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Ammonia & human

Neelam Verma, Ashish Kumar Singh, Minni Singh
Arginine has been considered as the most potent nutraceutics discovered ever, due to its powerful healing property, and it's been known to scientists as the Miracle Molecule. Arginine detection in fermented food products is necessary because, high level of arginine in foods forms ethyl carbamate (EC) during the fermentation process. Therefore, L-arginine detection in fermented food products is very important as a control measure for quality of fermented foods, food supplements and beverages including wine. In clinical analysis arginine detection is important due to their enormous inherent versatility in various metabolic pathways, topmost in the synthesis of Nitric oxide (NO) and tumor growth...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Diane de La Pomélie, Véronique Santé-Lhoutellier, Thierry Sayd, Philippe Gatellier
The chemical changes (oxidation/nitrosation) of meat proteins during digestion lead to a decrease in their nutritional value. Moreover, oxidized and nitrosated amino acids are suspected to promote various human pathologies. To investigate the mechanisms and the kinetics of these endogenous protein modifications, we used a dynamic artificial digestive system (DIDGI®) that mimics the physicochemical conditions of digestion. The combined effect of meat cooking and endogenous addition of ascorbate and nitrite was evaluated on protein oxidation (by measuring carbonyl groups), protein nitrosation (by measuring nitrosamines), and proteolysis...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Xuelu Ding, Stefanie Gerbig, Bernhard Spengler, Sabine Schulz
Organic UV filters in personal care products (PCPs) have been persistently reported as a potential threat to human health. In order to guarantee consumers(') safety, the dose of these compounds in PCPs needs to be monitored. Here, a methodology based on reactive low temperature plasma ionization (LTP) mass spectrometry (MS) has been developed for the determination of common organic UV filters in PCPs including benzophenone-3, ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoic acid, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, octocrylene, and ethylhexyl salicylate...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
Tsz Wai Ng, Pui Ying Chan, Tsz Ting Chan, Haoxiang Wu, Ka Man Lai
One of the most notable indoor air quality problems is odour emission. This study investigated the potential contribution of skin squames to the production of ammonia (NH3 ) and volatile organic acids (VFAs) by seven bacteria isolated from air-cooling (AC) units with complaints of urine and body odours. Our previous study showed that keratinolytic activity is higher in AC units with odour complaints than those without. In the offices where these units are located, the most likely source of keratins is from human skin squames...
November 12, 2017: Indoor Air
Lifang Gao, Xu Yang, Yang Shu, Xuwei Chen, Jianhua Wang
HYPOTHESIS: A novel slab optical waveguide sensor exploiting an ionic liquid (trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride)-based film can be used to detect gaseous ammonia. Bromothymol blue (BTB) incorporated into the ethyl cellulose-supported ionic liquid film can absorb the evanescent wave generated in the sensor and act as an indicator. The diffusion of gaseous ammonia across the sensing film is thus expected to change the absorbance of bromothymol blue, providing the basis for sensitive ammonia detection...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Luis H Orellana, Joanne C Chee-Sanford, Robert A Sanford, Frank E Löffler, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis
The dynamics of individual microbial populations and their gene functions in agricultural soils, especially after major activities such as nitrogen (N) fertilization, remain elusive but are important for better understanding nutrient cycling. Here, we analyzed 20 short-read metagenomes collected at four time points across one year from two depths (0-5 and 20-30 cm) in two Midwestern agricultural sites representing contrasting soil textures (sandy versus silty-loam), with similar cropping histories. Although microbial community taxonomic and functional compositions differed between the two locations and depths, they were more stable within a depth/site throughout the year than communities in natural water-based ecosystems...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ana Armada-Moreira, Essi Taipaleenmäki, Marie Baekgaard-Laursen, Philipp Sebastian Schattling, Ana M Sebastião, Sandra H Vaz, Brigitte Städler
Excitotoxicity is a common phenomenon in several neurological diseases, associated with an impaired clearance of synaptically released glutamate, which leads to an overactivation of postsynaptic glutamate receptors. This will, in turn, start an intracellular cascade of neurotoxic events, which include exacerbated production of reactive oxygen species and ammonia toxicity. We report the assembly of microreactors equipped with platinum nanoparticles as artificial enzymes and polymer terminating layers including poly(dopamine)...
