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NAD+ AND nicotinamide

Xiangying Guan, Alok Upadhyay, Sudipto Munshi, Raj Chakrabarti
Across all families of enzymes, only a dozen or so distinct classes of non-natural small molecule activators have been characterized, with only four known modes of activation among them. All of these modes of activation rely on naturally evolved binding sites that trigger global conformational changes. Among the enzymes that are of greatest interest for small molecule activation are the seven sirtuin enzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent protein deacylases that play a central role in the regulation of healthspan and lifespan in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals...
2018: PloS One
Megerditch Kiledjian
A hallmark of eukaryotic mRNAs has long been the 5'-end m7 G cap. This paradigm was recently amended by recent reports that Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cells also contain mRNAs carrying a novel nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) cap at their 5'-end. The presence of an NAD+ cap on mRNA uncovers a previously unknown mechanism for controlling gene expression through nucleotide metabolite-directed mRNA turnover. In contrast to the m7 G cap that stabilizes mRNA, the NAD+ cap targets RNA for rapid decay in mammalian cells through the DXO non-canonical decapping enzyme which removes intact NAD+ from RNA in a process termed 'deNADding'...
March 12, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Natthakan Thongon, Chiara Zucal, Vito Giuseppe D'Agostino, Toma Tebaldi, Silvia Ravera, Federica Zamporlini, Francesco Piacente, Ruxanda Moschoi, Nadia Raffaelli, Alessandro Quattrone, Alessio Nencioni, Jean-Francois Peyron, Alessandro Provenzani
Background: Inhibitors of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme in NAD+ biosynthesis from nicotinamide, exhibit anticancer effects in preclinical models. However, continuous exposure to NAMPT inhibitors, such as FK866, can induce acquired resistance. Methods: We developed FK866-resistant CCRF-CEM (T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia) and MDA MB231 (breast cancer) models, and by exploiting an integrated approach based on genetic, biochemical, and genome wide analyses, we annotated the drug resistance mechanisms...
2018: Cancer & Metabolism
George Cătălin Marinescu, Roua-Gabriela Popescu, Anca Dinischiotu
Over 12% of the world's health resources are spent on treating diabetes, as high blood glucose is the third cause of mortality worldwide. Insulin resistance is the basis of the most common form of diabetes: type 2 diabetes. Recent animal studies report successful attempts at reversing type 2 diabetes by the administering of the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). However, the current high price of this molecule urges for more efficient and cost-effective production methods. This work proposes a method for purifying NMN by Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) on silica with a covalently attached coating of poly(2-hydroxyethyl aspartamide) (PolyHEA) stationary phase using an isocratic elution with a denaturing mobile phase (50 mM formic acid) from a complex molecular mixture such as a fermentation broth...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Filipa V Sena, Filipe M Sousa, A Sofia F Oliveira, Cláudio M Soares, Teresa Catarino, Manuela M Pereira
Type-II NADH:quinone oxidoreductases (NDH-2s) are membrane proteins involved in respiratory chains and the only enzymes with NADH:quinone oxidoreductase activity expressed in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), one of the most common causes of clinical infections. NDH-2s are members of the two-Dinucleotide Binding Domains Flavoprotein (tDBDF) superfamily, having a flavin adenine dinucleotide, FAD, as prosthetic group and NAD(P)H as substrate. The establishment of a Charge-Transfer Complex (CTC) between the isoalloxazine ring of the reduced flavin and the nicotinamide ring of NAD+ in NDH-2 was described, and in this work we explored its role in the kinetic mechanism using different electron donors and electron acceptors...
February 17, 2018: Redox Biology
Sarah J Mitchell, Michel Bernier, Miguel A Aon, Sonia Cortassa, Eun Young Kim, Evandro F Fang, Hector H Palacios, Ahmed Ali, Ignacio Navas-Enamorado, Andrea Di Francesco, Tamzin A Kaiser, Tyler B Waltz, Ning Zhang, James L Ellis, Peter J Elliott, David W Frederick, Vilhelm A Bohr, Mark S Schmidt, Charles Brenner, David A Sinclair, Anthony A Sauve, Joseph A Baur, Rafael de Cabo
The role in longevity and healthspan of nicotinamide (NAM), the physiological precursor of NAD+ , is elusive. Here, we report that chronic NAM supplementation improves healthspan measures in mice without extending lifespan. Untargeted metabolite profiling of the liver and metabolic flux analysis of liver-derived cells revealed NAM-mediated improvement in glucose homeostasis in mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) that was associated with reduced hepatic steatosis and inflammation concomitant with increased glycogen deposition and flux through the pentose phosphate and glycolytic pathways...
