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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780668/impact-of-front-range-sources-on-reactive-nitrogen-concentrations-and-deposition-in-rocky-mountain-national-park
#1
Katherine B Benedict, Anthony J Prenni, Amy P Sullivan, Ashley R Evanoski-Cole, Emily V Fischer, Sara Callahan, Barkley C Sive, Yong Zhou, Bret A Schichtel, Jeffrey L Collett
Human influenced atmospheric reactive nitrogen (RN) is impacting ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). Due to ROMO's protected status as a Class 1 area, these changes are concerning, and improving our understanding of the contributions of different types of RN and their sources is important for reducing impacts in ROMO. In July-August 2014 the most comprehensive measurements (to date) of RN were made in ROMO during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ). Measurements included peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), C1 -C5 alkyl nitrates, and high-time resolution NOx , NOy , and ammonia...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756576/improving-feed-protein-utilization-rate-in-cattle-through-nutritional-approaches
#2
Guangyong Zhao
Cattle supply important amounts of nutritious products such as beef and milk for human consumption. However, cattle excrete large amounts of feces and urine with low utilization rate of dietary crude protein (CP). These not only negatively affect the global environment by emission of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and N bleaching the soil and underground water, but also increase the feed cost. The low nitrogen (N) utilization rate of cattle could possibly result from the activity of rumen microorganisms degrading feed protein...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747442/safety-evaluations-of-bifidobacterium-bifidum-bgn4-and-bifidobacterium-longum-bori
#3
Min Jeong Kim, Seockmo Ku, Sun Young Kim, Hyun Ha Lee, Hui Jin, Sini Kang, Rui Li, Tony V Johnston, Myeong Soo Park, Geun Eog Ji
Over the past decade, a variety of lactic acid bacteria have been commercially available to and steadily used by consumers. However, recent studies have shown that some lactic acid bacteria produce toxic substances and display properties of virulence. To establish safety guidelines for lactic acid bacteria, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) has suggested that lactic acid bacteria be characterized and proven safe for consumers’ health via multiple experiments (e...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744520/effects-of-low-frequency-ultrasound-on-microcystis-aeruginosa-from-cell-inactivation-to-disruption
#4
Xiao Tan, Xiaoqian Shu, Jiujia Guo, Keshab Parajuli, Xidong Zhang, Zhipeng Duan
Ultrasound can be used to induce cell resonance and cavitation to inhibit cyanobacterial growth, but it can also lead to increase in dissolved nutrients because of cell disruption. This study investigated the process from cell inactivation to disruption of Microcystis aeruginosa. Algal cells were sonicated (at 35 kHz) under various intensities and durations. Results showed that chlorophyll a content and F v /F m values decreased slightly within the first 5 min. Superoxide dismutase activity was stimulated and its peak value appeared at the fifth minute...
May 9, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742296/timing-and-appearance-of-postmortem-root-banding-in-nonhuman-mammals
#5
Adam H Richard, Jack Hietpas, JoAnn Buscaglia, Keith L Monson
A study was undertaken using nonhuman mammal specimens to better understand environmental influences on postmortem hair root band (PMRB) formation and to see whether PMRBs would occur in nonhuman mammal hairs in a similar fashion to human hairs. Carcasses from surrounding roadways were the primary source of specimens for this study, augmented by donated deceased domestic pets. Sections of pelt from each specimen were placed in controlled environmental conditions while the remainder of the carcass was left in a secure outdoor setting...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737156/a-comprehensive-study-of-poly-2-3-5-6-tetrafluoroaniline-from-electrosynthesis-to-heterojunctions-and-ammonia-sensing
#6
Mickaël Mateos, Rita Meunier-Prest, Olivier Heintz, Frederic Herbst, Jean-Moïse Suisse, Marcel Bouvet
In this work, we report for the first time on a comprehensive study of poly(2,3,5,6-tetrafluoroaniline (PTFANI). Contrary to the non fluorinated polyaniline or its analogues bearing one fluorine atom, PTFANI is a poorly conductive material. We present a comprehensive study of the electrosynthesized PTFANI from its monomer in acidic aqueous medium. PTFANI was fully characterized by a potential-pH diagram, spectroelectrochemistry, and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) measurements, as well as by a morphological study...
