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Antihypertensive drugs review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902931/human-presynaptic-receptors
#1
REVIEW
Eberhard Schlicker, Thomas Feuerstein
Presynaptic receptors are sites at which transmitters, locally formed mediators or hormones inhibit or facilitate the release of a given transmitter from its axon terminals. The interest in the identification of presynaptic receptors has faded in recent years and it may therefore be justified to give an overview of their occurrence in the autonomic and central nervous system; this review will focus on presynaptic receptors in human tissues. Autoreceptors are presynaptic receptors at which a given transmitter restrains its further release, though in some instances may also increase its release...
November 27, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897107/hypertension-in-the-neonatal-period-an-update
#2
Anish Pillai, Deepak Sharma, Pratichi Kadam
There has been a growing interest among neonatologists and paediatricians regarding identification and evaluation of hypertension in the neonatal period. Despite the emergent normative data on blood pressure values in term and preterm neonates over the last two decades, there is still controversy regarding correct definition and classification of hypertension. This article will discuss the current definitions, the available normative data and etiology of neonatal hypertension. There is paucity of records in terms of efficacy of antihypertensive drugs in this specific population and management is usually experience based, causing considerable heterogeneity amongst different units...
November 29, 2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895025/medical-treatment-of-aortic-stenosis
#3
Guillaume Marquis-Gravel, Björn Redfors, Martin B Leon, Philippe Généreux
Untreated, severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis is associated with a dismal prognosis. The only treatment shown to improve survival is aortic valve replacement; however, before symptoms occur, aortic stenosis is preceded by a silent, latent phase characterized by a slow progression at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels. In theory, specific medical therapy should halt aortic stenosis progression, reduce its hemodynamic repercussions on left ventricular function and remodeling, and improve clinical outcomes...
November 29, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881062/antihypertensive-treatments-in-patients-affected-by-aortic-valve-stenosis
#4
Paolo Poggio, Gianluca Folesani, Giuseppe M Raffa, Paola Songia, Vincenzo Valenti, Veronika Myasoedova, Alessandro Parolari
Systemic hypertension and aortic valve stenosis (AVS) are both age-related diseases. Severe aortic stenosis affects ≈2% to 5% of adults age > 65 years. Systemic hypertension (HTN) is a frequent comorbidity in patients with AVS and is coexistent for a longer period of time before AVS is treated. Essential systemic hypertension, per se, plays an important role in the creation of lesions on the aortic side of the valve, the region of higher exposure to tension stress. The subsequent endothelial defect represents the principal site of inflammatory process and oxidative stress, leading to aortic sclerosis and calcification...
November 23, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878313/targeting-renal-glucose-reabsorption-to-treat-hyperglycaemia-the-pleiotropic-effects-of-sglt2-inhibition
#5
REVIEW
Volker Vallon, Scott C Thomson
Healthy kidneys filter ∼160 g/day of glucose (∼30% of daily energy intake) under euglycaemic conditions. To prevent valuable energy from being lost in the urine, the proximal tubule avidly reabsorbs filtered glucose up to a limit of ∼450 g/day. When blood glucose levels increase to the point that the filtered load exceeds this limit, the surplus is excreted in the urine. Thus, the kidney provides a safety valve that can prevent extreme hyperglycaemia as long as glomerular filtration is maintained. Most of the capacity for renal glucose reabsorption is provided by sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 in the early proximal tubule...
November 22, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870655/blood-pressure-treatment-levels-and-choice-of-antihypertensive-agent-in-people-with-diabetes-mellitus-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#6
Mattias Brunström, Mats Eliasson, Peter M Nilsson, Bo Carlberg
OBJECTIVE: Multiple systematic reviews address the effect of antihypertensive treatment in people with diabetes. Here, we summarize current systematic reviews concerning antihypertensive treatment effect at different blood pressure (BP) levels, and relative treatment effect of different antihypertensive agents. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, BIOSIS, DARE and CDSR during years 2005-2016. Eligibility criteria, number of trials and participants, outcomes analysed, statistical methods used for data synthesis, and principal results were extracted for each review...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866065/the-effect-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-hypertension-in-non-ckd-populations-a-systemic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Dan Qi, Xiaolu Nie, Jun Cai
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure control by a systemic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Randomized controlled clinical trials were analyzed, which date from eight studies in databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Clinical trials, China Integrated Knowledge Resources Database and the Cochrane library. RESULTS: Total 917 patients from eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs), treatment with vitamin D for more than 3months were analyzed...
