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NAD+ AND nicotinamide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425549/nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-detection-based-on-silver-nanoclusters-stabilized-by-a-dumbbell-shaped-probe
#1
Hong-Ya Wang, Jin-Liang Ma, Bin-Cheng Yin, Bang-Ce Ye
We have developed a novel method for detecting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) based on fluorescent silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) stabilized by a dumbbell-shaped DNA template containing two cytosine-loops joined in a dsDNA stem. The design involves two types of components: a dumbbell-shaped DNA template and three enzymes. In the presence of NAD(+) as a cofactor, Escherichia coli DNA ligase (E.coli DNA ligase) catalyzes template ligation to generate a sealed (no terminal nucleotides) dumbbell-shaped structure, preventing digestion by exonuclease III (Exo III) and exonuclease I (Exo I)...
April 20, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424540/mc-ppea-as-a-new-and-more-potent-inhibitor-of-clp-induced-sepsis-and-pulmonary-inflammation-than-fk866
#2
Peixin Huang, Mark W Lee, Keivan Sadrerafi, Daniel P Heruth, Li Q Zhang, Dev Maulik, Shui Qing Ye
Our previous study indicated that overexpression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) aggravated acute lung injury, while knockdown of NAMPT expression attenuated ventilator-induced lung injury. Recently, we found that meta-carborane-butyl-3-(3-pyridinyl)-2E-propenamide (MC-PPEA, MC4), in which the benzoylpiperidine moiety of FK866 has been replaced by a carborane, displayed a 100-fold increase in NAMPT inhibition over FK866. Here, we determined the effects of MC4 and FK866 on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery-induced sepsis in C57BL/6J mice...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420001/nicotinamide-n-methyltransferase-suppression-participates-in-nickel-induced-histone-h3-lysine9-dimethylation-in-beas-2b-cells
#3
Qian Li, Min-Di He, Lin Mao, Xue Wang, Yu-Lin Jiang, Min Li, Yong-Hui Lu, Zheng-Ping Yu, Zhou Zhou
BACKGROUND: Nickel compounds are well-established human carcinogens with weak mutagenic activity. Histone methylation has been proposed to play an important role in nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) decreases histone methylation in several cancer cells by altering the cellular ratio of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). However, the role of NNMT in nickel-induced histone methylation remains unclear. METHODS: BEAS-2B cells were exposed to different concentrations of nickel chloride (NiCl2) for 72 h or 200 μM NiCl2 for different time periods...
April 13, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417163/nicotinamide-is-an-inhibitor-of-sirt1-in-vitro-but-can-be-a-stimulator-in-cells
#4
REVIEW
Eun Seong Hwang, Seon Beom Song
Nicotinamide (NAM), a form of vitamin B3, plays essential roles in cell physiology through facilitating NAD(+) redox homeostasis and providing NAD(+) as a substrate to a class of enzymes that catalyze non-redox reactions. These non-redox enzymes include the sirtuin family proteins which deacetylate target proteins while cleaving NAD(+) to yield NAM. Since the finding that NAM exerts feedback inhibition to the sirtuin reactions, NAM has been widely used as an inhibitor in the studies where SIRT1, a key member of sirtuins, may have a role in certain cell physiology...
April 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416276/synthesis-and-degradation-of-adenosine-5-tetraphosphate-by-nicotinamide-and-nicotinate-phosphoribosyltransferases
#5
Adolfo Amici, Ambra A Grolla, Erika Del Grosso, Roberta Bellini, Michele Bianchi, Cristina Travelli, Silvia Garavaglia, Leonardo Sorci, Nadia Raffaelli, Silverio Ruggieri, Armando A Genazzani, Giuseppe Orsomando
Adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate (Ap4) is a ubiquitous metabolite involved in cell signaling in mammals. Its full physiological significance remains unknown. Here we show that two enzymes committed to NAD biosynthesis, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPT), can both catalyze the synthesis and degradation of Ap4 through their facultative ATPase activity. We propose a mechanism for this unforeseen additional reaction, and demonstrate its evolutionary conservation in bacterial orthologs of mammalian NAMPT and NAPT...
