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Ammonia & human

Nora Freyer, Selina Greuel, Fanny Knöspel, Florian Gerstmann, Lisa Storch, Georg Damm, Daniel Seehofer, Jennifer Foster Harris, Rashi Iyer, Frank Schubert, Katrin Zeilinger
The accurate prediction of hepatotoxicity demands validated human in vitro models that can close the gap between preclinical animal studies and clinical trials. In this study we investigated the response of primary human liver cells to toxic drug exposure in a perfused microscale 3D liver bioreactor. The cellularized bioreactors were treated with 5, 10, or 30 mM acetaminophen (APAP) used as a reference substance. Lactate production significantly decreased upon treatment with 30 mM APAP ( p < 0.05) and ammonia release significantly increased in bioreactors treated with 10 or 30 mM APAP ( p < 0...
March 15, 2018: Bioengineering
Nicole Y Lee, Omer Ibrahim, Shilpi Khetarpal, Mariya Gaber, Spiros Jamas, Ioannis Gryllos, Jeffrey S Dover
Keratosis pilaris (KP) is a common skin finding that presents as follicular hyperkeratotic papules on the proximal extremities in patients with a propensity for atopy. Although often asymptomatic, the stippled appearance is cosmetically disturbing to patients and difficult to treat as current therapies are limited in availability and efficacy. Nitric oxide (NO) has been found to be essential in basic systemic and cutaneous physiologic function, specifically in terms of its anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties, which evolutionarily was maintained by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Qi Yao, Zijiang Yang, Hong Li, Michael D Buser, John D Wanjura, Peter M Downey, Chen Zhang, Collin Craige, Alba Torrents, Laura L McConnell, Gregory A Holt, Cathleen J Hapeman
Poultry-emitted air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) and ammonia, have raised concerns due to potential negative effects on human health and the environment. However, developing and optimizing remediation technologies requires a better understanding of air pollutant concentrations, the emission plumes, and the relationships between the pollutants. Therefore, we conducted ten field experiments to characterize PM (total suspended particulate [TSP], particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter [PM10 ], and particulate matter less than 2...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Deepak Bhandari, Brett A Bowman, Anish B Patel, David M Chambers, Víctor R De Jesús, Benjamin C Blount
This work describes a quantitative high-throughput analytical method for the simultaneous measurement of small aliphatic nitrogenous biomarkers, i.e., 1,6-hexamethylenediamine (HDA), isophoronediamine (IPDA), β-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), in human urine. Urinary aliphatic diamines, HDA and IPDA, are potential biomarkers of environmental exposure to their corresponding diisocyanates. Urinary BMAA forms as a result of human exposure to blue-green algae contaminated food. And, TMAO is excreted in urine due to the consumption of carnitine- and choline-rich diets...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Ochan Otim, Tom Juma, Robert Savinelli
An opportunity to study the effect of a massive wastewater discharge on a nearshore ocean environment arose in 2015 over a 42-day period when the City of Los Angeles diverted 9.4 billion gal of treated wastewater effluent from an outfall located 5 mi in the Pacific Ocean to a 1-mi backup in the Santa Monica Bay (SMB). SMB is a heavily used waterbody and is home to many marine organisms. To understand the impact of this diversion on human health and on SMB ecosystem, samples of the wastewater effluent, the receiving seawater, and sediments from around the backup outfall were analyzed, among others, for metals, semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC), nutrients, and total organic carbon (TOC) during the diversion project...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Prem Prashant Chaudhary, Patricia Lynne Conway, Jørgen Schlundt
Methanogens are anaerobic prokaryotes from the domain archaea that utilize hydrogen to reduce carbon dioxide, acetate, and a variety of methyl compounds into methane. Earlier believed to inhabit only the extreme environments, these organisms are now reported to be found in various environments including mesophilic habitats and the human body. The biological significance of methanogens for humans has been re-evaluated in the last few decades. Their contribution towards pathogenicity has received much less attention than their bacterial counterparts...
March 1, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Katharina T Schrapers, Gerhard Sponder, Franziska Liebe, Hendrik Liebe, Friederike Stumpff
Absorption of ammonia from the gastrointestinal tract results in problems that range from hepatic encephalopathy in humans to poor nitrogen efficiency of cattle with consequences for the global climate. Previous studies on epithelia and cells from the native ruminal epithelium suggest functional involvement of the bovine homologue of TRPV3 (bTRPV3) in ruminal NH4+ transport. Since the conductance of TRP channels to NH4+ has never been studied, bTRPV3 was overexpressed in HEK-293 cells and investigated using the patch-clamp technique and intracellular calcium imaging...