November 7, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864806/pathophysiological-mechanisms-and-correlates-of-therapeutic-pharmacological-interventions-in-essential-arterial-hypertension
#8
Francesco Maranta, Roberto Spoladore, Gabriele Fragasso
Treating arterial hypertension (HT) remains a hard task. The hypertensive patient is often a subject with several comorbidities and metabolic abnormalities. Clinicians everyday have to choose the right drug for the single patient among the different classes of antihypertensives. Apart from lowering blood pressure, a main therapeutic target should be that of counteracting all the possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in HT itself and in existing/potential comorbidities. All the ancillary positive and negative effects of the administered drugs should be considered: in particular, since hypertensive patients are often glucose intolerant/diabetic, carrier of serum lipids disorder, have already developed atherosclerotic diseases and endothelial dysfunction, they should not be treated with drugs negatively interfering with these conditions but with molecules that, if possible, improve them...
November 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864240/new-horizons-in-orthostatic-hypotension
#9
REVIEW
James Frith, Steve W Parry
BACKGROUND: orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common disabling condition associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Much of the evidence available is derived from younger populations with chronic neurological disease leading to uncertainty for the diagnosis and management of older people. OBJECTIVE: to provide an overview of recent and emerging evidence for the diagnosis, management and prognosis of OH in older persons. METHODS: a narrative review of recent studies, emerging therapies and relevant regulatory updates...
November 17, 2016: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829985/potential-therapeutic-strategies-for-hypertension-exacerbated-cardiotoxicity-of-anticancer-drugs
#10
REVIEW
Robin K Kuriakose, Rakesh C Kukreja, Lei Xi
Despite their recognized cardiotoxic effects, anthracyclines remain an essential component in many anticancer regimens due to their superior antitumor efficacy. Epidemiologic data revealed that about one-third of cancer patients have hypertension, which is the most common comorbidity in cancer registries. The purpose of this review is to assess whether anthracycline chemotherapy exacerbates cardiotoxicity in patients with hypertension. A link between hypertension comorbidity and anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC) was first suggested in 1979...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821598/home-and-online-management-and-evaluation-of-blood-pressure-home-bp-digital-intervention-for-self-management-of-uncontrolled-essential-hypertension-a-protocol-for-the-randomised-controlled-home-bp-trial
#11
Rebecca Band, Katherine Morton, Beth Stuart, James Raftery, Katherine Bradbury, Guiqing Lily Yao, Shihua Zhu, Paul Little, Lucy Yardley, Richard J McManus
INTRODUCTION: Self-management of hypertension, including self-monitoring and antihypertensive medication titration, lowers blood pressure (BP) at 1 year compared to usual care. The aim of the current trial is to assess the effectiveness of the Home and Online Management and Evaluation of Blood Pressure (HOME BP) intervention for the self-management of hypertension in primary care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The HOME BP trial will be a randomised controlled trial comparing BP self-management-consisting of the HOME BP online digital intervention with self-monitoring, lifestyle advice and antihypertensive drug titration-with usual care for people with uncontrolled essential hypertension...
November 7, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804880/snake-venom-peptides-and-low-mass-proteins-molecular-tools-and-therapeutic-agents
#12
J R Almeida L M Resende, R K Watanabe, V C Corassola, S Huancahuire-Vega, C A da S Caldeira, A Coutinho-Neto, A M Soares, N Vale, P A de C Gomes, S Marangoni, L de A Calderon, S L Da Silva
Snake venoms are natural sources of biologically active molecules that are able to act selectively and specifically on different cellular targets, modulating physiological functions. Thus, these mixtures, composed mainly of proteins and peptides, provide ample and challenging opportunities and a diversified molecular architecture to design and develop tools and agents of scientific and therapeutic interest. Among these components, peptides and small proteins play diverse roles in numerous physiological processes, exerting a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as antimicrobial, antihypertensive, analgesic, antitumor, analgesic, among others...
October 28, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802359/antihypertensive-withdrawal-for-the-prevention-of-cognitive-decline
#13
REVIEW
Susan Jongstra, Jennifer K Harrison, Terry J Quinn, Edo Richard
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials and observational data have variously shown a protective, harmful or neutral effect of antihypertensives on cognitive function. In theory, withdrawal of antihypertensives could improve cerebral perfusion and reduce or delay cognitive decline. However, it is also plausible that withdrawal of antihypertensives may have a detrimental effect on cognition through increased incidence of stroke or other vascular events. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of complete withdrawal of at least one antihypertensive medication on incidence of dementia, cognitive function, blood pressure and other safety outcomes in cognitively intact and cognitive impaired adults...