April 6, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413646/role-of-malate-dehydrogenase-in-facilitating-lactate-dehydrogenase-to-support-the-glycolysis-pathway-in-tumors
#6
Siavash Mansouri, Ali Shahriari, Hadi Kalantar, Taraneh Moini Zanjani, Mojtaba Haghi Karamallah
High aerobic glycolysis, as one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, requires nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) as a vital co-factor, to guarantee the flow of glycolysis. Malate dehydrogenase (MDH), as an important enzyme in cancer metabolism, is a source of NAD(+) additional to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The current study aimed to elucidate the kinetic parameters of MDH in human breast cancer and evaluate its supportive role in the glycolysis pathway. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and maximum velocity (Vmax) of MDH were determined in the crude extracts of human breast tumors and healthy tissue samples, which were obtained directly from the operating theatre...
April 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408371/leukocyte-overexpression-of-intracellular-nampt-attenuates-atherosclerosis-by-regulating-ppar%C3%AE-dependent-monocyte-differentiation-and-function
#7
Beatriz Bermudez, Tuva B Dahl, Indira Medina, Mathijs Groeneweg, Sverre Holm, Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz, Mat Rousch, Jeroen J T Otten, Veronica Herias, Lourdes M Varela, Trine Ranheim, Arne Yndestad, Almudena Ortega-Gomez, Rocio Abia, Laszlo Nagy, Pal Aukrust, Francisco J G Muriana, Bente Halvorsen, Erik A L Biessen
OBJECTIVE: Extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT) mediates inflammatory and potentially proatherogenic effects, whereas the role of intracellular NAMPT (iNAMPT), the rate limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)(+) generation, in atherogenesis is largely unknown. Here we investigated the effects of iNAMPT overexpression in leukocytes on inflammation and atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice with hematopoietic overexpression of human iNAMPT (iNAMPT(hi)), on a western type diet, showed attenuated plaque burden with features of lesion stabilization...
April 13, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388636/characterization-and-mutational-analysis-of-a-nicotinamide-mononucleotide-deamidase-from-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-showing-high-thermal-stability-and-catalytic-efficiency
#8
Ana Belén Martínez-Moñino, Rubén Zapata-Pérez, Antonio Ginés García-Saura, Fernando Gil-Ortiz, Manuela Pérez-Gilabert, Álvaro Sánchez-Ferrer
NAD+ has emerged as a crucial element in both bioenergetic and signaling pathways since it acts as a key regulator of cellular and organismal homeostasis. Among the enzymes involved in its recycling, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) deamidase is one of the key players in the bacterial pyridine nucleotide cycle, where it catalyzes the conversion of NMN into nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN), which is later converted to NAD+ in the Preiss-Handler pathway. The biochemical characteristics of bacterial NMN deamidases have been poorly studied, although they have been investigated in some firmicutes, gamma-proteobacteria and actinobacteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386082/nicotinamide-mononucleotide-attenuates-brain-injury-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-by-activating-nrf2-ho-1-signaling-pathway
#9
Chun-Chun Wei, Yuan-Yuan Kong, Guo-Qiang Li, Yun-Feng Guan, Pei Wang, Chao-Yu Miao
Replenishment of NAD(+) has been shown to protect against brain disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and ischemic stroke. However, whether this intervention has therapeutic effects in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is unknown. In this study, we sought to determine the potential therapeutic value of replenishment of NAD(+) in ICH. In a collagenase-induced ICH (cICH) mouse model, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a key intermediate of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthesis, was administrated at 30 minutes post cICH from tail vein to replenish NAD(+)...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382091/inhibition-of-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-induces-apoptosis-in-estrogen-receptor-positive-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cells
#10
Mohammad Alaee, Shahnaz Khaghani, Kiarash Behroozfar, Zahra Hesari, Seyedeh Sara Ghorbanhosseini, Mitra Nourbakhsh
PURPOSE: Tumor cells have increased turnover of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), the main coenzyme in processes including adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation, deacetylation, and calcium mobilization. NAD(+) is predominantly synthesized in human cells via the salvage pathway, with the first component being nicotinamide. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the key enzyme in this pathway, and its chemical inhibition by FK866 has elicited antitumor effects in several preclinical models of solid and hematologic cancers...