October 30, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hossein Niknahad, Akram Jamshidzadeh, Reza Heidari, Mahdi Zarei, Mohammad Mehdi Ommati
INTRODUCTION: Ammonia-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and energy crisis are known as some the major mechanisms of brain injury in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hyperammonemia also affects the liver and hepatocytes. Therefore, targeting mitochondria seems to be a therapeutic point of intervention in the treatment of HE. Taurine is an abundant amino acid in the human body. Several biological functions including the mitochondrial protective properties are attributed to this amino acid...
September 2017: Clin Exp Hepatol
Birgitta C Burckhardt, Gerhard Burckhardt
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Inborn deficiency of the N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) impairs the urea cycle and causes neurotoxic hyperammonemia. Oral administration of N-carbamoylglutamate (NCG), a synthetic analog of N-acetylglutamate (NAG), successfully decreases plasma ammonia levels in the affected children. Due to structural similarities to glutamate, NCG may be absorbed in the intestine and taken up into the liver by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). METHODS: Using Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing either human EAAT1, 2, or 3, or human sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter 3 (NaDC3), transport-associated currents of NAG, NCG, and related dicarboxylates were assayed...
October 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Mingxin Li, Qian Wang, Jing Zhu, Lin Ren, Li Yong, Xiaoli Zou
The analytical method of nicotine and cotinine in human urine with hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) was established. After the urine sample containing nicotine-d4 and cotinine-d3 isotope internal standards being diluted with water, the filtrate was introduced into ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for analysis. Separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC(®) BEH HILIC column (50 mm×3.0 mm, 1.7 μ m), in which methanol and 0...
August 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
G van Straten, M G M de Sain-van der Velden, I M van Geijlswijk, R P Favier, S J Mesu, N E Holwerda-Loof, M van der Ham, H Fieten, J Rothuizen, B Spee, N M Verhoeven-Duif
Urea cycle enzyme deficiency (UCED) patients with hyperammonemia are treated with sodium benzoate (SB) and sodium phenylacetate (SPA) to induce alternative pathways of nitrogen excretion. The suggested guidelines supporting their use in the management of hyperammonemia are primarily based on non-analytic studies such as case reports and case series. Canine congenital portosystemic shunting (CPSS) is a naturally occurring model for hyperammonemia. Here, we performed cross-over, randomized, placebo-controlled studies in healthy dogs to assess safety and pharmacokinetics of SB and SPA (phase I)...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Brigida Silvestri, Giuseppe Vitiello, Giuseppina Luciani, Vincenzo Calcagno, Aniello Costantini, Maria Gallo, Silvia Parisi, Simona Paladino, Mariagrazia Iacomino, Gerardino D'Errico, M Federica Caso, Alessandro Pezzella, Marco d'Ischia
We disclose herein the first example of stable monodispersed hybrid nanoparticles (termed MelaSil-NPs) made up of eumelanin biopolymer intimately integrated into a silica nanoscaffold matrix and endowed with high antioxidant and cytoprotective effects associated with a specific subcellular localization. MelaSil-NPs have been fabricated by an optimized sol-gel methodology involving ammonia-induced oxidative polymerization of a covalent conjugate of the eumelanin building block 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilanes (APTS)...
October 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
M C Rodríguez Castro, L Marcó P, M C Ranieri, C Vázquez, A Giorgi
A survey of arsenic and phosphorus in Pampean streams of Buenos Aires province was performed. Nitrates and ammonia were also determined. Stream water was sampled as well as stream sediment and filamentous algae. Results show that 32 streams exceeded the arsenic recommended guidelines for human consumption of 10 μg L(-1) and six exceeded recommended values for aquatic organisms' protection of 50 μg L(-1). The average concentration found was 36.54 μg L(-1) and areas with more concentration of As are located in the southern region of the province, in streams that are tributaries of the Atlantic Ocean...
