high nutritional quality. However, they are also a potent source of allergenic proteins inducing IgE mediated hypersensitivity often causing serious, life-threatening reactions. The reported prevalence of tree nut allergy is up to 4.9% worldwide. The general term "tree nuts" comprises a number of nuts, seeds, and drupes, derived from trees from different botanical families. For hazelnut and walnut several allergens have been identified which are already partly applied in component resolved diagnosis, while for other tree nuts such as macadamia, coconut, and Brazil nut only individual allergens were identified and data on additional allergenic proteins are missing...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Adrián Rabadán, Manuel Álvarez-Ortí, José Emilio Pardo, Andrés Alvarruiz
Chemical composition and stability parameters of three cold-pressed nut oils (almond, walnut and pistachio) were monitored for up to 16 months of storage at 5 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C and room temperature. Freshly pressed pistachio oil had lower peroxide value than almond oil and higher induction period than almond and walnut oils, indicating a higher stability. The peroxide values increased faster at room temperature than at lower temperatures during the storage time, and the highest increase was for pistachio oil stored at room temperature exposed to daylight...
September 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Peng Zhao, Hui-Juan Zhou, Daniel Potter, Yi-Heng Hu, Xiao-Jia Feng, Meng Dang, Li Feng, Saman Zulfiqar, Wen-Zhe Liu, Guifang Zhao, Keith Woeste
Genomic data are a powerful tool for elucidating the processes involved in the evolution and divergence of species. The speciation and phylogenetic relationships among Chinese Juglans remain unclear. Here, we used results from phylogenomic and population genetic analyses, transcriptomics, Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS), and whole chloroplast genomes (Cp genome) data to infer processes of lineage formation among the five native Chinese species of the walnut genus (Juglans, Juglandaceae), a widespread, economically important group...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Elham Arkan, Ali Barati, Mohsen Rahmanpanah, Leila Hosseinzadeh, Samaneh Moradi, Marziyeh Hajialyani
Purpose: This paper introduces a green and simple hydrothermal synthesis to prepare carbon quantum dots (CQDs) from walnut oil with a high quantum yield. In addition, cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of the CQDs were analyzed on human cancer cell lines. Methods: The optical properties and morphological characteristic were investigated by the TEM, XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis and photoluminescence (PL).The cytotoxic potential of walnut CQDs was evaluated on PC3, MCF-7 and HT-29 human carcinoma cell lines using the MTT methods...
March 2018: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Danh Vu, Phuc Vo, Mark Coggeshall, Chung-Ho Lin
Black walnuts ( Juglans nigra L.) are highly valued for producing phenolic-enriched nuts. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize phenolic contents of eleven different black walnut cultivars and compare the levels of these phenolics between black walnuts and English walnut ( Juglans regia L.). Totally, 16 phenolics including phenolic acids, flavonoids, and catechins were identified in the black walnut kernels, with ellagic acid predominating over the other phenolics. Significant differences were noted for the levels of quinic acid, gallic acid, 1,3,6-trigalloylglucose, catechin, and penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose between the studied black walnuts and English walnut...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Adrián Rabadán, José E Pardo, Arturo Pardo-Giménez, Manuel Álvarez-Ortí
The present study analyses the health-promoting compounds of walnut oil and walnut defatted flour obtained using hydraulic pressing. To identify the cultivar effect, nine walnut varieties were harvested in the same plot for two years to control environmental and agricultural management effects on kernel chemical traits. Beyond the variability reported in the products obtained from the different cultivars analysed, the crop year showed a crucial effect in the nutritional value of walnut products. Specifically, the variability caused for the crop year in the concentration of oleic and linoleic acids, phytosterols, polyphenols, tocopherols, proteins and essential minerals (K, Mg, P, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni) was greater that the reported for the genotype...