March 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Luis Rajman, Karolina Chwalek, David A Sinclair
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), the cell's hydrogen carrier for redox enzymes, is well known for its role in redox reactions. More recently, it has emerged as a signaling molecule. By modulating NAD+ -sensing enzymes, NAD+ controls hundreds of key processes from energy metabolism to cell survival, rising and falling depending on food intake, exercise, and the time of day. NAD+ levels steadily decline with age, resulting in altered metabolism and increased disease susceptibility. Restoration of NAD+ levels in old or diseased animals can promote health and extend lifespan, prompting a search for safe and efficacious NAD-boosting molecules that hold the promise of increasing the body's resilience, not just to one disease, but to many, thereby extending healthy human lifespan...
March 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Fei-Long Li, Ying Shi, Jiu-Xun Zhang, Jian Gao, Ye-Wang Zhang
A novel nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidase from Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 (SmNox) was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1374 bp, capable of encoding a polypeptide of 457 amino acid residues. The molecular mass of the purified SmNox was estimated to be ∼49.9 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified SmNox had the highest specific activity of 281.2 U·mg-1 at optimal pH and temperature of 7...
March 4, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Pete A Williams, Jeffrey M Harder, Brynn H Cardozo, Nicole E Foxworth, Simon W M John
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a key molecule in several cellular processes and is essential for healthy mitochondrial metabolism. We recently reported that mitochondrial dysfunction is among the very first changes to occur within retinal ganglion cells during initiation of glaucoma in DBA/2J mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that an age-dependent decline of NAD contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction and vulnerability to glaucoma. The decrease in NAD renders retinal ganglion cells vulnerable to a metabolic crisis following periods of high intraocular pressure...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Juan C Stockert, Richard W Horobin, Lucas L Colombo, Alfonso Blázquez-Castro
For many years various tetrazolium salts and their formazan products have been employed in histochemistry and for assessing cell viability. For the latter application, the most widely used are 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and 5-cyano-2,3-di-(p-tolyl)-tetrazolium chloride (CTC) for viability assays of eukaryotic cells and bacteria, respectively. In these cases, the nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide (NAD(P)H) coenzyme and dehydrogenases from metabolically active cells reduce tetrazolium salts to strongly colored and lipophilic formazan products, which are then quantified by absorbance (MTT) or fluorescence (CTC)...
February 26, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Sen Lin, Shiyong Sun, Ke Wang, Kexuan Shen, Biaobiao Ma, Yuquan Ren, Xiaoyu Fan
The bioinspired design and construction of enzyme@capsule microreactors with specific cell-like functionality has generated tremendous interest in recent years. Inspired by their fascinating complexity, scientists have endeavored to understand the essential aspects of a natural cell and create biomimicking microreactors so as to immobilize enzymes within the hierarchical structure of a microcapsule. In this study, simultaneous encapsulation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was achieved during the preparation of microcapsules by the Pickering emulsion method using amphiphilic modified TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs) as building blocks for assembling the photocatalytic microcapsule membrane...
February 24, 2018: Nanomaterials
Andrea M Chánique, Loreto P Parra
Oxidoreductases are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze an extensive range of chemical reactions with great specificity, efficiency, and selectivity. Most oxidoreductases are nicotinamide cofactor-dependent enzymes with a strong preference for NADP or NAD. Because these coenzymes differ in stability, bioavailability and costs, the enzyme preference for a specific coenzyme is an important issue for practical applications. Different approaches for the manipulation of coenzyme specificity have been reported, with different degrees of success...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Natasha M Nesbitt, Xiliang Zheng, Zongdong Li, José A Manso, Wan-Yi Yen, Lisa E Malone, Jorge Ripoll-Rozada, Pedro José Barbosa Pereira, Timothy J Mantle, Jin Wang, Wadie F Bahou
Heme cytotoxicity is minimized by a two-step catabolic reaction that generates biliverdin (BV) and bilirubin (BR) tetrapyrroles. The second step is regulated by two non-redundant biliverdin reductases (IXα[BLVRA] and IXβ [BLVRB]), which retain isomeric specificity and NAD(P)H-dependent redox coupling linked to BR's antioxidant function.  Defective BLVRB enzymatic activity with antioxidant mishandling has been implicated in metabolic consequences of hematopoietic lineage fate and enhanced platelet counts in humans...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Timothy J Brickman, Sandra K Armstrong
The classical Bordetella species use amino acids as carbon sources and can catabolize organic acids and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. They are also auxotrophic for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) pathway precursors such as nicotinic acid. Bordetellae have a putative nicotinate catabolism gene locus highly similar to that characterized in Pseudomonas putida KT2440. This study determined the distribution of the nic genes among Bordetella species and analyzed the regulation of this nicotinic acid degradation system...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Nana Ma, Zhifeng Chen, Jie Chen, Jingfei Chen, Cong Wang, Haifeng Zhou, Lishan Yao, Osami Shoji, Yoshihito Watanabe, Zhiqi Cong
We report a unique strategy for the development of a H2O2-dependent cytochrome P450BM3 system, which catalyzes the monooxygenation of non-native substrates with the assistance of dual-functional small molecules (DFSMs), such as N-(ω-imidazolyl fatty acyl)-L-amino acids. The acyl amino acid group of DFSM is responsible for bounding to enzyme as an anchoring group, while the imidazolyl group plays the role of general acid-base catalyst in the activation of H2O2. This system afforded the best peroxygenase activity for the epoxidation of styrene, sulfoxidation of thioanisole, and hydroxylation of ethylbenzene among those P450-H2O2 system previously reported...