2018: PloS One
Anne Marie Voigt Schou-Pedersen, Jens Lykkesfeldt
Increased asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in human plasma has been associated with reduced generation of nitric oxide, leading to atherosclerotic diseases. ADMA may therefore be an important biomarker for cardiovascular disease. In the present study, three sample preparation techniques were compared regarding the quantification of L-arginine and ADMA in human plasma: (A) protein precipitation (PP) based on aqueous trichloroacetic acid (TCA), (B) PP using a mixture of ammonia and acetonitrile, and (C) solid-phase extraction (SPE)...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Cassandra M Herring, Fuller W Bazer, Gregory A Johnson, Guoyao Wu
Maternal nutrition during gestation, especially dietary protein intake, is a key determinant in embryonic survival, growth, and development. Low maternal dietary protein intake can cause embryonic losses, intra-uterine growth restriction, and reduced postnatal growth due to a deficiency in specific amino acids that are important for cell metabolism and function. Of note, high maternal dietary protein intake can also result in intra-uterine growth restriction and embryonic death, due to amino acid excesses, as well as the toxicity of ammonia, homocysteine, and H2 S that are generated from amino acid catabolism...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Wei Yuan, Xin He, Xiaoshu Zhou, Yue Zhu
Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method using calcium nitrate and phosphoric acid as precursors and ammonia aqueous solution as a pH value adjustor. The 3D-printed porous Ti6Al4V and CoCrMo alloy scaffolds were effectively coated with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in the hydrothermal synthesis process by deposition method. Coating hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on the implant surfaces increased their biocompatibility and bioactivity. HAP-deposited Ti6Al4V or HAP-deposited CoCrMo scaffold induced no statistical increase in terms of apoptosis in hFOB1...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Ewelina Dziurkowska, Marek Wesolowski
In recent years, the use of human saliva for diagnostic purposes has evoked great interest. Thus, the aim of this study was to choose the optimal solid-phase extraction cartridges and extraction solvents for the quantitation of venlafaxine in saliva. Blank saliva samples spiked with venlafaxine concentrations between 25 and 750 ng/mL were analyzed using five solid-phase extraction columns (C18, C8, Strata-X, Strata-X-C, and Strata-X-AW), washing solvents (deionized water, phosphate buffer at pH 5.5, and their mixtures with methanol) and elution solvents (methanol, acetonitrile, and their mixtures with 25% ammonia)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Mary G Prieve, Pierrot Harvie, Sean D Monahan, Debashish Roy, Allen G Li, Teri L Blevins, Amber E Paschal, Matt Waldheim, Eric C Bell, Anna Galperin, Jean-Rene Ella-Menye, Michael E Houston
We describe a novel, two-nanoparticle mRNA delivery system and show that it is highly effective as a means of intracellular enzyme replacement therapy (i-ERT) using a murine model of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD). Our Hybrid mRNA Technology delivery system (HMT) comprises an inert lipid nanoparticle that protects the mRNA from nucleases in the blood as it distributes to the liver and a polymer micelle that targets hepatocytes and triggers endosomal release of mRNA. This results in high-level synthesis of the desired protein specifically in the liver...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Tingting Liu, Mian Li, Liping Guo
Designing high-efficiency electrocatalysts for glucose concentration detection plays a pivotal role in developing various non-enzymatic glucose detection devices. Herein, we have successfully designed and synthesized various cobalt nitrides (Co4N) by using different weak bases (i.e. hexamethylenetetramine (HMT), urea, and ammonium hydroxide (AH)) through nitridation treatment in ammonia (NH3) atmosphere. Physical characterization results demonstrate that Co4N-NSs (nanosheets) with vast meso/macropores and large BET surface are successfully constructed once adding carbon paper and HMT into precursors...
