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Li Chen, Yanjun Zhang, Daojing Li, Nong Zhang, Ruiqiong Liu, Bin Han, Changjuan Wei, Haijie Liu, Xiaolin Xu, Junwei Hao
Vascular dementia (VaD) is a widely prevalent and devastating disease. Despite the tremendous complexity that limits understanding of the pathophysiology of VaD, microglial dysfunction has been attributed, in part, to immune microenviroment disorder and finally leads to cognitive deficits. Considered the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a key player in regulation of glial function, our work focused on whether the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (RAD001) could overcome the destructive microglial function, change the phenotype and ameliorate cognitive decline induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Lu Cheng, Huimin Jin, Yetao Qiang, Shuiyun Wu, Cheng Yan, Mutian Han, Tengfei Xiao, Nannan Yan, Huazhang An, Xiaoming Zhou, Qixiang Shao, Sheng Xia
Epidemiological studies have shown that fat rich western diet contributes to the high incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Moreover, accumulated data indicated that fat dietary factor might promote the change of the composition and metabolism in commensal flora. But, the exact mechanisms for fatty diet in gut inflammation are not well demonstrated. In this study, we found that high fat diet (HFD) promoted inflammation and exacerbated the disease severity of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in mice...
August 24, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Gang Wang, Xing-Li Fu, Jun-Jie Wang, Rui Guan, Xiang-Jun Tang
Glioblastoma multiforme is a common primary brain tumor, which exhibits an imbalance between glioma cell growth and glucose metabolism. Recent discoveries have found the multiple pathways and downstream genes are involved in the dysregulated metabolic pathway allows tumor to start and progress, which is critical to the patients with glioblastoma associated with significant systemic and immunosuppression. Moreover, immune microenvironment is considered a major obstacle to generating an effective antitumor immune response...
May 12, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Zeming Chen, Jaymin M Patel, Philip W Noble, Cesar Garcia, Zhangyong Hong, James E Hansen, Jiangbing Zhou
Strategies to target nanoparticles to tumors that rely on surface modification with ligands that bind molecules overexpressed on cancer cells or the tumor neovasculature suffer from a major limitation: with delivery of toxic agents the amount of molecules available for targeting decreases with time; consequently, the efficiency of nanoparticle delivery is reduced. To overcome this limitation, here we propose an autocatalytic tumor-targeting mechanism based on targeting extracellular DNA (exDNA). exDNA is enriched in the tumor microenviroment and increases with treatment with cytotoxic agents, such as doxorubicin (DOX), due to release of DNA by dying tumor cells...
August 2, 2016: Oncotarget
Tomoki Nakashima
Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand(RANKL),a transmembrane protein of the tumor necrosis factor(TNF) superfamily cytokine, currently provides a paradigm that enables the molecular understanding of the linkage among bone metabolism, organization of lymphoid tissues, establishment of the thymic microenviroment, thermoregulation, metabolic regulation, mammary gland development and tumorigenesis. Here we summarize the recent progress in the understanding of RANKL biology by focusing on the investigation of RANKL expressing cells/organs, signaling and related diseases in the context of the newly established interdisciplinary field of osteonetwork...
August 2016: Clinical Calcium
Xuehui Zhang, Chenguang Zhang, Yuanhua Lin, Penghao Hu, Yang Shen, Ke Wang, Song Meng, Yuan Chai, Xiaohan Dai, Xing Liu, Yun Liu, Xiaoju Mo, Cen Cao, Shue Li, Xuliang Deng, Lili Chen
Physiological electric potential is well-known for its indispensable role in maintaining bone volume and quality. Although implanted biomaterials simulating structural, morphological, mechanical, and chemical properties of natural tissue or organ has been introduced in the field of bone regeneration, the concept of restoring physiological electric microenvironment remains ignored in biomaterials design. In this work, a flexible nanocomposite membrane mimicking the endogenous electric potential is fabricated to explore its bone defect repair efficiency...