February 26, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Daniela Buonvicino, Francesca Mazzola, Federica Zamporlini, Francesco Resta, Giuseppe Ranieri, Emidio Camaioni, Mirko Muzzi, Riccardo Zecchi, Giuseppe Pieraccini, Christian Dölle, Massimo Calamante, Gianluca Bartolucci, Mathias Ziegler, Barbara Stecca, Nadia Raffaelli, Alberto Chiarugi
Interest in the modulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolome is gaining great momentum because of its therapeutic potential in different human disorders. Suppression of nicotinamide salvage by nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT) inhibitors, however, gave inconclusive results in neoplastic patients because several metabolic routes circumvent the enzymatic block converging directly on nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferases (NMNATs) for NAD synthesis. Unfortunately, NMNAT inhibitors have not been identified...
February 19, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
James B Kirkland, Mirella L Meyer-Ficca
Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, collectively referred to as niacin, are nutritional precursors of the bioactive molecules nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). NAD and NADP are important cofactors for most cellular redox reactions, and as such are essential to maintain cellular metabolism and respiration. NAD also serves as a cosubstrate for a large number of ADP-ribosylation enzymes with varied functions. Among the NAD-consuming enzymes identified to date are important genetic and epigenetic regulators, e...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Juan Camilo Molano-Arevalo, Walter Gonzalez, Kevin Jeanne Dit Fouque, Jaroslava Miksovska, Philippe Maitre, Francisco Fernandez-Lima
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is found in all living cells where the oxidized (NAD+ ) and reduced (NADH) forms play important roles in many enzymatic reactions. However, little is known about NAD+ and NADH conformational changes and kinetics as a function of the cell environment. In the present work, an analytical workflow is utilized to study NAD+ and NADH dynamics as a function of the organic content in solution using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy and in the gas-phase using trapped ion mobility spectrometry coupled to mass spectrometry (TIMS-MS) and infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy...
February 23, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Hector Rodriguez Cetina Biefer, Timm Heinbokel, Hirofumi Uehara, Virginia Camacho, Koichiro Minami, Yeqi Nian, Suresh Koduru, Rachid El Fatimy, Ionita Ghiran, Alexander J Trachtenberg, Miguel A de la Fuente, Haruhito Azuma, Omid Akbari, Stefan G Tullius, Anju Vasudevan, Abdallah Elkhal
BACKGROUND: Given their unique capacity for antigen uptake, processing, and presentation, antigen presenting cells (APCs) are critical for initiating and regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. We have previously shown the role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) in T cell differentiation independently of the cytokine milieu, while the precise mechanisms remained unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to further dissect the mechanism of actions of NAD+ , and to determine the impact of APCs on NAD+ -mediated T cell activation...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Mehdi Touat, Tony Sourisseau, Nicolas Dorvault, Roman M Chabanon, Marlène Garrido, Daphné Morel, Dragomir B Krastev, Ludovic Bigot, Julien Adam, Jessica Frankum, Sylvère Durand, Clement Pontoizeau, Sylvie Souquère, Mei-Shiue Kuo, Sylvie Sauvaigo, Faraz Mardakheh, Alain Sarasin, Ken A Olaussen, Luc Friboulet, Frédéric Bouillaud, Gérard Pierron, Alan Ashworth, Anne Lombès, Christopher J Lord, Jean-Charles Soria, Sophie Postel-Vinay
Synthetic lethality is an efficient mechanism-based approach to selectively target DNA repair defects. ERCC1 deficiency is frequently found in non-small cell lung cancers, making this DNA repair protein an attractive target for exploiting synthetic lethal approaches in this disease. Using unbiased proteomic and metabolic high-throughput profiling on a unique in-house generated isogenic model of ERCC1 deficiency, we found marked metabolic rewiring of ERCC1-deficient populations, including decreased levels of the metabolite NAD+ and reduced expression of the rate-limiting NAD+ biosynthetic enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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