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NAD+ AND nicotinamide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077334/the-neuroprotective-compound-p7c3-a20-promotes-neurogenesis-and-improves-cognitive-function-after-ischemic-stroke
#1
Zachary B Loris, Andrew A Pieper, W Dalton Dietrich
Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition with few therapeutic interventions available. The neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 inhibits mature neuronal cell death while also increasing the net magnitude of postnatal neurogenesis in models of neurodegeneration and acute injury. P7C3 compounds enhance flux of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in mammalian cells, a proposed therapeutic approach to treating cerebral ischemia. The effectiveness of P7C3-A20 treatment on chronic histopathological and behavioral outcomes and neurogenesis after ischemic stroke has not previously been established...
January 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073422/-research-advances-in-the-association-between-deacetylase-sirtuin3-and-liver-diseases
#2
J Yu, C Chen, W X Wang
The deacetylase Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a member of the Sirtuins mainly located in the mitochondrial matrix, and as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent deacetylase, it can regulate cellular energy metabolism and oxidative stress-related pathways. The liver is the largest solid organ in the human body and plays a very important role in substance metabolism. Based on the features of SIRT3, it is closely associated with the development and progression of certain liver diseases. This article reviews the research advances in the role of SIRT3 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, liver cancer, and hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072529/correlation-between-the-structure-and-catalytic-activity-of-cp-rh-substituted-bipyridine-complexes-for-nadh-regeneration
#3
Vinothkumar Ganesan, Dharmalingam Sivanesan, Sungho Yoon
A series of water-soluble half-sandwich [Cp*Rh(III)(N^N)Cl](+) (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadiene, N^N-substituted 2,2'-bipyridine) complexes containing electron-donating substituents around the 2,2'-bipyridyl ligand were synthesized and fully characterized for the regioselective reduction of nicotinamide coenzyme (NAD(+)). The influence of the positional effect of the substituents on the structural, electrochemical, and catalytic properties of the catalyst was systematically studied in detail. The catalytic efficiency of the substituted bipyridine Cp*Rh(III) complexes are inversely correlated with their redox potentials...
January 10, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068222/long-term-administration-of-nicotinamide-mononucleotide-mitigates-age-associated-physiological-decline-in-mice
#4
Kathryn F Mills, Shohei Yoshida, Liana R Stein, Alessia Grozio, Shunsuke Kubota, Yo Sasaki, Philip Redpath, Marie E Migaud, Rajendra S Apte, Koji Uchida, Jun Yoshino, Shin-Ichiro Imai
NAD(+) availability decreases with age and in certain disease conditions. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a key NAD(+) intermediate, has been shown to enhance NAD(+) biosynthesis and ameliorate various pathologies in mouse disease models. In this study, we conducted a 12-month-long NMN administration to regular chow-fed wild-type C57BL/6N mice during their normal aging. Orally administered NMN was quickly utilized to synthesize NAD(+) in tissues. Remarkably, NMN effectively mitigates age-associated physiological decline in mice...
December 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062235/new-approach-to-biosensing-of-co-enzyme-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-nadh-by-incorporation-of-neutral-red-in-aluminum-doped-nanostructured-zno-thin-films
#5
V T Fidal, T S Chandra
Biosensing of NADH on bare electrodes has drawbacks such as high over-potential and poisoning during the oxidation reaction. To overcome this challenge a different approach has been undertaken by incorporating neutral red (NR) in Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films using one-pot chemical bath deposition (CBD). The surface morphology of the films was hexagonal nanorods along the c-axis, perpendicular to the substrate. The thickness of the thin films were ranging from 400 to 3000nm varying dependent on time of deposition (30 to 150min)...
January 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052592/innocent-but-deadly-nontoxic-organoiridium-catalysts-promote-selective-cancer-cell-death
#6
Lu Yang, Sohini Bose, Anh H Ngo, Loi H Do
We demonstrate that nontoxic organoiridum complexes can selectively chemosensitize cancer cells toward platinum antiproliferative agents. Treatment of human cancer cells (breast, colon, eye/retina, head/neck, lung, ovary, and blood) with the iridium chemosensitizers led to lowering of the 50 % growth inhibition concentration (IC50 ) of the Pt drug carboplatin by up to ∼30-50 %. Interestingly, non-cancer cells were mostly resistant to the chemosensitizing effects of the iridium complexes. Cell culture studies indicate that cancer cells that were administered with Ir show significantly higher reactive oxygen species concentrations as well as NAD(+) /NADH ratios (oxidized vs...
January 4, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032143/an-evidence-based-review-of-the-genotoxic-and-reproductive-effects-of-sulfur-mustard
#7
REVIEW
Fazlullah Khan, Kamal Niaz, Fatima Ismail Hassan, Mohammad Abdollahi
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent which is cytotoxic in nature, and at the molecular level, SM acts as DNA alkylating agent leading to genotoxic and reproductive effects. Mostly, the exposed areas of the body are the main targets for SM; however, it also adversely affects various tissues of the body and ultimately exhibits long-term complications including genotoxic and reproductive effects, even in the next generations. The effect of SM on reproductive system is the reason behind male infertility...