March 2017: Journal of Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380414/the-role-of-sirt1-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#11
REVIEW
Hedyieh Karbasforooshan, Gholamreza Karimi
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasing worldwide. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCP) is the major risk for diabetes associated morbidity and mortality. Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia play an indispensable role in underlying mechanisms of DCP. They increase advanced glycation end products (AGEs) following a series of events leading to myocardial damage and cardiomyopathy which include oxidative stress, increased inflammation, fibrosis, hypertrophy and apoptosis. SIRT1 is a nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase that removes acetyl groups from proteins which can be implicated in DCP...
April 2, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377411/the-lysine-deacetylase-sirtuin-1-modulates-the-localization-and-function-of-the-notch1-receptor-in-regulatory-t-cells
#12
Nimi Marcel, Lakshmi R Perumalsamy, Sanjay K Shukla, Apurva Sarin
The ability to tune cellular functions in response to nutrient availability has important consequences for immune homeostasis. The activity of the receptor Notch in regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress the functions of effector T cells, is indispensable for Treg cell survival under conditions of diminished nutrient supply. Anti-apoptotic signaling induced by the Notch1 intracellular domain (NIC) originates from the cytoplasm and is spatially decoupled from the nuclear, largely transcriptional functions of NIC...
April 4, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367271/nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-protects-against-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-induced-apoptosis-by-blocking-autophagy
#13
Lei Xie, Sifei Yu, Zhenfei Wang, Kai Yang, Zhuochao Liu, Changwei Li, Yu Liang
The role of autophagy, neuroprotective mechanisms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), and their relationship in spinal cord ischemic reperfusion injury (SCIR) was assessed. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham, ischemia reperfusion (I/R), 10 mg/kg NAD(+), and 75 mg/kg NAD(+). Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess autophagy and apoptosis. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scores were used to assess neurological function...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356339/nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-in-smooth-muscle-cells-maintains-genome-integrity-resists-aortic-medial-degeneration-and-is-suppressed-in-human-thoracic-aortic-aneurysm-disease
#14
Alanna Watson, Zengxuan Nong, Hao Yin, Caroline O'Neil, Stephanie Fox, Brittany Balint, Ray Guo, Oberdan Leo, Michael W Chu, Robert Gros, J G Pickering
Rationale: The thoracic aortic wall can degenerate over time with catastrophic consequences. Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can resist and repair artery damage but their capacities decline with age and stress. Recently, cellular production of NAD(+) via nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) has emerged as a mediator of cell vitality. However, a role for Nampt in aortic SMCs in vivo is unknown. Objective: To determine if a Nampt-NAD(+) control system exists within the aortic media and is required for aortic health...
March 29, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355567/sirt6-is-essential-for-adipocyte-differentiation-by-regulating-mitotic-clonal-expansion
#15
Qiang Chen, Wenhui Hao, Cuiying Xiao, Ruihong Wang, Xiaoling Xu, Huiyan Lu, Weiping Chen, Chu-Xia Deng
Preadipocytes initiate differentiation into adipocytes through a cascade of events. Mitotic clonal expansion, as one of the earliest events, is essential for adipogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms that regulate mitotic clonal expansion remain elusive. SIRT6 is a member of the evolutionarily conserved sirtuin family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)+-dependent protein deacetylases. Here, we show that SIRT6 deficiency in preadipocytes blocks their adipogenesis. Analysis of gene expression during adipogenesis reveals that KIF5C, which belongs to the kinesin family, is negatively regulated by SIRT6...