May 1, 2018: Talanta
Michael Eichner, Jeanette E Purcell, Jeffrey D Fortman
Time-weighted exposure limits to ammonia are established for humans; however similar guidelines have not been defined for laboratory rodents. The Guide recommends maintaining air pollutants at concentrations below levels irritating to mucous membranes but does not provide specific values. Numerous studies have examined ammonia and its effects on animal health, yet none have assessed the effects of naturally occurring intracage ammonia on the lower pulmonary tree and pulmonary endothelial and epithelial integrity in mice...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Martien van Wenum, Aziza A A Adam, Vincent A van der Mark, Jung-Chin Chang, Manon E Wildenberg, Erik J Hendriks, Aldo Jongejan, Perry D Moerland, Thomas M van Gulik, Ronald P Oude Elferink, Robert A F M Chamuleau, Ruurdtje Hoekstra
The in vitro generation of terminally differentiated hepatocytes is an unmet need. We investigated the contribution of oxygen concentration to differentiation in human liver cell lines HepaRG and C3A. HepaRG cells were cultured under hypoxia (5%O2), normoxia (21%O2) or hyperoxia (40%O2). Cultures were analysed for hepatic functions, gene transcript levels, and protein expression of albumin, hepatic transcription factor CEBPα, hepatic progenitor marker SOX9, and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)1α. C3A cells were analysed after exposure to normoxia or hyperoxia...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Jing Liu, Enkhchimeg Lkhagva, Hea-Jong Chung, Hyeon-Jin Kim, Seong-Tshool Hong
Ammonia is constantly produced as a metabolic waste from amino acid catabolism in mammals. Ammonia, the toxic waste metabolite, is resolved in the liver where the urea cycle converts free ammonia to urea. Liver malfunctions cause hyperammonemia that leads to central nervous system (CNS) dysfunctions, such as brain edema, convulsions, and coma. The current treatments for hyperammonemia, such as antibiotics or lactulose, are designed to decrease the intestinal production of ammonia and/or its absorption into the body and are not effective, besides being often accompanied by side effects...
January 28, 2018: Nutrients
Zhibo Luo, Shanying Hu, Dingjiang Chen, Bing Zhu
Anthropogenic inputs of reactive nitrogen (Nr) provide sufficient food, energy and industrial products to meet human demands; however, only a fraction of Nr is consumed as food and nonfood goods, and the rest is lost to the environment and negatively affects ecosystems. High-resolution studies of nitrogen flows are invaluable to increase nitrogen use efficiencies and reduce environmental emissions. In this study, a comprehensive substance flow analysis of nitrogen for China in 2014 is presented. Based on the conceptual framework, which highlights the key roles of human drivers, the analysis of the synthetic ammonia supply and demand balance shows that 75% of ammonia is used for agricultural purposes...
January 30, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Behrooz Shojaee Sadi, Mansour Bayat, Parviz Tajik, Seyed Jamal Hashemi
The specific immune-reaction between the anti-citrinin antibody immobilized on the surface of magnetic/silica core-shell (MSCS) and the citrinin-Rho123-BSA conjugate brings the Rho123 fluorophore as an acceptor and the QDs as a donor in close spatial proximity and causes FRET for occurring upon photo-excitation of the QDs. The novelties of this study include: (1) immobilization of the MSCS; (2) large amount of the immobilized QDs, and (3) immobilization of a large amount of Rho123 on the BSA macromolecule. Cd/Te QDs were synthesized by the simultaneous reduction of cadmium chloride and tellurium in the presence of sodium borohydride...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Volker Matthias, Jan A Arndt, Armin Aulinger, Johannes Bieser, Hugo Denier Van Der Gon, Richard Kranenburg, Jeroen Kuenen, Daniel Neumann, George Pouliot, Markus Quante
Poor air quality is still a threat for human health in many parts of the world. In order to assess measures for emission reductions and improved air quality, three-dimensional atmospheric chemistry transport modeling systems are used in numerous research institutions and public authorities. These models need accurate emission data in appropriate spatial and temporal resolution as input. This paper reviews the most widely used emission inventories on global and regional scale and looks into the methods used to make the inventory data model ready...
January 24, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Teresa Cruz-Bustos, Evgeniy Potapenko, Melissa Storey, Roberto Docampo
Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, undergoes drastic metabolic changes when it transits between a vector and mammalian hosts. Amino acid catabolism leads to the production of ammonium (NH4+), which needs to be detoxified. However, T. cruzi does not possess a urea cycle, and it is unknown how intracellular levels of ammonium are controlled. In this work, we identified an intracellular ammonium transporter of T. cruzi (TcAMT) that localizes to acidic compartments (reservosomes, lysosomes)...
January 2018: MSphere
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