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Juan Li, Yuting He, Yuan Cao, Yan Yu, Xiaolong Chen, Xiaojuan Gao, Qiuyue Hu
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is involved in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), while its detailed mechanisms are not well illustrated. Our present study revealed that the expression of Gli1, while not Gli2 or Gli3, is significantly increased in HCC cell lines and 20/28 (71.4%) HCC tissues as compared with their corresponding controls. Over expression of Gli1 can promote the migration, invasion, and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HCC cells. Gli1 can increase the expression of Twist, while not other EMT transcription factors such as Snail, ZEB1, or Slug...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Jianwei Zhu, Yang Sun, Ying Lu, Xiubo Jiang, Bo Ma, Lisha Yu, Jie Zhang, Xiaochen Dong, Qi Zhang
Osteosarcoma, the most common malignant bone tumor with recurring disease or lung metastases, has become one of the leading causes of death in humans. In the current study, we made an investigation on the anticancer effect of glaucocalyxin A, a bioactive ent-kauranoid diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia japonica var., and unraveled the underlying mechanisms. Here, we found that Glaucocalyxin A inhibited the cell viability of numerous osteosarcoma cells. Our results showed that Glaucocalyxin A exerted the pro-apoptotic effect on human osteosarcoma cells, MG-63 and HOS cells...
June 13, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Bin Yang, Shuai Miao, Yi Li
Signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein 2 (SCUBE2) belongs to a secreted and membrane-associated multi-domain SCUBE protein family. Recently, it was found to play an important role in tumor development. However, the role of SCUBE2 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has never been revealed. Here, we explored the roles and mechanism of SCUBE2 in the progression of NSCLC. Our result showed that SCUBE2 was expressed in low levels in NSCLC cell lines. In addition, overexpression of SCUBE2 significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of NSCLC cells...
June 5, 2018: Gene
Bahar Degirmenci, Tomas Valenta, Slavica Dimitrieva, George Hausmann, Konrad Basler
Wnt-β-catenin signalling plays a pivotal role in the homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium by promoting stem cell renewal1,2 . In the small intestine, epithelial Paneth cells secrete Wnt ligands and thus adopt the function of the stem cell niche to maintain epithelial homeostasis3,4 . It is unclear which cells comprise the stem cell niche in the colon. Here we show that subepithelial mesenchymal GLI1-expressing cells form this essential niche. Blocking Wnt secretion from GLI1-expressing cells prevents colonic stem cell renewal in mice: the stem cells are lost and, as a consequence, the integrity of the colonic epithelium is corrupted, leading to death...
June 6, 2018: Nature
Jingyu Zhang, Xiao-Jun Tian, Yi-Jiun Chen, Weikang Wang, Simon Watkins, Jianhua Xing
The detection and transmission of the temporal quality of intracellular and extracellular signals is an essential cellular mechanism. It remains largely unexplored how cells interpret the duration information of a stimulus. In this paper, we performed an integrated quantitative and computational analysis on TGF-β induced activation of SNAIL1, a key transcription factor that regulates several subsequent cell fate decisions such as apoptosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We demonstrate that crosstalk among multiple TGF-β activated pathways forms a relay from SMAD to GLI1 that initializes and maintains SNAILl expression, respectively...
2018: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
Meilin Liu, Xiaolong Chen, Henan Liu, Yu Di
Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the signal transduction mechanism of Hedgehog-vascular endothelial growth factor in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) and the effects of cyclopamine on OIR. Methods: An OIR model was established in C57BL/6J mice exposed to hyperoxia. Two hundred mice were randomly divided into a control group, an OIR group, an OIR-control group (treated with isometric phosphate-buffered saline by intravitreal injection), and a cyclopamine group (treated with cyclopamine by intravitreal injection), with 50 mice in each group...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Patrícia Shigunov, Lucas Titton Balvedi, Marlon Dias Mariano Santos, Roberto H Herai, Alessandra Melo de Aguiar, Bruno Dallagiovanna
Adult stem cells are considered promising candidates for cellular therapies due to their capacity to differentiate and self-renew. Differentiation leads to changes in the metabolism, structure, and gene expression patterns of cells. Hedgehog is one of the pathways that is involved in the enhancement of osteogenesis and chondrogenesis in adult stem cells, but its mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we treated adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) with two well-characterized drugs, purmorphamine (Hedgehog pathway activator) and cyclopamine (Hedgehog pathway inhibitor), and identified mRNAs associated with polysomes in each treatment group to determine the post transcriptional genetic networks governed by the Hedgehog pathway...
