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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934589/low-dietary-protein-and-high-carbohydrate-infant-formula-affects-the-microbial-ecology-of-the-large-intestine-in-neonatal-rats
#1
Wenguang Fan, Haiwei Ren, Yingying Cao, Yonggang Wang, Guicheng Huo
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a low dietary protein and high carbohydrate infant formula on the large intestine of neonatal rats. A total of 24 neonatal SD rats (14d old) were randomly assigned to the low-protein, high-carbohydrate infant formula-fed group (IF group) and a human breast milk-fed group (HF group). After 7 days, we selected 6 rats at random from each group to study. No significantly different microbial colonization patterns were observed in the two groups at the phylum level...
September 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922460/a-raman-spectroscopic-investigation-of-the-mechanism-of-the-reduction-of-hair-with-thioglycerol-and-the-accompanying-disulfide-conformational-changes
#2
A Kuzuhara
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our research was to investigate the reduction mechanism of thioglycerol (TG) on hair keratin fibres. METHODS: The structure of cross-sections at various depths of virgin white human hair resulting from the permanent waving process with TG was directly analyzed at the molecular level using Raman spectroscopy. Also, the penetration of TG for the cross-sectional samples dyed with methylene blue was observed by optical microscopy. RESULTS: The gauche-gauche-gauche (GGG) and gauche-gauche-trans (GGT) conformations of disulfide (-SS-) groups remarkably decreased, while the trans-gauche-trans (TGT) conformation increased by performing the reduction process with TG...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911206/identification-of-the-molecular-dysfunction-caused-by-glutamate-dehydrogenase-s445l-mutation-responsible-for-hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia
#3
Mariagrazia Grimaldi, Melis Karaca, Livia Latini, Estelle Brioudes, Thomas Schalch, Pierre Maechler
Congenital hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia (HI/HA) syndrome gives rise to unregulated protein-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells, fasting hypoglycemia and elevated plasma ammonia levels. Mutations associated with HI/HA were identified in the Glud1 gene, encoding for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). We aimed at identifying the molecular causes of dysregulation in insulin secretion and ammonia production conferred by the most frequent HI/HA mutation Ser445Leu. Following transduction with adenoviruses carrying the human GDH-wild type or GDH-S445L-mutant gene, immunoblotting showed efficient expression of the transgenes in all the investigated cell types...
September 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903174/greenhouse-gases-emission-from-the-sewage-draining-rivers
#4
Beibei Hu, Dongqi Wang, Jun Zhou, Weiqing Meng, Chongwei Li, Zongbin Sun, Xin Guo, Zhongliang Wang
Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration, saturation and fluxes in rivers (Beitang drainage river, Dagu drainage rive, Duliujianhe river, Yongdingxinhe river and Nanyunhe river) of Tianjin city (Haihe watershed) were investigated during July and October in 2014, and January and April in 2015 by static headspace gas chromatography method and the two-layer model of diffusive gas exchange. The influence of environmental variables on greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentration under the disturbance of anthropogenic activities was discussed by Spearman correlative analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis...
September 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890770/using-non-supervised-artificial-neural-network-for-determination-of-anthropogenic-disturbance-in-a-river-system
#5
Nurul Ruhayu Mohd Rosli, Khairun Yahya
The study of river water quality plays an important role in assessing the pollution status and health of the water bodies. Human-induced activities such as domestic activities, aquaculture, agriculture and industries have detrimentally affected the river water quality. Pinang River is one of the important rivers in Balik Pulau District that supplies freshwater for human consumption. A total of 442 physical and chemical parameters data of the Pinang River, Balik Pulau catchment were analysed to determine the sources of pollutants entering the river...
July 2017: Tropical Life Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878754/marine-microbial-gene-abundance-and-community-composition-in-response-to-ocean-acidification-and-elevated-temperature-in-two-contrasting-coastal-marine-sediments
#6
Ashleigh R Currie, Karen Tait, Helen Parry, Beatriz de Francisco-Mora, Natalie Hicks, A Mark Osborn, Steve Widdicombe, Henrik Stahl
Marine ecosystems are exposed to a range of human-induced climate stressors, in particular changing carbonate chemistry and elevated sea surface temperatures as a consequence of climate change. More research effort is needed to reduce uncertainties about the effects of global-scale warming and acidification for benthic microbial communities, which drive sedimentary biogeochemical cycles. In this research, mesocosm experiments were set up using muddy and sandy coastal sediments to investigate the independent and interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations (750 ppm CO2) and elevated temperature (ambient +4°C) on the abundance of taxonomic and functional microbial genes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863327/a-specific-nanoprobe-for-cysteine-based-on-nitrogen-rich-fluorescent-quantum-dots-combined-with-cu-2
#7
Tingting Gu, Wu Zou, Fuchun Gong, Jiaoyun Xia, Can Chen, Xuejiao Chen
As a new member of the carbon quantum-dot family, fluorescent nitrogen-rich quantum dots (NRQDs) were prepared by a mixed solvothermal method using 2-azidoimidazole and aqueous ammonia as reactants. These NRQDs are rich in nitrogen up to 40.2%, which are endowed with high fluorescence quantum yield, good photostability, water-solubility and favourable biocompatibility. We further explored the use of NRQDs combined with Cu(2+) as a nanoprobe for sensing fluorescently of cysteine (Cys) in complex biological samples...