August 23, 2016: ACS Nano
Giuseppe Musumeci, Carla Loreto, Salvatore Giunta, Venerando Rapisarda, Marta Anna Szychlinska, Rosa Imbesi, Alessandro Castorina, Tiziana Annese, Sergio Castorina, Paola Castrogiovanni, Domenico Ribatti
Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in progression of pleural malignant mesothelioma. A significantly increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma has been attributed to exposure to fluoro-edenite, a fibrous amphibole extracted from a local stone quarry. In this study, we have investigated the expression of CD68-positive macrophages, tryptase-positive mast cells and CD31 positive areas, as expression of microvascular density, in lung tissue of sheeps exposed to fluoro-edenite fibers vs controls, by immunohistochemical, morphometric and Western blot analysis...
August 1, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
John T Walker, Karrington McLeod, Shawna Kim, Simon J Conway, Douglas W Hamilton
During tissue healing, the dynamic and temporal alterations required for effective repair occur in the structure and composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Matricellular proteins (MPs) are a group of diverse non-structural ECM components that bind cell surface receptors mediating interactions between the cell and its microenviroment, effectively regulating adhesion, migration, proliferation, signaling, and cell phenotype. Periostin (Postn), a pro-fibrogenic secreted glycoprotein, is defined as an MP based on its expression pattern and regulatory roles during development and healing and in disease processes...
September 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Ian S Brown
The perineural space is a compartment located between the nerve axons, supporting cells and tissues, and the epineural fibrous sheath. Tumor cells invade this space in response to a complex interplay of trophic factors in the local microenviroment. This attraction of tumor cells to nerves is referred to as neurotropism. The perineural space provides a conduit for tumor spread beyond the primary site of tumor occurrence. Perineural tumor growth is of two types: perineural invasion, affecting small unnamed nerves; and perineural spread, affecting larger, named nerves and presenting with clinical symptoms related to the involved nerve...
April 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
Zengshan Li
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms are a rare, heterogeneous group of neoplasms. The incidence has increased greatly during the past 40 years, partially due to the advanced endoscopic and imaging techniques. As a type of neoplasm with the specific morphology and immunophenotype, its nomenclature and classification have also been changed considerably over the past 40 years, from the past "carcinoid" to the current "neuroendocrine neoplasm". WHO currently recommends two-tiered classification, neuroendocrine tumors and neuroendocrine cancer, according to the differentiation, morphology and proliferation index...
January 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Begoña Comin-Anduix, Helena Escuin-Ordinas, Francisco Javier Ibarrondo
The immune checkpoint therapy is a relatively recent strategy that aims to tweak the immune system to effectively attack cancer cells. The understanding of the immune responses and their regulation at the intracellular level and the development of fully humanized monoclonal antibodies are the pillars of an approach that could elicit durable clinical responses and even remission in some patients with cancer. Most of the immune checkpoints that regulate the T-cell responses (activation and inhibition) operate through proteins present on the cytoplasmic membrane of the immune cells...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Kamil Wdowiak, Wojciech Spychałowicz, Marcin Fajkis, Jerzy Wojnar
Galectins are a family of lectins characterized by an affinity for β-galactosides through the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). The extracellular and intracellular presence of Galectins has been described. Their activity and functions are mainly attributed to cell type. The tumor microenviroment is a complex milieu connected with immunosupression, angiogenesis and hypoxic compartments. The studies of interactions between Glycans-Lectins are highly advanced and promising. We are not able to explain the pathogenesis of many diseases only by protein-protein interactions, that is why in these studies is a chance to find a new therapeutic targets...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Wantong Song, Zhaohui Tang, Na Shen, Haiyang Yu, Yanjie Jia, Dawei Zhang, Jian Jiang, Chaoliang He, Huayu Tian, Xuesi Chen
A poly(l-glutamic acid) graft polyethylene glycol-cisplatin complex (PGA-CisPt) performs well in reducing the toxicity of free cisplatin and greatly enhances the accumulation and retention of cisplatin in solid tumors. However, there is a lack of effective treatment options for cisplatin-resistant tumors. A major reason for this is the dense PEG shell, which ensures that the PGA-CisPt maintains a long retention time in the blood that may result in it bypassing the tumor cells or failing to be endocytosed within the tumor microenvironment...