May 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735295/photocatalytic-activity-of-cuo-cu-oh-2-nanostructures-in-the-degradation-of-reactive-green-19a-and-textile-effluent-phytotoxicity-studies-and-their-biogenic-properties-antibacterial-and-anticancer
#7
Rijuta Ganesh Saratale, Gajanan S Ghodake, Surendra K Shinde, Si-Kyung Cho, Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale, Arivalagan Pugazhendhi, Ram Naresh Bharagava
In this study, CuO/Cu(OH)2 (denoted as CuONs) nanostructures were synthesized relying to a cheap and rapid chemical co-precipitation method using copper sulfate and liquid ammonia as precursors. Results obtained from X-ray diffraction, and field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed the crystalline nature of synthesized CuONs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy studies showed interactions between copper and oxygen atoms. Synthesized CuONs showed the size in the range of 20-30 nm using high resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732453/pyrimidine-nucleosides-with-a-reactive-%C3%AE-chlorovinyl-sulfone-or-%C3%AE-keto-sulfone-group-at-the-c5-position-their-reactions-with-nucleophiles-and-electrophiles-and-their-polymerase-catalyzed-incorporation-into-dna
#8
Sazzad H Suzol, A Hasan Howlader, Zhiwei Wen, Yaou Ren, Eduardo E Laverde, Carol Garcia, Yuan Liu, Stanislaw F Wnuk
Transition-metal-catalyzed chlorosulfonylation of 5-ethynylpyrimidine nucleosides provided ( E )-5-(β-chlorovinyl)sulfones A , which undergo nucleophilic substitution with amines or thiols affording B . The treatment of vinyl sulfones A with ammonia followed by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the intermediary β-sulfonylvinylamines gave 5-(β-keto)sulfones C . The latter reacts with electrophiles, yielding α-carbon-alkylated or -sulfanylated analogues D . The 5'-triphosphates of A and C were incorporated into double-stranded DNA, using open and one-nucleotide gap substrates, by human or Escherichia coli DNA-polymerase-catalyzed reactions...
April 30, 2018: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730577/the-effects-of-biomimetically-conjugated-vegf-on-osteogenesis-and-angiogenesis-of-mscs-human-and-rat-and-huvecs-co-culture-models
#9
Lanxin Lü, Anthony Deegan, Faiza Musa, Tie Xu, Ying Yang
The purpose of this work was to investigate if the biomimetically conjugated VEGF and HUVECs co-culture could modulate the osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of MSCs derived from rat and human bone marrow (rMSCs and hMSCs). After treated by ammonia plasma, Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) electrospun nanofibers were immobilized with VEGF through heparin to fulfil the sustained release. The proliferation capacity of rMSCs and hMSCs on neat PLGA nanofibers (NF) and VEGF immobilized NF (NF-VEGF) surfaces were assessed by CCK-8 and compared when MSCs were mono-cultured and co-cultured with HUVECs...
