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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036587/latent-profile-analysis-and-conversion-to-psychosis-characterizing-subgroups-to-enhance-risk-prediction
#1
Kristin M Healey, David L Penn, Diana Perkins, Scott W Woods, Richard S E Keefe, Jean Addington
BACKGROUND: Groups at clinical high risk (CHR) of developing psychosis are heterogeneous, composed of individuals with different clusters of symptoms. It is likely that there exist subgroups, each associated with different symptom constellations and probabilities of conversion. METHOD: Present study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to ascertain subgroups in a combined sample of CHR (n = 171) and help-seeking controls (HSCs; n = 100; PREDICT study). Indicators in the LPA model included baseline Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), and neurocognitive performance as measured by multiple instruments, including category instances (CAT)...
July 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033856/possible-facilitative-effects-of-repeated-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-functional-outcome-1-month-later-in-schizophrenia-an-open-trial
#2
Zui Narita, Takuma Inagawa, Kazuki Sueyoshi, Crystal Lin, Tomiki Sumiyoshi
Recent research on neuromodulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), for the treatment of schizophrenia has mainly focused on psychotic symptoms. We aimed to determine whether repetitive tDCS is efficacious in improving determinants of outcome, such as cognitive function, daily living skills, and depressive mood in patients with schizophrenia. Twenty-eight patients underwent tDCS (2 mA × 20 min) two times per day for 5 consecutive days. The anodal electrode was placed over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while the cathodal electrode was placed over the right supraorbital region...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025820/well-being-of-family-medicine-graduates
#3
Olga Szafran, Wayne Woloschuk, Jacqueline M I Torti, Douglas Myhre
OBJECTIVE: To determine family medicine graduates' professional and personal well-being, general health status, stress levels, coping strategies, and the degree to which they felt supported or isolated in professional life; and to compare findings by sex, practice location, and location of medical school (Canadian medical graduates [CMGs] vs international medical graduates [IMGs]). DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional survey. SETTING: University of Alberta in Edmonton and the University of Calgary in Alberta...
October 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018100/randomized-crossover-trial-of-blood-volume-monitoring-guided-ultrafiltration-biofeedback-to-reduce-intradialytic-hypotensive-episodes-with-hemodialysis
#4
Kelvin C W Leung, Robert R Quinn, Pietro Ravani, Henry Duff, Jennifer M MacRae
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is associated with morbidity. The effect of blood volume-guided ultrafiltration biofeedback, which automatically adjusts fluid removal rate on the basis of blood volume parameters, on the reduction of IDH was tested in a randomized crossover trial. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We performed a 22-week, single blind, randomized crossover trial in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis who had >30% of sessions complicated by symptomatic IDH in five centers in Calgary, Alberta, Canada...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017626/case-series-of-mild-behavioral-impairment-toward-an-understanding-of-the-early-stages-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-affecting-behavior-and-cognition
#5
Alicja Cieslak, Eric E Smith, John Lysack, Zahinoor Ismail
Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) is characterized by later life acquired, sustained, and impactful neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) of any severity that cannot be better accounted for by other formal medical and psychiatric nosology. MBI is an "at risk" state for incident cognitive decline and dementia, and for some, MBI is the index manifestation of neurodegeneration, observed in advance of cognitive impairment. Initially described in Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), MBI evolved to describe a preclinical stage of all cause dementia, and has been operationalized in the International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment-Alzheimer's Association (ISTAART-AA) proposed research diagnostic criteria...
October 11, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016723/use-of-the-mean-abnormal-result-rate-marr-to-gauge-changes-in-family-physicians-selectivity-of-laboratory-test-ordering-2010-2015
#6
Andrew P Brack, Maggie Guo, Irene Ma, Christopher Naugler
Objectives: The mean abnormal result rate (MARR) has recently been advanced as a metric of laboratory test appropriateness. We used the MARR metric to examine patterns of change in family physician test requisitions over time. Methods: We accessed the Laboratory Information System of Calgary Laboratory Services for family physician-ordered testing on outpatients to gather aggregate test and abnormal result counts from 2010 to 2015. Results: Over the 6 years, there was an annual average of 3,401,553 tests for 411,295 distinct patients on their first test requisition for the year...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994462/limitations-of-fluoridation-effectiveness-studies-lessons-from-alberta-canada
#7
Christopher Neurath, James S Beck, Hardy Limeback, W Gary Sprules, Michael Connett, Bill Osmunson, Donald R Davis
A paper published in this journal, "Measuring the short-term impact of fluoridation cessation on dental caries in Grade 2 children using tooth surface indices," by McLaren et al had shortcomings in study design and interpretation of results, and did not include important pertinent data. Its pre-post cross-sectional design relied on comparison of decay rates in two cities: Calgary, which ceased fluoridation, and Edmonton, which maintained fluoridation. Dental health surveys conducted in both cities about 6...