April 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yongxiang Han, Zhanglin Ni, Shiliang Li, Minghua Qu, Fubin Tang, Runhong Mo, Caifen Ye, Yihua Liu
Walnut is one of the most popular nuts worldwide and contains various mineral nutrients. Little is known, however, about the relationship between toxic heavy metals in walnuts and growth soil. In this study, we investigated the distribution, relationship, and risk assessment of five toxic heavy metals-lead (Pb), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg)-in walnuts and growth soil in the main production areas of China. The results showed that the main heavy metal pollution in walnut and soil was Pb and Cd...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dayong Ren, Fanrui Zhao, Chunlei Liu, Ji Wang, Yong Guo, Jingsheng Liu, Weihong Min
BACKGROUND: Walnut protein, which is obtained as a by-product of oil expression, has not been used efficiently. Although walnuts are beneficial for cognitive functioning, the potential of their protein composition in strengthening learning and memory functions remains unknown. In this research, the inhibition of memory impairment by the Manchurian walnut hydrolyzed peptide (MWHP) was evaluated. RESULTS: Small-molecular-weight MWHP (<3 kDa) achieved the optimal antioxidative activity...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Hatice Kavuncuoglu, Erhan Kavuncuoglu, Seyda Merve Karatas, Büsra Benli, Osman Sagdic, Hasan Yalcin
The mathematical model was established to determine the diameter of inhibition zone of the walnut extract on the twelve bacterial species. Type of extraction, concentration, and pathogens were taken as input variables. Two models were used with the aim of designing this system. One of them was developed with artificial neural networks (ANN), and the other was formed with multiple linear regression (MLR). Four common training algorithms were used. Levenberg-Marquardt (LM), Bayesian regulation (BR), scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and resilient back propagation (RP) were investigated, and the algorithms were compared...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Zhenbao Zhu, Cui Zhao, Jianhua Yi, Ning Liu, Yungang Cao, Eric A Decker, David Julian McClements
The impact of interfacial composition on lipid and protein co-oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions containing a mixture of proteins and surfactants was investigated. The emulsions consisted of 5% v/v walnut oil, 0.5% w/v whey protein isolate (WPI), and 0 to 0.4% w/v Tween 20 (pH 3 and 7). The protein surface load, magnitude of the ξ-potential, and mean particle diameter of the emulsions decreased as the Tween 20 concentration was increased, indicating the whey proteins were displaced by this non-ionic surfactant...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
João Lobo, Mariana Cunha Ferreira, Pedro Negrão Ramos
Background: The authors present an unusual clinical case of high median nerve compression caused by an iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm of the brachial artery after an angiography with a follow up of 9 months. Methods: A 73-year-old male was seen with progressive numbness, loss of opponency and diminution of strength of finger flexion in the left hand after an angiography with direct puncture of the left humeral artery. Physical examination revealed a hard consistency internal distal arm swelling with the size of a walnut, non-pulsatile and with a Tinel sign on percussion...
April 2018: Trauma Case Reports
Peng Wang, Chang Gao, Wei Wang, Li-Ping Yao, Jing Zhang, Sun-Dong Zhang, Ji Li, Shao-Hong Fang, Yu-Jie Fu
Juglone (JG), a naturally-occurring naphthoquinone of Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica) was shown to inhibit proliferation in various tumor types. However, the molecular mechanisms of JG on the induction of apoptosis and autophagy in HepG2 cells have not been examined. Herein, we investigated that JG could inhibit cell proliferation by induction of G2/M phase arrest. Also, occurrence of apoptosis was closely related with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the changes of apoptosis-related proteins after treatment with JG...
April 6, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Shyang-Chwen Sheu, Po-Chuan Tsou, Yi-Yang Lien, Meng-Shiou Lee
Peanut is a widely and common used in many cuisines around the world. However, peanut is also one of the most important food allergen for causing anaphylactic reaction. To prevent allergic reaction, the best way is to avoid the food allergen or food containing allergic ingredient such as peanut before food consuming. Thus, to efficient and precisely detect the allergic ingredient, peanut or related product, is essential and required for maintain consumer's health or their interest. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of allergic peanut using specifically designed primer sets...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Chaonan Xie, Zheng Feei Ma, Fang Li, Hongxia Zhang, Lingming Kong, Zhipan Yang, Weifeng Xie
The purpose of investigation was to assess the effect of lycopene on the peroxide value, acid value, fatty acids, total phenolic content and ferric-reducing antioxidant power of walnut oil. Walnut oil was extracted from Xinjiang walnut variety using cold pressing method. Our study reported that after 45 days of accelerated oxidation at 60 °C (Schaal oven test), 0.005% lycopene exhibited the greatest antioxidant effect than other addition levels of lycopene. Therefore, under ambient storage conditions, the shelf-life of walnut oil could be extended up to 16 months by 0...