December 28, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031484/identification-of-nad-capped-mrnas-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#8
Robert W Walters, Tyler Matheny, Laura S Mizoue, Bhalchandra S Rao, Denise Muhlrad, Roy Parker
RNAs besides tRNA and rRNA contain chemical modifications, including the recently described 5' nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) RNA in bacteria. Whether 5' NAD-RNA exists in eukaryotes remains unknown. We demonstrate that 5' NAD-RNA is found on subsets of nuclear and mitochondrial encoded mRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae NAD-mRNA appears to be produced cotranscriptionally because NAD-RNA is also found on pre-mRNAs, and only on mitochondrial transcripts that are not 5' end processed. These results define an additional 5' RNA cap structure in eukaryotes and raise the possibility that this 5' NAD(+) cap could modulate RNA stability and translation on specific subclasses of mRNAs...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018295/combined-whole-cell-high-throughput-functional-screening-for-identification-of-new-nicotinamidases-pyrazinamidases-in-metagenomic-polygenomic-libraries
#9
Rubén Zapata-Pérez, Antonio G García-Saura, Mohamed Jebbar, Peter N Golyshin, Álvaro Sánchez-Ferrer
Nicotinamidases catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in nicotinamide (NAM) to produce ammonia and nicotinic acid (NA). These enzymes are an essential component of the NAD(+) salvage pathway and are implicated in the viability of several pathogenic organisms. Its absence in humans makes them a promising drug target. In addition, although they are key analytical biocatalysts for screening modulators in relevant biomedical enzymes, such as sirtuins and poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases, no commercial sources are available...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011627/enhancing-nad-salvage-metabolism-is-neuroprotective-in-a-pink1-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Susann Lehmann, Samantha H Y Loh, L Miguel Martins
Familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) caused by mutations in PINK1 are linked to mitochondrial impairment. Defective mitochondria are also found in Drosophila models of PD with pink1 mutations. The co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is essential for both generating energy in mitochondria and nuclear DNA repair through NAD(+)-consuming poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). We found alterations in NAD(+) salvage metabolism in Drosophila pink1 mutants and showed that a diet supplemented with the NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide rescued mitochondrial defects and protected neurons from degeneration...
December 23, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000862/sirt1%C3%A2-mediated-regulation-of-oxidative-stress-induced-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lipopolysaccharides-in-human-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#11
Xiaoli Liu, Tuo Yang, Tieying Sun, Kuiqing Shao
Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) is an NAD+‑dependent deacetylase that exhibits multiple biological functions, including cell differentiation inhibition, transcription regulation, cell cycle regulation and anti‑apoptosis. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are crucial virulence factors produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and serve an important role in adjusting the interactions between the host and the pathogen. However, the effect of SIRT1 in the regulation of LPS‑induced A459 human alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) oxidative stress remains unclear...
February 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994519/anticancer-effects-of-a-new-sirt-inhibitor-mhy2256-against-human-breast-cancer-mcf-7-cells-via-regulation-of-mdm2-p53-binding
#12
Eun Young Park, Youngwoo Woo, Seong Jin Kim, Do Hyun Kim, Eui Kyung Lee, Umasankar De, Kyeong Seok Kim, Jaewon Lee, Jee H Jung, Ki-Tae Ha, Wahn Soo Choi, In Su Kim, Byung Mu Lee, Sungpil Yoon, Hyung Ryong Moon, Hyung Sik Kim
The sirtuins (SIRTs), a family of NAD(+)-dependent class III histone deacetylase, are involved in various biological processes including cell survival, division, senescence, and metabolism via activation of the stress-response pathway. Recently, inhibition of SIRTs has been considered a promising anticancer strategy, but their precise mechanisms of action are not well understood. In particular, the relevance of p53 to SIRT-induced effects has not been fully elucidated. We investigated the anticancer effects of a novel SIRT inhibitor, MHY2256, and its efficacy was compared to that of salermide in MCF-7 (wild-type p53) and SKOV-3 (null-type p53) cells...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993887/communication-homocysteine-thioretinaco-ozonide-oxidative-phosphorylation-biosynthesis-of-phosphoadenosine-phosphosulfate-and-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#13
Kilmer S McCully
The formation of phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate (PAPS) is accomplished by the action of the enzyme 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase (PAPSS) in two sequential reactions, consisting of (1) reaction of inorganic sulfate with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to form adenosine phosphosulfate (APS) and pyrophosphate and (2) reaction of APS with inorganic phosphate to form PAPS and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) is coordinated with synthesis of APS in a reaction sequence which provides the chemical energy for synthesis of APS...