October 10, 2017: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988900/biofilm-forming-capacity-of-blood-borne-candida-albicans-strains-and-effects-of-antifungal-agents
#8
Hanni Turan, Müge Demirbilek
Infections related to Candida albicans biofilms and subsequent antifungal resistance have become more common with the increased use of indwelling medical devices. Regimens for preventing fungal biofilm formation are needed, particularly in high-risk patients. In this study, we investigated the biofilm formation rate of multiple strains of Candida albicans (n=162 clinical isolates), their antifungal susceptibility patterns, and the efficacy of certain antifungals for preventing biofilm formation. Biofilm formation was graded using a modified Christensen's 96-well plate method...
October 5, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981245/-communicating-with-elderly-patients
#9
J M Thomas, P Thomas
As with other adults, communication with elderly patients will be based on the three pillars of the person-centered approach, on motivational interviewing and on the Calgary Cambridge guide. The particularity of communication with the elderly lies in the consideration of obstacles such as visual, auditory and cognitive deficits. In addition, caregivers who accompany the patient sometimes monopolize the discussion, which could prevent him from expressing himself or even making decisions about his health. Humanity and Validation are a set of tools for communicating more effectively with the very elderly or those suffering from dementia...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981244/-specificity-of-communication-in-general-practice
#10
P Thomas, J M Thomas
Beyond its scientific and ethical competencies, a good doctor is characterized by his communication skills. The ability to listen is fundamental. During an interview, the physician must keep in mind a bio-psycho-social approach while being able to hear the unspeakable and inaudible. Knowledge of patients and their relatives, which seems to be a specific knowledge for general practitioners, offers a lot of information. Among the main sensitive topics that the clinician must identify are: intrafamily violence, domestic violence, substance abuse and anxiety-depressive disorders...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976627/the-transverse-technique-a-complementary-approach-to-the-measurement-of-first-trimester-uterine-artery-doppler
#11
Olivier Drouin, Jo-Ann Johnson, Piya Chaemsaithong, Amy Metcalfe, Janie Huber, Jill Schwarzenberger, Erin Winters, Lesley Stavness, Ada W T Tse, Jing Lu, Wan Teng Lim, Tak Yeung Leung, Emmanuel Bujold, Daljit Sahota, Liona C Poon
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to 1) define the protocol for the first-trimester assessment of the uterine artery pulsatility index (UtA-PI) using the new transverse technique, 2) evaluate UtA-PI measured by the transverse approach versus that obtained by the conventional sagittal approach, and 3) determine if accelerated onsite training (both methods) of inexperienced sonographers can achieve reproducible UtA-PI measurements compared to that measured by an experienced sonographer...
October 4, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976596/evaluating-the-8-item-overactive-bladder-questionnaire-oab-v8-using-item-response-theory
#12
Alexander C Peterson, Anika Sehgal, R Trafford Crump, Richard Baverstock, Jason M Sutherland, Kevin Carlson
AIMS: The OAB-v8 is a patient-reported outcome questionnaire used to screen for overactive bladder and measure symptom bother. This study uses modern validation methods to assess the item and test characteristics of the OAB-v8, and determine whether it should be scored differently for men and women. METHODS: A secondary analysis of data from patients with lower urinary tract symptoms prospectively recruited from a urology clinic in Calgary, Canada. Item-response theory (IRT) was used to evaluate the dimensionality, reliability, and validity of the OAB-v8, and differential functioning analysis (DIF) was used to determine whether the OAB-v8 should be scored differently for men and women...
October 4, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974195/a-qualitative-inquiry-on-pregnant-women-s-preferences-for-mental-health-screening
#13
Hamideh Bayrampour, Deborah A McNeil, Karen Benzies, Charleen Salmon, Karen Gelb, Suzanne Tough
BACKGROUND: Approaches to screening can influence the acceptance of and comfort with mental health screening. Qualitative evidence on pregnant women's comfort with different screening approaches and disclosure of mental health concerns is scant. The purpose of this study was to understand women's perspectives of different mental health screening approaches and the perceived barriers to the communication and disclosure of their mental health concerns during pregnancy. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken...
