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Antihypertensive drugs review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181201/management-of-hypertension-in-the-elderly-and-frail-elderly
#1
REVIEW
Claudio Ferri, Livia Ferri, Giovambattista Desideri
An elevated systolic but not diastolic blood pressure level represents a common finding in elderly patients and is associated with an increased risk for developing coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, progressive cognitive decline and renal failure. Although less frequently, elderly patients manifest not only with systolic but also diastolic hypertension. Also in this case, the elderly patient will present an increased risk for developing hypertension-related abnormalities...
February 8, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176630/novel-drugs-for-hypertension-and-heart-failure-struggling-for-a-place-under-the-sun
#2
Charles Faselis, Chrysoula Boutari, Michael Doumas, Konstantinos Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Peter Kokkinos
BACKGOUND: Current drug therapy for the management of arterial hypertension and heart failure has provided substantial benefits but has also some limitations. LCZ696, a dual inhibitor of angiotensin receptor blockers and neprilysin, and finerenone, a non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, are two recently developed novel agents for the management of these conditions. METHODS: This review aims to present the pathophysiological basis for the use of these two novel drugs, critically discuss available clinical data, and provide future perspectives...
February 6, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165823/nanocarriers-as-treatment-modalities-for-hypertension
#3
Tausif Alam, Saba Khan, Bharti Gaba, Md Faheem Haider, Sanjula Baboota, Javed Ali
Hypertension, a worldwide epidemic at present, is not a disease in itself rather it is an important risk factor for serious cardiovascular disorders including myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease. Though numerous drugs acting via different mechanism of action are available in the market as conventional formulations for the treatment of hypertension but they face substantial challenges regarding their bioavailability, dosing and associated adverse effects which greatly limit their therapeutic efficacies...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157742/stroke-epidemiology-and-risk-factor-management
#4
Amy Guzik, Cheryl Bushnell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Death from stroke has decreased over the past decade, with stroke now the fifth leading cause of death in the United States. In addition, the incidence of new and recurrent stroke is declining, likely because of the increased use of specific prevention medications, such as statins and antihypertensives. Despite these positive trends in incidence and mortality, many strokes remain preventable. The major modifiable risk factors are hypertension, diabetes mellitus, tobacco smoking, and hyperlipidemia, as well as lifestyle factors, such as obesity, poor diet/nutrition, and physical inactivity...
February 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129695/are-two-drugs-better-than-one-a-review-of-combination-therapies-for-hypertension
#5
Yogita Rochlani, Mohammed Hasan Khan, Maciej Banach, Wilbert S Aronow
Current guidelines for pharmacotherapy briefly describe a role for combination antihypertensive therapy. However, guidance on whether combination therapy should be used at the time of initiating therapy or as add on, and the choice of combination therapy is scarce. Areas covered: Current literature suggests that intensive blood pressure control is the key to managing cardiovascular risk. Along with lifestyle management, pharmacotherapy is an central component in the treatment of hypertension. Here, we aim to review the pathophysiology of hypertension, rationale for using combination therapy, and the different combinations of antihypertensive drug classes that are available in the market...
January 27, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121920/nonadherence-to-antihypertensive-drugs-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Tadesse Melaku Abegaz, Abdulla Shehab, Eyob Alemayehu Gebreyohannes, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Asim Ahmed Elnour
BACKGROUND: Hypertension drives the global burden of cardiovascular disease and its prevalence is estimated to increase by 30% by the year 2025. Nonadherence to chronic medication regimens is common; approximately 43% to 65.5% of patients who fail to adhere to prescribed regimens are hypertensive patients. Nonadherence to medications is a potential contributing factor to the occurrence of concomitant diseases. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review applied a meta-analytic procedure to investigate the medication nonadherence in adult hypertensive patients...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114698/-impact-of-drugs-on-glaucoma-and-intraocular-pressure
#7
T Schlote
Purpose Systemic drugs may have unfavourable effects on intraocular pressure, glaucoma and the efficacy of glaucoma drugs. Material and Methods The article provides a review of the literature from PubMed and clinical experience. Results Topical and systemic corticosteroids induce complex changes inside the trabecular meshwork. New genetic results improve the understanding of pathogenetic processes, although many questions are still open. Arterial hypertension and antihypertonic drugs may influence the risk of glaucoma, intraocular pressure and ocular perfusion pressure...