May 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiang Chen, Chaowen Shi, Honghui Cao, Ling Chen, Jiwei Hou, Zou Xiang, Kebin Hu, Xiaodong Han
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive and fatal lung disease that is characterized by enhanced changes in stem cell differentiation and fibroblast proliferation. Resident mesenchymal stem cells (LR-MSCs) can undergo phenotype conversion to myofibroblasts to augment extracellular matrix production, impairing function and contributing to pulmonary fibrosis. Hedgehog and Wnt signaling are developmental signal cascades that play an essential role in regulating embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis...
May 29, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Young Eun Kim, Hyung Chul Choi, Gaewon Nam, Bu Young Choi
BACKGROUND: Costunolide (COS), a naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone, is known to exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of costunolide on the promotion of hair growth. METHODS: Real-time cell analyzer (RTCA), measurement of 5α-reductase activity, mRNA expression, and Western blotting were adopted to address whether COS can stimulate the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells (hHFDPCs)...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Na Song, Haijun Wang, Tengteng Gu, Jinbo Qi, Jun Yang, Yanyan Qiu, Qiuyue Chen, Yawen Zou, Yinze Chen, Qing Hu, Xiaoyan Ma, Tiesuo Zhao, Zhiwei Feng
Diabetes mellitus (DM) complications affect patients and cause varying damage. Skin ulcers exhibit difficulties in wound healing, and the regulatory basis for this remains unclear. High glucose concentration (HG) was utilized to mimic DM in cultured cells. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and fluorescence dye analyses were performed to analyze the effects of hedgehog signaling in regulation of HG or diabetes in fibroblasts. HG-stress suppressed hedgehog-signaling gene expression, whereas the apoptosis and inflammatory response markers, Caspase-3 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 ( PAI1 ), respectively, were induced...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Gi Fay Mok, Estefania Lozano-Velasco, Eirini Maniou, Camille Viaut, Simon Moxon, Grant Wheeler, Andrea Münsterberg
Skeletal myogenesis serves as a paradigm to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying exquisitely regulated cell fate decisions in developing embryos. The evolutionary conserved miR-133 family of microRNAs is expressed in the myogenic lineage, but how it acts remains incompletely understood. Here we performed genome-wide differential transcriptomics of miR-133 knock-down (KD) embryonic somites, the source of vertebrate skeletal muscle. This revealed extensive downregulation of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway components: patched receptors, Hedgehog interacting protein, and the transcriptional activator, Gli1...
May 25, 2018: Development
Carlo Lucchesi, Emmanuel Khalifa, Yec'han Laizet, Isabelle Soubeyran, Simone Mathoulin-Pelissier, Christine Chomienne, Antoine Italiano
Importance: Patients with advanced soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) have a median overall survival of less than 18 months. Identification of molecular abnormalities for which targeted therapies are available or can be developed is critical for improving patient outcomes. Objective: To characterize targetable genomic alterations (GAs) in patients with STS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study of next-generation sequencing results from 584 patients with STS included in the AACR GENIE Database...
May 3, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Bruna Mascaro-Cordeiro, Indhira Dias Oliveira, Francine Tesser-Gamba, Lorena Favaro Pavon, Nasjla Saba-Silva, Sergio Cavalheiro, Patrícia Dastoli, Silvia Regina Caminada Toledo
PURPOSE: Histone deacetylate inhibitors (HDACi), as valproic acid (VA), have been reported to enhance efficacy and to prevent drug resistance in some tumors, including medulloblastoma (MB). In the present study, we investigated VA role, combined to cisplatin (CDDP) in cell viability and gene expression of MB cell lines. METHODS: Dose-response curve determined IC50 values for each treatment: (1) VA single, (2) CDDP single, and (3) VA and CDDP combined. Cytotoxicity and flow cytometry evaluated cell viability after exposure to treatments...
May 22, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Qing-Rou Li, Hui Zhao, Xue-Sai Zhang, Henk Lang, Ker Yu
The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) smoothened (SMO) is a key signaling component of the sonic hedgehog (Hh) pathway and a clinically validated target for cancer treatment. The FDA-approved SMO inhibitors GDC-0449/Vismodegib and LDE225/Sonidegib demonstrated clinical antitumor efficacy. Nevertheless, relatively high percentage of treated patients would eventually develop acquired cross resistance to both drugs. Here, based on published structure and activity of GDC-0449 inhibitor class, we replaced its amide core with benzimidazole which retained bulk of the SMO-targeting activity as measured in our Hh/SMO/Gli1-reporter system...