April 30, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725246/dehydroepiandrosterone-supplementation-combined-with-weight-loading-whole-body-vibration-training-wwbv-affects-exercise-performance-and-muscle-glycogen-storage-in-middle-aged-c57bl-6-mice
#10
Yi-Ming Chen, Hao-Chieh Lee, Mu-Tsung Chen, Chi-Chang Huang, Wen-Chyuan Chen
Background : Adequate nutritional intake and an optimal training program are important elements of any strategy to preserve or increase muscle mass and strength during aging. Purpose : In the current study, we investigate the effects of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), one of the most abundant circulating steroids in humans and a precursor hormone, supplementation combined with a weight-loading whole-body vibration (WWBV) on exercise performance, physical fatigue-related biochemical responses and testosterone content in middle-aged 9 months old C57BL/6 mice...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724658/human-hepatocyte-transplantation-corrects-the-inherited-metabolic-liver-disorder-arginase-deficiency-in-mice
#11
Stephanie A K Angarita, Brian Truong, Suhail Khoja, Matthew Nitzahn, Abha K Rajbhandari, Irina Zhuravka, Sergio Duarte, Michael G Lin, Alex K Lam, Stephen D Cederbaum, Gerald S Lipshutz
The transplantation, engraftment, and expansion of primary hepatocytes have the potential to be an effective therapy for metabolic disorders of the liver including those of nitrogen metabolism. To date, such methods for the treatment of urea cycle disorders in murine models has only been minimally explored. Arginase deficiency, an inherited disorder of nitrogen metabolism that presents in the first two years of life, has the potential to be treated by such methods. To explore the potential of this approach, we mated the conditional arginase deficient mouse with a mouse model deficient in fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) and with Rag2 and IL2-Rγ mutations to give a selective advantage to transplanted (normal) human hepatocytes...
April 21, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708738/the-helicobacter-pylori-hypa%C3%A2-uree2-complex-contains-a-novel-high-affinity-ni-ii-binding-site
#12
Heidi Q Hu, Hsin-Ting Huang, Michael Maroney
Helicobacter pylori is a human pathogen that colonizes the stomach, is the major cause of ulcers, and has been associated with stomach cancers. In order to survive in the acidic environment of the stomach, H. pylori uses urease, a nickel-dependent enzyme, to produce ammonia for maintenance of cellular pH. The bacteria produce apo-urease in large quantities and activate it by incorporating nickel under acid shock conditions. Urease nickel incorporation requires the urease-specific metallochaperone UreE and the (UreFGH)2 maturation complex...
April 30, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705898/ammonia-production-in-poultry-houses-can-affect-health-of-humans-birds-and-the-environment-techniques-for-its-reduction-during-poultry-production
#13
Sadia Naseem, Annie J King
Due to greater consumption of poultry products and an increase in exports, more poultry houses will be needed. Therefore, it is important to investigate ways that poultry facilities can coexist in close proximity to residential areas without odors and environmental challenges. Ammonia (NH3 ) is the greatest concern for environmental pollution from poultry production. When birds consume protein, they produce uric acid, ultimately converted to NH3 under favorable conditions. Factors that increase production include pH, temperature, moisture content, litter type, bird age, manure age, relative humidity, and ventilation rate (VR)...
April 28, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700505/modifications-in-gut-microbiota-and-fermentation-metabolites-in-the-hindgut-of-rats-after-the-consumption-of-galactooligosaccharide-glycated-with-a-fish-peptide
#14
Weiya Jin, Kaining Han, Shiyuan Dong, Yuhong Yang, Zhenjie Mao, Mingyue Su, Mingyong Zeng
The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of a diet containing galactooligosaccharide (GOS)-fish peptide (FP) conjugates prepared via Maillard reaction on the colonic fermentation properties and the composition of gut microbiota in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were fed the GOS diet, FP diet, GOS and FP mixture (GOS/FP) diet, GOS glycated with FP (80 °C for 120 min, G-GOS/FP) diet, or control (CK) diet for three weeks. Compared to the GOS/FP diet, the G-GOS/FP diet greatly changed the pattern of SCFA production in the hindgut of rats, by increasing the total SCFA (44%), butyrate (55%) and propionate (1...