April 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Sakura Sato, Noriyuki Yanagida, Motohiro Ebisawa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To assess the recent studies that focus on specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) testing and basophil activation test (BAT) for diagnosing IgE-mediated food allergies. RECENT FINDINGS: The sIgE to allergen extract or component can predict reactivity to food. The cutoff value based on the positive predictive value (PPV) of sIgE can be considered whenever deciding whether oral food challenge (OFC) is required to diagnose hen's egg, cow's milk, wheat, peanut, and cashew nut allergy...
March 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Xiong-Wen David Lou
Mesoporous nanoparticles possessing tailored ultralarge open channels are of great interests for the development of new catalytic systems, electrochemical devices and carriers for biological macromolecules. However, soft template-directed synthesis of mesoporous particles with highly accessible pores larger than 20 nm is very challenging. Herein we report a simple dual-soft-template approach to prepare walnut-shaped macro-/mesoporous polydopamine particles with diameter of ~270 nm, highly accessible bicontinuous channels and wide pore size distribution from ~20 nm to ~95 nm...
March 30, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Spyridoula Christopoulou, Sofia Karaiskou, Despina P Kalogianni
A microbead-based method is developed for the detection of three nut allergens that can occur in food. The bead array constitutes of a suspension of spectrally distinct fluorescent polystyrene microbeads and has been applied for the simultaneous detection of three main and serious allergens (hazelnut, peanut and walnut). The method is based on the simultaneous identification of specific DNA sequences after PCR. The PCR products are biotinylated and hybridized to nut-specific oligonucleotide probes attached to the microbeads...
December 5, 2017: Mikrochimica Acta
David Beltrán, María Romo-Vaquero, Juan C Espín, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán, Maria V Selma
Urolithins are gut microbial metabolites that exert health benefits in vivo and are generated from ellagic acid (EA) and ellagitannin-containing foods such as strawberries, pomegranates and walnuts. Gordonibacter species produce some intermediary urolithins but the micro-organisms responsible for the transformation of EA into the final and more bioactive urolithins, such as urolithin A and isourolithin A, are unknown. We report here a new bacterium, capable of metabolizing EA into isourolithin A, isolated from healthy human faeces and characterized by determining phenotypic, biochemical and molecular methods...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Zhenbao Zhu, Weiduo Zhu, Jianhua Yi, Ning Liu, Yungang Cao, Jiali Lu, Eric Andrew Decker, David Julian McClements
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-intensity ultrasound treatment (sonication) on the molecular, physicochemical, and functional properties of walnut protein isolate. Aqueous walnut protein suspensions were sonicated at varying power levels (200, 400 or 600 W) and times (15 or 30 min), and then any alternations in protein structure and properties were determined. SDS-PAGE demonstrated that there were no changes in protein electrophoretic patterns, indicating that sonication did not break covalent bonds...
April 2018: Food Research International
Lilac Tene, Ilan Shelef, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Yftach Gepner, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Gal Tsaban, Hila Zelicha, Avital Bilitzky, Oded Komy, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Yoash Chassidim, Benjamin Sarusy, Uta Ceglarek, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Meir J Stampfer, Assaf Rudich, Iris Shai
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The ability to mobilize pancreatic-fat and the meaning of decreased fat in the pancreas remain controversial. We followed the dynamics of pancreatic-fat and its morphology during various long weight-loss induced lifestyle-interventions. METHODS: In isolated workplace with monitored/provided lunch, we randomly assigned healthy persons with abdominal obesity or dyslipidemia for one of two 18-month equal-caloric diets: low-fat (LF) or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (Med/LC, with provided 1oz walnuts/day), with or without added moderate exercise (supervised gym membership)...
April 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
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