November 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798708/prediction-of-hospitalization-due-to-adverse-drug-reactions-in-elderly-community-dwelling-patients-the-padr-ec-score
#14
Nibu Parameswaran Nair, Leanne Chalmers, Michael Connolly, Bonnie J Bereznicki, Gregory M Peterson, Colin Curtain, Ronald L Castelino, Luke R Bereznicki
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are the major cause of medication-related hospital admissions in older patients living in the community. This study aimed to develop and validate a score to predict ADR-related hospitalization in people aged ≥65 years. METHODS: ADR-related hospitalization and its risk factors were determined using a prospective, cross-sectional study in patients aged ≥65 years admitted to two hospitals. A predictive model was developed in the derivation cohort (n = 768) and the model was applied in the validation cohort (n = 240)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798363/the-polypill-an-effective-approach-to-increasing-adherence-and-reducing-cardiovascular-event-risk
#15
REVIEW
Peter Bramlage, Helen Sims, Joan Minguet, Carmen Ferrero
BACKGROUND: Despite a wide range of medications being available for the prevention of cardiovascular events such as stroke, myocardial infarction and mortality in both a primary and secondary setting, patient adherence to complex therapy regimens involving different drug classes remains low worldwide. Combining antiplatelet, antihypertensive, lipid-lowering and potentially further drugs into one 'polypill' has the potential to increase adherence, thereby reducing risk factors to a greater extent and for a longer duration...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797886/pharmacotherapy-of-hypertension-in-chronic-dialysis-patients
#16
Panagiotis I Georgianos, Rajiv Agarwal
Among patients on dialysis, hypertension is highly prevalent and contributes to the high burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Strict volume control via sodium restriction and probing of dry weight are first-line approaches for the treatment of hypertension in this population; however, antihypertensive drug therapy is often needed to control BP. Few trials compare head-to-head the superiority of one antihypertensive drug class over another with respect to improving BP control or altering cardiovascular outcomes; accordingly, selection of the appropriate antihypertensive regimen should be individualized...
November 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771852/threshold-and-target-for-blood-pressure-lowering-in-the-elderly
#17
Guido Grassi, Fosca Quarti-Trevano, Anna Casati, Raffaella Dell'Oro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Detection of elevated blood pressure values in elderly patients represents a common clinical condition associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. This has been shown to be the case in both systodiastolic and isolated systolic hypertension as well. However, despite the evidence of the benefits of the blood pressure lowering intervention in terms of reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, at least two issues related to antihypertensive drug treatment in aged individuals are still undefined: (1) the blood pressure threshold at which antihypertensive drug should be initiated and (2) the blood pressure goals of the therapeutic intervention...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761128/positive-association-between-tinnitus-and-arterial-hypertension
#18
Ricardo Rodrigues Figueiredo, Andréia Aparecida Azevedo, Norma De Oliveira Penido
INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus is the perception of noise in the absence of an external source and is considered by most authors as a multifactorial symptom. A systematic review concerning the association of tinnitus and systemic arterial hypertension retrieved suggestions of a positive association, but the articles included failed to perform a detailed analysis on the theme. PURPOSE: To analyze the presence of arterial hypertension in tinnitus and non-tinnitus patients, to analyze differences between tinnitus impact and psychoacoustic measurements in hypertensive and normotensive patients, and to evaluate the association between the presence of tinnitus and the diverse antihypertensive drugs employed...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754014/me-02-3-extending-sprint-results-to-diabetics
#19
Guido Grassi
The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), sponsored by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in the USA, allocated 9361 hypertensive patients (mean age 68 years) to two systolic blood pressure treatment targets (either < 120mmHg or < 140mmHg). Although SPRINT intended to enrol hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk, it specifically excluded patients with diabetes mellitus or prior stroke. SPRINT was stopped earlier than planned, after a mean follow-up of 3.26 years, on the recommendation of its data and safety monitoring board, and data were published on 9 November 2015...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754012/me-02-1-is-lower-really-better-issue-of-the-j-curve-hypothesis-in-hypertension
#20
Bo Carlberg
The J curve hypothesis propose that the relation between blood pressure and risk for cardiovascular events is non-linear. Instead of a decreased risk with lower blood pressure, the risk increases at lower blood pressures. This issue has been discussed for many years, and is still a hot topic. The debates have most often had its origin in the question about how far blood pressure should be lowered with antihypertensive drugs.One one hand, we know that many patients with hypertension is not treated to targets according to guidelines and that this contributes to the high risk for cardiovascular diseases in patients with hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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