October 3, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963308/why-involve-families-in-acute-mental-healthcare-a-collaborative-conceptual-review
#14
Aysegul Dirik, Sima Sandhu, Domenico Giacco, Katherine Barrett, Gerry Bennison, Sue Collinson, Stefan Priebe
OBJECTIVES: Family involvement is strongly recommended in clinical guidelines but suffers from poor implementation. To explore this topic at a conceptual level, a multidisciplinary review team including academics, clinicians and individuals with lived experience undertook a review to explore the theoretical background of family involvement models in acute mental health treatment and how this relates to their delivery. DESIGN: A conceptual review was undertaken, including a systematic search and narrative synthesis...
September 27, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954541/standardized-reactors-for-the-study-of-medical-biofilms-a-review-of-the-principles-and-latest-modifications
#15
Inês B Gomes, Ana Meireles, Ana L Gonçalves, Darla M Goeres, Jelmer Sjollema, Lúcia C Simões, Manuel Simões
Biofilms can cause severe problems to human health due to the high tolerance to antimicrobials; consequently, biofilm science and technology constitutes an important research field. Growing a relevant biofilm in the laboratory provides insights into the basic understanding of the biofilm life cycle including responses to antibiotic therapies. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate biofilm reactor is a critical decision, necessary to obtain reproducible and reliable in vitro results. A reactor should be chosen based upon the study goals and a balance between the pros and cons associated with its use and operational conditions that are as similar as possible to the clinical setting...
September 27, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947322/influence-of-diurnal-variation-and-fasting-on-serum-iron-concentrations-in-a-community-based-population
#16
Leonard T Nguyen, Joshua D Buse, Leland Baskin, S M Hossein Sadrzadeh, Christopher Naugler
OBJECTIVES: Serum iron is an important clinical test to help identify cases of iron deficiency or overload. Fluctuations caused by diurnal variation and diet are thought to influence test results, which may affect clinical patient management. We examined the impact of these preanalytical factors on iron concentrations in a large community-based cohort. DESIGN AND METHODS: Serum iron concentration, blood collection time, fasting duration, patient age and sex were obtained for community-based clinical testing from the Laboratory Information Service at Calgary Laboratory Services for the period of January 2011 to December 2015...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936815/-current-clinical-variables-in-schizophrenia-cases-with-suicide-attempt-history
#17
Demet Sağlam Aykut, Filiz Civil Arslan, Evrim Özkorumak Karagüzel, Serdar Karakullukçu, Ahmet Tiryaki
OBJECTIVE: High suicide risk was shown to be related with depression and low quality of life in studies investigating clinical variables related to suicidal behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a suicide attempt on clinical presentation by comparing sociodemographic variables, clinical signs, symptoms of depression, quality of life, social functionality, and reported adverse drug reactions in schizophrenic patients with and without suicide. METHOD: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Calgary Depression Scale (CDS), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Social Functioning Scale (SFS), and Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale (UKU) were administered to 115 patients with schizophrenia...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930035/calgary-edmonton-and-the-university-of-alberta-the-extraordinary-medical-mobilization-by-canada-s-newest-province
#18
Mark P Da Cambra, Vivian C McAlister
The Canadian contribution of medical services to the British Empire during the First World War was a national endeavour. Physicians from across the country enlisted in local regiments to join. No other region provided more physicians per capita than the newly formed province of Alberta. Largely organized through the Medical School of the University of Alberta, the No. 11 Canadian Field Ambulance out of Edmonton and the No. 8 Canadian Field Ambulance out of Calgary ultimately enlisted between one-third and half of the province's doctors to the war campaign...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917193/high-c-reactive-protein-levels-are-associated-with-depressive-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#19
M Faugere, J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, C Faget-Agius, C Lançon, M Cermolacce, R Richieri
BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms are frequently associated with schizophrenia symptoms. C - Reactive protein (CRP), a marker of chronic inflammation, had been found elevated in patients with schizophrenia and in patients with depressive symptoms. However, the association between CRP level and depressive symptoms has been poorly investigated in patients with schizophrenia. The only study conducted found an association between high CRP levels and antidepressant consumption, but not with depressive symptoms investigated with the Calgary Depression Rating Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916298/childhood-trauma-depression-and-sleep-quality-and-their-association-with-psychotic-symptoms-and-suicidality-in-schizophrenia
#20
Esin Evren Kilicaslan, Asli Tugba Esen, Meltem Izci Kasal, Erdal Ozelci, Murat Boysan, Mustafa Gulec
This study involved the examination of the relationship between childhood trauma and both psychotic symptoms and suicidality in patients with schizophrenia after controlling for the possible confounding factors, such as clinical features, depression, and sleep quality. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the suicidality subscale of Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) were administered to 199 patients with schizophrenia...
September 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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