August 29, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861074/the-probiotic-combination-of-bifidobacterium-longum-subsp-infantis-cect-7210-and-bifidobacterium-animalis-subsp-lactis-bpl6-reduces-pathogen-loads-and-improves-gut-health-of-weaned-piglets-orally-challenged-with-salmonella-typhimurium
#8
Emili Barba-Vidal, Lorena Castillejos, Victor F B Roll, Gloria Cifuentes-Orjuela, José A Moreno Muñoz, Susana M Martín-Orúe
Probiotics have been demonstrated to be useful to enhance gut health and prevent gastrointestinal infections in humans. Additionally, some multi-strain probiotic combinations have been suggested to have greater efficacy than single strains. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the potential of a combination of the probiotic strains: Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 (brand name B. infantis IM1(®)) and B. animalis subsp. lactis BPL6 to enhance gut health and to ameliorate the outcome of a Salmonella challenge using a weaning piglet model...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855831/adsorption-characteristics-of-sulfur-solution-by-acticarbon-against-drinking-water-toxicosis
#9
Shengbo Ge, Zhenling Liu, Yuzo Furuta, Wanxi Peng
Sulfur and ammonia nitrogen are rich nutrient pollutants, after entering water can cause algal blooms, cause eutrophication of water body, the spread of them will not only pollute the environment, destroy the ecological balance, but also harm human health through food chain channels, especially drinking-water toxicosis. Acticarbon can adsorb harmful substances, it was beneficial for people's health. In order to figure out the optimal adsorption condition and the intrinsic change of acticarbon, five chemicals were adsorbed by acticarbon and analyzed by FT-IR...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838986/ammonia-modifies-enteric-neuromuscular-transmission-through-glial-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-signaling
#10
David E Fried, Ralph E Watson, Simon C Robson, Brian D Gulbransen
OBJECTIVE: Impaired gut motility may contribute, at least in part, to the development of systemic hyperammonemia and systemic neurological disorders in inherited metabolic disorders, or in severe liver and renal disease. It is not known whether enteric neurotransmission regulates intestinal luminal and hence systemic ammonia levels by induced changes in motility. DESIGN: Here, we propose and test the hypothesis that ammonia acts through specific enteric circuits to influence gut motility...
August 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823013/dynamics-of-total-microcystin-lr-concentration-in-three-subtropical-hydroelectric-generation-reservoirs-in-uruguay-south-america
#11
Mauricio González-Piana, Daniel Fabián, Andrea Piccardo, Guillermo Chalar
This study analyzed the temporal dynamics of total microcystin LR concentrations between the years of 2012 and 2015 in the Bonete, Baygorria and Palmar hydroelectric generation reservoirs in the central region of the Negro River, Uruguay. The three reservoirs showed differents total microcystin LR concentration, with no significant differences among them. Over 20 sampling dates, the three reservoirs exhibited total microcystin LR concentrations on eight occasions that corresponded to a slight to moderate human health risk according to WHO guideline values for recreational waters...
August 20, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812956/toxicity-identification-and-evaluation-for-the-effluent-from-a-nonmetallic-mineral-mining-facility-in-korea-using-d-magna
#12
Sungjong Lee, Hongjoo Ha, JinKyung Hong, Guyoung Kang, Chunsang Hong
Industrial wastewater has attracted increasing attention in recent years because of its impact on ecosystems and human health. Whole-effluent tests are generally used to monitor toxicities of unknown chemicals and conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study described identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to determine the acute toxicity of a nonmetallic mineral mining facility effluent that was toxic to Daphnia magna. In the characterization step (TIE phase I), toxic effects of heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids, and ammonia were screened...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764601/improved-water-quality-and-reduction-of-odorous-compounds-in-anaerobic-lagoon-columns-receiving-pre-treated-pig-wastewater
#13
Ariel A Szogi, John H Loughrin, Matias B Vanotti
Large volumes of wastewater from confined pig production are stored in anaerobic lagoons. Control methods are needed to reduce contributions to air pollution by foul odors from these lagoons. In a replicated pilot-scale lagoon column experiment, we evaluated the effect of pig wastewater pre-treatment on water quality improvements and reduction in concentration of selected malodor compounds in lagoons receiving liquid from: 1) flocculant enhanced solid-liquid separation (SS), and 2) solid-liquid separation plus biological N treatment using nitrification-denitrification (SS+NDN)...