October 7, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Dylan L Riggs, Sonia V Gomez, Ryan R Julian
Deamidation of asparagine is a spontaneous and irreversible post-translational modification associated with a growing list of human diseases. While pervasive, deamidation is often overlooked because it represents a relatively minor chemical change. Structural and functional characterization of this modification is complicated because deamidation of asparagine yields four isomeric forms of Asp. Herein, radical directed dissociation (RDD), in conjunction with mass spectrometry, is used to identify and quantify all four isomers in a series of model peptides that were subjected to various deamidation conditions...
November 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
Hao-Hua Deng, Xiao-Qing Zheng, Yan-Yu Wu, Xiao-Qiong Shi, Xiu-Ling Lin, Xing-Hua Xia, Hua-Ping Peng, Wei Chen, Guo-Lin Hong
We herein report the intrinsic alkaline peroxidase-like activity exhibited by CuO nanoparticles when 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was employed as a substrate. Based on this observation, a fluorometric assay method with a low detection limit of 0.81 μM was established for H2O2 determination under alkaline conditions. Notably, ammonia was found to inhibit the alkaline peroxidase-like activity of the CuO nanoparticles. Thus, a sensing platform for the determination of urea and urease was successfully constructed, with the limits of detection for urea and urease being 27 μM and 2...
September 29, 2017: Analyst
Wenguang Fan, Haiwei Ren, Yingying Cao, Yonggang Wang, Guicheng Huo
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a low dietary protein and high carbohydrate infant formula on the large intestine of neonatal rats. A total of 24 neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (14-days-old) were randomly assigned to the low protein, high carbohydrate infant formula-fed group (I group) and a human breast milk-fed group (H group). After 7 days, we selected 6 rats at random from each group to study. No significantly different microbial colonization patterns were observed in the 2 groups at the phylum level...
September 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
A Kuzuhara
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our research was to investigate the reduction mechanism of thioglycerol (TG) on hair keratin fibres. METHODS: The structure of cross-sections at various depths of virgin white human hair resulting from the permanent waving process with TG was directly analyzed at the molecular level using Raman spectroscopy. Also, the penetration of TG for the cross-sectional samples dyed with methylene blue was observed by optical microscopy. RESULTS: The gauche-gauche-gauche (GGG) and gauche-gauche-trans (GGT) conformations of disulfide (-SS-) groups remarkably decreased, while the trans-gauche-trans (TGT) conformation increased by performing the reduction process with TG...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
Mariagrazia Grimaldi, Melis Karaca, Livia Latini, Estelle Brioudes, Thomas Schalch, Pierre Maechler
Congenital hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia (HI/HA) syndrome gives rise to unregulated protein-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells, fasting hypoglycemia and elevated plasma ammonia levels. Mutations associated with HI/HA were identified in the Glud1 gene, encoding for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). We aimed at identifying the molecular causes of dysregulation in insulin secretion and ammonia production conferred by the most frequent HI/HA mutation Ser445Leu. Following transduction with adenoviruses carrying the human GDH-wild type or GDH-S445L-mutant gene, immunoblotting showed efficient expression of the transgenes in all the investigated cell types...
September 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
Beibei Hu, Dongqi Wang, Jun Zhou, Weiqing Meng, Chongwei Li, Zongbin Sun, Xin Guo, Zhongliang Wang
Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration, saturation and fluxes in rivers (Beitang drainage river, Dagu drainage rive, Duliujianhe river, Yongdingxinhe river and Nanyunhe river) of Tianjin city (Haihe watershed) were investigated during July and October in 2014, and January and April in 2015 by static headspace gas chromatography method and the two-layer model of diffusive gas exchange. The influence of environmental variables on greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentration under the disturbance of anthropogenic activities was discussed by Spearman correlative analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis...
January 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nurul Ruhayu Mohd Rosli, Khairun Yahya
The study of river water quality plays an important role in assessing the pollution status and health of the water bodies. Human-induced activities such as domestic activities, aquaculture, agriculture and industries have detrimentally affected the river water quality. Pinang River is one of the important rivers in Balik Pulau District that supplies freshwater for human consumption. A total of 442 physical and chemical parameters data of the Pinang River, Balik Pulau catchment were analysed to determine the sources of pollutants entering the river...
July 2017: Tropical Life Sciences Research
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