January 23, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107561/beta-blockers-for-hypertension
#8
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Hazel A Bradley, Jimmy Volmink, Bongani M Mayosi, Lionel H Opie
BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers refer to a mixed group of drugs with diverse pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. They have shown long-term beneficial effects on mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) when used in people with heart failure or acute myocardial infarction. Beta-blockers were thought to have similar beneficial effects when used as first-line therapy for hypertension. However, the benefit of beta-blockers as first-line therapy for hypertension without compelling indications is controversial...
January 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088883/candesartan-cilexetil-loaded-nanodelivery-systems-for-improved-oral-bioavailability
#9
Narendar Dudhipala, Kishan Veerabrahma
Candesartan cilexetil (CC), an antihypertensive drug, has low oral bioavailability due to poor solubility and hepatic first-pass metabolism. These are major limitations in oral delivery of CC. Several approaches are known to reduce the problems of solubility and improve the bioavailability of CC. Among various approaches, nanotechnology-based delivery of CC has potential to overcome the challenges associated with the oral administration. This review focuses on various nano-based delivery systems available and tried for improving the aqueous solubility, dissolution and consequently bioavailability of CC upon oral administration...
February 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079254/pharmacological-treatment-of-vascular-risk-factors-for-reducing-mortality-and-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-with-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#10
REVIEW
Lindsay Robertson, Edmond Atallah, Gerard Stansby
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological prophylaxis has been proven to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in individuals with atherosclerotic occlusive arterial disease. However, the role of prophylaxis in individuals with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remains unclear. Several studies have shown that despite successful repair, those people with AAA have a poorer rate of survival than healthy controls. People with AAA have an increased prevalence of coronary heart disease and risk of cardiovascular events...
January 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059156/genetic-screening-in-arterial-hypertension
#11
REVIEW
Gian Paolo Rossi, Giulio Ceolotto, Brasilina Caroccia, Livia Lenzini
Studies involving adoptive families and twins have demonstrated the genetic basis of hypertension and shown that genetic factors account for about 40% of the variance in blood pressure among individuals. Arterial hypertension is genetically complex: multiple genes influence the blood pressure phenotype through allelic effects from single genes and gene-gene interactions. Moreover, environmental factors also modify the blood pressure phenotype. This complexity explains why the identification of the underlying genes has not been as successful in hypertension as in other diseases (such as type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus)...
January 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054285/drug-interactions-in-neurocritical-care
#12
Brian Spoelhof, Salia Farrokh, Lucia Rivera-Lara
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are common and avoidable complications that are associated with poor patient outcomes. Neurocritical care patients may be at particular risk for DDIs due to alterations in pharmacokinetic profiles and exposure to medications with a high DDI risk. This review describes the principles of DDI pharmacology, common and severe DDIs in Neurocritical care, and recommendations to minimize adverse outcomes. A review of published literature was performed using PubMed by searching for 'Drug Interaction' and several high DDI risk and common neurocritical care medications...