April 27, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685279/silage-review-animal-and-human-health-risks-from-silage
#15
REVIEW
F Driehuis, J M Wilkinson, Y Jiang, I Ogunade, A T Adesogan
Silage may contain several agents that are potentially hazardous to animal health, the safety of milk or other animal food products, or both. This paper reviews published literature about microbial hazards, plant toxins, and chemical hazards. Microbial hazards include Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium bovis, and various mold species. High concentrations of C. botulinum in silage have been associated with cattle botulism. A high initial concentration of C...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684898/isotopic-evidence-for-enhanced-fossil-fuel-sources-of-aerosol-ammonium-in-the-urban-atmosphere
#16
Yuepeng Pan, Shili Tian, Dongwei Liu, Yunting Fang, Xiaying Zhu, Meng Gao, Jian Gao, Greg Michalski, Yuesi Wang
The sources of aerosol ammonium (NH4 + ) are of interest because of the potential of NH4 + to impact the Earth's radiative balance, as well as human health and biological diversity. Isotopic source apportionment of aerosol NH4 + is challenging in the urban atmosphere, which has excess ammonia (NH3 ) and where nitrogen isotopic fractionation commonly occurs. Based on year-round isotopic measurements in urban Beijing, we show the source dependence of the isotopic abundance of aerosol NH4 + , with isotopically light (-33...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674015/isomer-specific-profiling-of-n-glycans-derived-from-human-serum-for-potential-biomarker-discovery-in-pancreatic-cancer
#17
Yufei Liu, Chang Wang, Ran Wang, Yike Wu, Liang Zhang, Bi-Feng Liu, Liming Cheng, Xin Liu
Glycosylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications of protein. Recently, global profiling of human serum glycomics has become a noninvasive method for cancer-related biomarker discovery and many studies have focused on compositional glycan profiling. In contrast, structure-specific glycan profiling may provide more potential biomarkers with higher specificity than compositional profiling. In this work, N-glycans released from human serum were neutralized with methylamine and reduced by ammonia-borane complex prior to profiling using nanoLC-ESI-MS with porous graphitized carbon (PGC) and relative abundances of over 280 isomers were compared between pancreatic cancer (PC) cases (n = 32) and healthy controls (n = 32)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672773/microbiological-chemical-and-physical-quality-of-drinking-water-for-commercial-turkeys-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
G Di Martino, A Piccirillo, M Giacomelli, D Comin, A Gallina, K Capello, F Buniolo, C Montesissa, L Bonfanti
Drinking water for poultry is not subject to particular microbiological, chemical and physical requirements, thereby representing a potential transmission route for pathogenic microorganisms and contaminants and/or becoming unsuitable for water-administered medications. This study assessed the microbiological, chemical and physical drinking water quality of 28 turkey farms in North-Eastern Italy: 14 supplied with tap water (TW) and 14 with well water (WW). Water salinity, hardness, pH, ammonia, sulphate, phosphate, nitrate, chromium, copper and iron levels were also assessed...
April 17, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672606/a-practice-changing-culture-method-relying-on-shaking-substantially-increases-mitochondrial-energy-metabolism-and-functionality-of-human-liver-cell-lines
#19
Aziza A A Adam, Vincent A van der Mark, Joanne M Donkers, Manon E Wildenberg, Ronald P J Oude Elferink, Robert A F M Chamuleau, Ruurdtje Hoekstra
Practice-changing culturing techniques of hepatocytes are highly required to increase their differentiation. Previously, we found that human liver cell lines HepaRG and C3A acquire higher functionality and increased mitochondrial biogenesis when cultured in the AMC-Bioartificial liver (BAL). Dynamic medium flow (DMF) is one of the major contributors to this stimulatory effect. Recently, we found that DMF-culturing by shaking of HepaRG monolayers resulted in higher mitochondrial biogenesis. Here we further investigated the effect of DMF-culturing on energy metabolism and hepatic functionality of HepaRG and C3A monolayers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666914/improved-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-quantification-of-hepcidin-25-in-clinical-samples
#20
Ioana M Abbas, Holger Hoffmann, María Montes-Bayón, Michael G Weller
Mass spectrometry-based methods play a crucial role in the quantification of the main iron metabolism regulator hepcidin by singling out the bioactive 25-residue peptide from the other naturally occurring N-truncated isoforms (hepcidin-20, -22, -24), which seem to be inactive in iron homeostasis. However, several difficulties arise in the MS analysis of hepcidin due to the "sticky" character of the peptide and the lack of suitable standards. Here, we propose the use of amino- and fluoro-silanized autosampler vials to reduce hepcidin interaction to laboratory glassware surfaces after testing several types of vials for the preparation of stock solutions and serum samples for isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS)...
April 18, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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