August 2, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760164/acute-chemical-incidents-with-injured-first-responders-2002-2012
#14
Natalia Melnikova, Jennifer Wu, Alice Yang, Maureen Orr
Introduction First responders, including firefighters, police officers, emergency medical services, and company emergency response team members, have dangerous jobs that can bring them in contact with hazardous chemicals among other dangers. Limited information is available on responder injuries that occur during hazardous chemical incidents. METHODS: We analyzed 2002-2012 data on acute chemical incidents with injured responders from 2 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry chemical incident surveillance programs...
August 1, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748114/uric-acid-in-plants-and-microorganisms-biological-applications-and-genetics-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Rehab M Hafez, Tahany M Abdel-Rahman, Rasha M Naguib
Uric acid increased accumulation and/or reduced excretion in human bodies is closely related to pathogenesis of gout and hyperuricemia. It is highly affected by the high intake of food rich in purine. Uric acid is present in both higher plants and microorganisms with species dependent concentration. Urate-degrading enzymes are found both in plants and microorganisms but the mechanisms by which plant degrade uric acid was found to be different among them. Higher plants produce various metabolites which could inhibit xanthine oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase, so prohibit the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine then to uric acid in the purine metabolism...
September 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741715/first-report-of-carglumic-acid-in-a-patient-with-citrullinemia-type-1-argininosuccinate-synthetase-deficiency
#16
E Kose, P Kuyum, B Aksoy, J Häberle, N Arslan, Y Ozturk
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Carglumic acid is a structural analogue of human N-acetylglutamate, which has become an alternative therapeutic option for hyperammonaemia in organic acidaemias such as isovaleric acidaemia, methylmalonic acidaemia and propionic acidaemia, and it has been suggested in other urea cycle disorders such as ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 deficiency. CASE DESCRIPTION: A male newborn was diagnosed with citrullinemia after serum amino acid analyses revealed markedly elevated citrulline concentration together with homozygous p...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737897/biogenic-hydroxyapatite-a-new-material-for-the-preservation-and-restoration-of-the-built-environment
#17
Ronald J Turner, Joanna C Renshaw, Andrea Hamilton
Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is by weight the world's most produced man-made material and is used in a variety of applications in environments ranging from buildings, to nuclear wasteforms, and within the human body. In this paper, we present for the first time the direct deposition of biogenic hydroxyapatite onto the surface of OPC in a synergistic process which uses the composition of the cement substrate. This hydroxyapatite is very similar to that found in nature, having a similar crystallite size, iron and carbonate substitution, and a semi-crystalline structure...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736047/health-risk-assessment-as-an-approach-to-manage-an-old-landfill-and-to-propose-integrated-solid-waste-treatment-a-case-study-in-italy
#18
O Paladino, M Massabò
The aim of the present paper is to show how an approach based on human health risk analysis can be used as a decisional tool for the evaluation of impacts on population and for deciding between different waste treatment processes. The situation in which the increasing production of solid wastes cannot be confined in the old existing Municipal Solid Waste landfill (settled in Genoa, Liguria Region, Italy) is used as a case study. Risk assessment for human health due to air, surface water, groundwater and soil contamination is performed in different scenarios for the old landfill and compared with alternative Waste-to-Energy management solutions that consider thermal treatment by gasification of the total waste or gasification of the dry fraction coupled with anaerobic digestion of the wet fraction, plus biogas combustion with or without sludge and bottom ash/slag disposal in the old landfill...
July 21, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726187/best-practices-for-media-selection-for-mammalian-cells
#19
REVIEW
Paul J Price
Cell culture medium is a complex mixture of nutrients and growth factors that, along with the physical environment, can either help or destroy your experiment or production run. Nutritional requirements differ with different cell types and functions, as do optimal pH and osmolality. As cell growth proceeds, different cells will utilize amino acids and other components at different rates. By controlling for ammonia, free radicals, heavy metal toxicity, pH shifts, fluctuations in osmolality, nutrient depletion, and chemical and biological contaminants, you will optimize the chances of success...
July 19, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726174/comparative-study-of-the-effects-of-a-small-scale-trout-farm-on-the-macrozoobenthos-potamoplankton-and-epilithic-diatom-communities
#20
K Stojanović, M Živić, Z Dulić, Z Marković, J Krizmanić, Dj Milošević, B Miljanović, J Jovanović, D Vidaković, I Živić
Trout farms are one of the major sources of pollution of highland streams and rivers, which are very sensitive ecosystems otherwise scarcely influenced by human activities. A trout farm with low annual production was chosen for comparative monitoring of its effects on the macrozoobenthos, epilithic diatom, and potamoplankton communities in the receiving stream. Research was conducted every 2 months during a period of 1 year (one control point and three localities downstream from the farm). The fish farm discharge induced moderate alteration of environmental factors in the receiving watercourse, viz...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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