January 4, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049280/new-therapeutic-agents-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#13
REVIEW
Yaeni Kim, Cheol Whee Park
Studies investigating diabetic nephropathy (DN) have mostly focused on interpreting the pathologic molecular mechanisms of DN, which may provide valuable tools for early diagnosis and prevention of disease onset and progression. Currently, there are few therapeutic drugs for DN, which mainly consist of antihypertensive and antiproteinuric measures that arise from strict renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inactivation. However, these traditional therapies are suboptimal and there is a clear, unmet need for treatments that offer effective schemes beyond glucose control...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043897/natural-products-against-alzheimer-s-disease-pharmaco-therapeutics-and-biotechnological-interventions
#14
REVIEW
Abhijit Dey, Raktim Bhattacharya, Anuradha Mukherjee, Devendra Kumar Pandey
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe, chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with memory and cognition impairment ultimately leading to death. It is the commonest reason of dementia in elderly populations mostly affecting beyond the age of 65. The pathogenesis is indicated by accumulation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in brain tissues and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in neurons. The main cause is considered to be the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to oxidative stress...
December 30, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017128/role-of-azoles-in-cancer-prevention-and-treatment-present-and-future-perspectives
#15
Khurshid Ahmad, Mohd Kalim A Khan, Mohammad Hassan Baig, Mohd Imran, Girish Kumar Gupta
Cancer has gradually become one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The incidence of cancer among the population worldwide has increased in an alarming way over the last 2 decades, primarily due to an increasing population of immune-compromised patients and the continuing rise in anti-cancer drug resistance. Azole found privileged structure in medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical industry and also found very effective against a number of biological targets including antioxidant; antimicrobial, antihelmintic, anticancer, antiviral, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV, and antihypertensive activities...
December 21, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003804/golden-needle-mushroom-a-culinary-medicine-with-evidenced-based-biological-activities-and-health-promoting-properties
#16
REVIEW
Calyn Tang, Pearl Ching-Xin Hoo, Loh Teng-Hern Tan, Priyia Pusparajah, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Learn-Han Lee, Bey-Hing Goh, Kok-Gan Chan
Flammulina velutipes (enoki, velvet shank, golden needle mushroom or winter mushroom), one of the main edible mushrooms on the market, has long been recognized for its nutritional value and delicious taste. In recent decades, research has expanded beyond detailing its nutritional composition and delved into the biological activities and potential health benefits of its constituents. Many bioactive constituents from a range of families have been isolated from different parts of the mushroom, including carbohydrates, protein, lipids, glycoproteins, phenols, and sesquiterpenes...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000548/hypertensive-crisis-pharmacotherapy-and-complications
#17
Priyanka Wani-Parekh, Carlos Garcia-Blanco, Melissa Mendez, Debabrata Mukherjee
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the number one cause of death globally compared to any other cause. CVD accounts for approximately 17.3 million deaths per year and are rising. Hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 80 million people suffer from hypertension in the U.S. While, majority of these individuals are on antihypertensive medications only 54% of individuals with hypertension are optimally controlled. Heart failure and stroke are some of the devastating complications of uncontrolled hypertension...
December 20, 2016: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997978/blood-pressure-lowering-efficacy-of-reserpine-for-primary-hypertension
#18
REVIEW
Sandy D Shamon, Marco I Perez
BACKGROUND: Many antihypertensive agents exist today for the treatment of primary hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or both). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been carried out to investigate the evidence for these agents. There is, for example, strong RCT evidence that thiazides reduce mortality and morbidity. Some of those trials used reserpine as a second-line therapy. However, the dose-related blood pressure reduction with this agent is not known...
21, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27972104/non-adherence-to-antihypertensive-drugs-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
A S Bhagavathula, T M Abegaz, E A Gebreyohannes, A Shehab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902931/human-presynaptic-receptors
#20
REVIEW
Eberhard Schlicker, Thomas Feuerstein
Presynaptic receptors are sites at which transmitters, locally formed mediators or hormones inhibit or facilitate the release of a given transmitter from its axon terminals. The interest in the identification of presynaptic receptors has faded in recent years and it may therefore be justified to give an overview of their occurrence in the autonomic and central nervous system; this review will focus on presynaptic receptors in human tissues. Autoreceptors are presynaptic receptors at which a given transmitter restrains its further release, though in some instances may also increase its release...
November 27, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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