December 2016: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992770/zinc-stress-affects-ionome-and-metabolome-in-tea-plants
#14
Yinfei Zhang, Yu Wang, Zhaotang Ding, Hui Wang, Lubin Song, Sisi Jia, Dexin Ma
The research of physiological responses to Zn stress in plants has been extensively studied. However, the ionomics and metabolomics responses of plants to Zn stress remain largely unknown. In present study, the nutrient elements were identified involved in ion homeostasis and metabolomics changes related to Zn deficiency or excess in tea plants. Nutrient element analysis demonstrated that the concentrations of Zn affected the ion-uptake in roots and the nutrient element transportation to leaves, leading to the different distribution of P, S, Al, Ca, Fe and Cu in the tea leaves or roots...
December 12, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990620/role-of-peroxynitrite-induced-activation-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-parp-in-circulatory-shock-and-related-pathological-conditions
#15
REVIEW
Badar Ul Islam, Safia Habib, Syed Amaan Ali, Moinuddin, Asif Ali
Peroxynitrite is a powerful oxidant, formed from the reaction of nitric oxide and superoxide. It is known to interact and modify different biological molecules such as DNA, lipids and proteins leading to alterations in their structure and functions. These events elicit various cellular responses, including cell signaling, causing oxidative damage and committing cells to apoptosis or necrosis. This review discusses nitrosative stress-induced modification in the DNA molecule that results in the formation of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxoguanine, and its role in disease conditions...
December 19, 2016: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984041/structural-and-functional-characterization-of-plasmodium-falciparum-nicotinic-acid-mononucleotide-adenylyltransferase
#16
Jochen Bathke, Karin Fritz-Wolf, Christina Brandstädter, Anja Burkhardt, Esther Jortzik, Stefan Rahlfs, Katja Becker
Nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NaMNAT) is an indispensable enzyme for the synthesis of NAD and NADP. It catalyzes the adenylylation of nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) to yield nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD). Since NAD(H) and NADP(H) are essentially involved in metabolic and redox regulatory reactions, NaMNAT is an attractive drug target in the fight against bacterial and parasitic infections. Notably, NaMNAT of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum possesses only 20% sequence identity with the homologous human enzyme...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979739/genetic-variants-in-sirt3-transcriptional-regulatory-region-affect-promoter-activity-and-fat-deposition-in-three-cattle-breeds
#17
Linsheng Gui, Jieyun Hong, Sayed Haidar Abbas Raza, Linsen Zan
Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase. It has crucial roles in regulating the respiratory chain, in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, and in both the citric acid and urea cycles. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SIRT3 could be used as a candidate gene in the breeding of cattle. Expression analysis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) indicated that expression levels of SIRT3 were highest in the kidney, rumen, liver, omasum and muscle...
December 12, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979136/simultaneous-quantitation-of-nicotinamide-riboside-nicotinamide-mononucleotide-and-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-in-milk-by-a-novel-enzyme-coupled-assay
#18
Simone Ummarino, Massimo Mozzon, Federica Zamporlini, Adolfo Amici, Francesca Mazzola, Giuseppe Orsomando, Silverio Ruggieri, Nadia Raffaelli
Nicotinamide riboside, the most recently discovered form of vitamin B3, and its phosphorylated form nicotinamide mononucleotide, have been shown to be potent supplements boosting intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels, thus preventing or ameliorating metabolic and mitochondrial diseases in mouse models. Here we report for the first time on the simultaneous quantitation of nicotinamide riboside, nicotinamide mononucleotide and NAD in milk by means of a fluorometric, enzyme-coupled assay...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977022/capture-and-sequencing-of-nad-capped-rna-sequences-with-nad-captureseq
#19
Marie-Luise Winz, Hana Cahová, Gabriele Nübel, Jens Frindert, Katharina Höfer, Andres Jäschke
Here we describe a protocol for NAD captureSeq that allows for the identification of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-capped RNA sequences in total RNA samples from different organisms. NAD-capped RNA is first chemo-enzymatically biotinylated with high efficiency, permitting selective capture on streptavidin beads. Then, a highly efficient library preparation protocol tailored to immobilized, 5'-modified RNA is applied, with adaptor ligation to the RNA's 3' terminus and reverse transcription (RT) performed on-bead...
January 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973747/quinolinic-acid-induces-neuritogenesis-in-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells-independently-of-nmda-receptor-activation
#20
Juan-Manuel Hernandez-Martinez, Caroline M Forrest, L Gail Darlington, Robert A Smith, Trevor W Stone
Glutamate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) have been implicated in neuronal development and several types of cancer. The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism includes quinolinic acid (QA) which is both a selective agonist at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and also a precursor for the formation of NAD+. The effect of QA on cell survival and differentiation has therefore been examined on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Retinoic acid (RA, 10 μM) induced differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells into a neuronal phenotype showing neurite growth...
December 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
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