June 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Ying-Xu Shi, Hua DU, Yan-Qiu Han
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of spleen on disease status of mouse T-ALL. METHODS: The leukemia cells were transplanted into the mice, then the development levels of leukemia cells in different organs of transplanted mice were monitored at different time points after transplantation; the transplanted leukemia cell level in different organs was detected by flow cytometry at different time points after transplantation; the survival of transplanted mice was analyzed by means of splenectomy...
February 2016: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
A Bresin, L D'Abundo, M G Narducci, M T Fiorenza, C M Croce, M Negrini, G Russo
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a B-cell malignancy with a mature phenotype. In spite of its relatively indolent nature, no radical cure is as yet available. CLL is not associated with either a unique cytogenetic or a molecular defect, which might have been a potential therapeutic target. Instead, several factors are involved in disease development, such as environmental signals which interact with genetic abnormalities to promote survival, proliferation and an immune surveillance escape. Among these, PI3-Kinase signal pathway alterations are nowadays considered to be clearly important...
2016: Cell Death & Disease
Lucia Forte, Paola Torricelli, Elisa Boanini, Massimo Gazzano, Katia Rubini, Milena Fini, Adriana Bigi
UNLABELLED: Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxy-flavone) is a flavonoid known for its pharmacological activities, which include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as possible beneficial action on diseases involving bone loss. In this work, we explored the possibility to functionalize hydroxyapatite (HA) with quercetin in order to obtain new materials for bone repair through local administration of the flavonoid. HA was synthesized in presence of different concentrations of quercetin according to two different procedures: direct synthesis and phase transition from monetite...
March 1, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Chun-Yu Qian, Kai-Li Wang, Fan-Fu Fang, Wei Gu, Feng Huang, Fu-Zhe Wang, Bai Li, Li-Na Wang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant disease, and its outcome of routine therapies is poor. Comprehensive treatment including gene therapy is an important way to improve patients' prognosis and survival. In this study, we successfully constructed a triple-controlled cancer-selective oncolytic adenovirus, QG511-HA-Melittin, carrying melittin gene, in which the hybrid promoter, hypoxia-response element (HRE)-AFP promoter, was used to control viral E1a expression targeting AFP-positive cancer cells in hypoxia microenviroment, and the E1b-55 kDa gene was deleted in cancer cells with p53-deficiency...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Ji Zhang, XiaoJuan Xiao, Jing Liu
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a common malignant hematological disease. Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) in MM cells and bone marrow microenviroment has important impacts on the initiation and progression of MM and drug resistance in MM cells. Recently, it was reported that MM patient serum and plasma contained sufficiently stable miRNA signatures, and circulating miRNAs could be identified and measured accurately from body fluid. Compared to conventional diagnostic parameters, the circulating miRNA profile is appropriate for the diagnosis of MM and estimates patient progression and therapeutic outcome with higher specificity and sensitivity...
December 2015: Science China. Life Sciences
Xiang Yan, Shun-chang Jiao
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in the recurrence and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: A PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library databases, NIH databases, and China Biology Medicine disc, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Science and Technology Periodical literature search strategy was designed. Studies on the prognostic values of intratumoural CD3⁺,CD4⁺,CD8⁺, and FoxP3+lymphocytes for NSLCL were retrieved...
August 2015: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
Jin Hong, Yan Mao, Xiaosong Chen, Li Zhu, Jianrong He, Weiguo Chen, Yafen Li, Lin Lin, Xiaochun Fei, Kunwei Shen
Inflammation and tumor immune microenviroment are critical factors for prognosis in numerous cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in breast cancer. We performed a retrospective analysis of 487 patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer at Shanghai Ruijin hospital from January 2009 to December 2010. Hematological parameters before surgery, clinicopathological data, and survival status were obtained. Survival analysis was used to evaluate the prognostic value of NLR...
March 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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