March 28, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351995/sirt6-deficiency-results-in-progression-of-glomerular-injury-in-the-kidney
#16
Wen Huang, Hua Liu, Shuang Zhu, Michael Woodson, Rong Liu, Ronald G Tilton, Jordan D Miller, Wenbo Zhang
Aging is associated with an increased incidence and prevalence of renal glomerular diseases. Sirtuin (Sirt) 6, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent histone deacetylase, has been shown to protect against multiple age-associated phenotypes; however it is unknown whether Sirt6 has a direct pathophysiologic role in the kidney. In the present study, we demonstrate that Sirt6 is expressed in the kidney and aging Sirt6-deficient mice exhibit renal hypertrophy with glomerular enlargement. Sirt6 deletion induces podocyte injury, including decreases in slit diaphragm proteins, foot process effacement, and cellular loss, resulting in proteinuria...
March 28, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346814/nicotinamide-riboside-a-form-of-vitamin-b3-and-nad-precursor-relieves-the-nociceptive-and-aversive-dimensions-of-paclitaxel-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-in-female-rats
#17
Marta V Hamity, Stephanie R White, Roxanne Y Walder, Mark S Schmidt, Charles Brenner, Donna L Hammond
Injury to sensory afferents may contribute to the peripheral neuropathies that develop after administration of chemotherapeutic agents. Manipulations that increase levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) can protect against neuronal injury. This study examined whether nicotinamide riboside (NR), a third form of vitamin B3 and precursor of NAD, diminishes tactile hypersensitivity and place escape-avoidance behaviors in a rodent model of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received 3 intravenous injections of 6...
May 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337428/niacin-mediated-gene-expression-and-role-of-niar-as-a-transcriptional-repressor-of-niax-nadc-and-pnuc-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#18
Muhammad Afzal, Oscar P Kuipers, Sulman Shafeeq
NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) biosynthesis is vital for bacterial physiology and plays an important role in cellular metabolism. A naturally occurring vitamin B complex, niacin (nicotinic acid), is a precursor of coenzymes NAD and NADP. Here, we study the impact of niacin on global gene expression of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 and elucidate the role of NiaR as a transcriptional regulator of niaX, nadC, and pnuC. Transcriptome comparison of the D39 wild-type grown in chemically defined medium (CDM) with 0 to 10 mM niacin revealed elevated expression of various genes, including niaX, nadC, pnuC, fba, rex, gapN, pncB, gap, adhE, and adhB2 that are putatively involved in the transport and utilization of niacin...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337214/crystal-structure-of-the-chloroplastic-oxoene-reductase-ceqorh-from-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Sarah Mas Y Mas, Gilles Curien, Cécile Giustini, Norbert Rolland, Jean-Luc Ferrer, David Cobessi
Enzymatic and non-enzymatic peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids give rise to accumulation of aldehydes, ketones, and α,β-unsaturated carbonyls of various lengths, known as oxylipins. Oxylipins with α,β-unsaturated carbonyls are reactive electrophile species and are toxic. Cells have evolved several mechanisms to scavenge reactive electrophile oxylipins and decrease their reactivity such as by coupling with glutathione, or by reduction using NAD(P)H-dependent reductases and dehydrogenases of various substrate specificities...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336669/a-conserved-nad-binding-pocket-that-regulates-protein-protein-interactions-during-aging
#20
Jun Li, Michael S Bonkowski, Sébastien Moniot, Dapeng Zhang, Basil P Hubbard, Alvin J Y Ling, Luis A Rajman, Bo Qin, Zhenkun Lou, Vera Gorbunova, L Aravind, Clemens Steegborn, David A Sinclair
DNA repair is essential for life, yet its efficiency declines with age for reasons that are unclear. Numerous proteins possess Nudix homology domains (NHDs) that have no known function. We show that NHDs are NAD(+) (oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) binding domains that regulate protein-protein interactions. The binding of NAD(+) to the NHD domain of DBC1 (deleted in breast cancer 1) prevents it from inhibiting PARP1 [poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase], a critical DNA repair protein...
March 24, 2017: Science
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