May 18, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Xueting Jia, Li Min, Shengtao Zhu, Shutian Zhang, Xiaofeng Huang
Sonic hedgehog ( Shh) is crucial for organogenesis in the foregut. This study investigated the function of Shh at the late-gestational stage; during which, the esophagus continues to differentiate. We established cytokeratin 14 ( CK14)-Cre;Shhfl/fl mice in which the down-regulation of Shh in the epithelium occurred at approximately the same time as esophageal muscle conversion. Hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining, with antibodies against keratin 14, Shh, patched 1 (Ptch1), Gli1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), high-molecular-weight caldesmon (hCD), myogenin, paired box 7 (Pax7), β3-tubulin, and protein gene product 9...
May 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Xueshui Guo, Natalia A Riobo-Del Galdo, Eun Ji Kim, Gregory R Grant, David R Manning
The Hedgehog family of morphogens has long been known to utilize, through the 7-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo), the heterotrimeric G protein Gi in both canonical and noncanonical forms of signaling. Other G proteins, while not specifically utilized by Smo, may nonetheless provide access to some of the events controlled by it. We reported several years ago that the G protein G13 activates one or more forms of the Gli family of transcription factors. While the Gli transcription factors are well known targets for Smo, the uncertain mechanism of activation by G13 and the identity of the targeted Gli(s) limited predictions as to the extent to which G13 might mimic Smo's actions...
2018: PloS One
Zhengjun Liu, Guangyu Wu, Cai Lin, Hailei Guo, Jianjun Xu, Tianlan Zhao
The present study examined expression and potential functions of insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) in human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We show that IGF2BP1 mRNA and protein expression levels were upregulated in established (A431 line) and primary human skin SCC cells. Its expression was also increased in human skin SCC tissues, as compared to the normal skin tissues. In skin SCC cells, IGF2BP1 silencing or CRISPR/Cas9 knockout decreased levels of IGF2BP1-stablized mRNAs, including IGF2, CD44, Gli1 and Myc...
May 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Xue-Ting Ye, Hang Huang, Wei-Ping Huang, Wei-Lie Hu
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have characterized a novel but extremely conserved long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) THOR. THOR directly associates with insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) to promote mRNA stabilization of key pro-cancerous genes. RESULTS: Here, we show that THOR is expressed in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tissues and established/primary human RCC cells. It was not detected in normal renal tissues nor in HK-2 and primary human renal epithelial cells...
May 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Bin Wang, Yingying Zhang, Hongli Dong, Siyi Gong, Bin Wei, Man Luo, Hongyan Wang, Xiaohui Wu, Wei Liu, Xingshun Xu, Yufang Zheng, Miao Sun
Tctn3 belongs to the Tectonic (Tctn) family and is a single-pass membrane protein localized at the transition zone of primary cilia as an important component of ciliopathy-related protein complexes. Previous studies showed that mutations in Tctn1 and Tctn2, two members of the tectonic family, have been reported to disrupt neural tube development in humans and mice, but the functions of Tctn3 in brain development remain elusive. In this study, Tctn3 knockout (KO) mice were generated by utilizing the piggyBac (PB) transposon system...
May 3, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Ketao Zhang, Siyao Che, Chuzhi Pan, Zheng Su, Shangyou Zheng, Shanglin Yang, Huayao Zhang, Wenda Li, Weidong Wang, Jianping Liu
The cell surface antigen CD90 has recently been established as a promising marker for liver cancer stem cells. This study aimed to investigate potential implications of SHH/Gli signalling in CD90+ liver cancer stem cells. Correlation of the expression of SHH signalling components and CD90 in liver cancer cells and clinical tissues, as well as in enriched CD90+ liver cancer stem cells and the TCGA database, were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting and flow cytometry. Functional analysis was conducted by siRNA-mediated CD90, Gli1 and Gli3 gene knockdown, SHH treatment and application of the JAK2 inhibitor AZD1480 and IL6 neutralizing antibody in CD90+ liver cancer stem cells, followed by cell proliferation, migration, sphere formation and tumorigenicity assays...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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