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Ammonia & human

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420743/cancer-cell-metabolism-the-essential-role-of-the-nonessential-amino-acid-glutamine
#1
REVIEW
Ji Zhang, Natalya N Pavlova, Craig B Thompson
Biochemistry textbooks and cell culture experiments seem to be telling us two different things about the significance of external glutamine supply for mammalian cell growth and proliferation. Despite the fact that glutamine is a nonessential amino acid that can be synthesized by cells from glucose-derived carbons and amino acid-derived ammonia, most mammalian cells in tissue culture cannot proliferate or even survive in an environment that does not contain millimolar levels of glutamine. Not only are the levels of glutamine in standard tissue culture media at least ten-fold higher than other amino acids, but glutamine is also the most abundant amino acid in the human bloodstream, where it is assiduously maintained at approximately 0...
April 18, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411465/simultaneous-and-multi-point-measurement-of-ammonia-emanating-from-human-skin-surface-for-the-estimation-of-whole-body-dermal-emission-rate
#2
Shota Furukawa, Yoshika Sekine, Keita Kimura, Kazuo Umezawa, Satomi Asai, Hayato Miyachi
Ammonia is one of the members of odor gases and a possible source of odor in indoor environment. However, little has been known on the actual emission rate of ammonia from the human skin surface. Then, this study aimed to estimate the whole-body dermal emission rate of ammonia by simultaneous and multi-point measurement of emission fluxes of ammonia employing a passive flux sampler - ion chromatography system. Firstly, the emission fluxes of ammonia were non-invasively measured for ten volunteers at 13 sampling positions set in 13 anatomical regions classified by Kurazumi et al...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409915/nitrogen-and-phosphorus-harvesting-from-human-urine-using-a-stripping-absorption-and-precipitation-process
#3
Surendra K Pradhan, Anna Mikola, Riku Vahala
Human urine contains significant amounts of N (nitrogen) and P (phosphorus); therefore it has been successfully used as fertilizer in different crops. But the use of urine as fertilizer has several constraints, such as, the high cost of transportation, an unpleasant smell, the risk of pathogens, and pharmaceutical residue. A combined and improved N stripping and P precipitation technique is used in this study. In this technique, Ca(OH)2 is used to increase the pH of urine which converts ammonium into ammonia gas and precipitate P as Ca-P compound...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390193/functional-amino-acids-in-the-development-of-the-pig-placenta
#4
REVIEW
Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer, Gregory A Johnson, Cassandra Herring, Heewon Seo, Zhaolai Dai, Junjun Wang, Zhenlong Wu, Xiaolong Wang
The mammalian placenta is essential for supplying nutrients (e.g., amino acids and water) and oxygen from the mother to fetus and for removing fetal metabolites (e.g., ammonia and CO2 ) from fetus to mother. Thus, placental growth and development are determinants of fetal survival, growth, and development. Indeed, low birth weight is closely associated with reduced placental growth. Providing gestating gilts or sows with dietary supplementation of arginine and glutamine, however, increases placental growth (including vascular growth), improves embryonic/fetal growth and survival, and reduces the large variation in birth weight among litters...
April 8, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380568/stable-isotopes-reveal-rapid-cycling-of-soil-nitrogen-after-manure-application
#5
David M Snider, Claudia Wagner-Riddle, John Spoelstra
Understanding the fate of applied nitrogen (N) in agricultural soils is important for agronomic, environmental, and human health reasons, but it is methodologically difficult to study at the field scale. Natural abundance stable isotope measurements (δN) were used in this field study with micrometeorological measurements of nitrous oxide (NO) emissions to identify the biogeochemical processes responsible for rapid N transformations immediately after application of liquid dairy manure. Fifteen samplings occurred between 16 Mar...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379573/the-effect-of-chronic-ammonia-exposure-on-acute-phase-proteins-immunoglobulin-and-cytokines-in-laying-hens
#6
Y N Wu, F F Yan, J Y Hu, H Chen, C M Tucker, A R Green, H W Cheng
Ammonia ( ) is a potential health hazard to both humans and animals, causing local and systemic low-grade inflammation based on its levels and exposure durations. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 45 wk of exposure to 30 ppm NH 3 on the concentrations of acute-phase proteins, immunoglobulins, and cytokines in laying hens. At 18 wk of age, a group of Hy-Line W-36 hens was randomly assigned to 4-hen cages. These cages were evenly divided between 2 environmentally controlled chambers. At 25 wk of age, one chamber was maintained continuously with fresh air (NH 3 < 5 ppm; control group) and the other one was injected with NH 3 and controlled at 30 ppm (NH 3 group) for 45 wk...
March 31, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357051/the-cyanobacterial-nitrogen-fixation-paradox-in-natural-waters
#7
REVIEW
Hans Paerl
Nitrogen fixation, the enzymatic conversion of atmospheric N (N 2) to ammonia (NH 3), is a microbially mediated process by which "new" N is supplied to N-deficient water bodies. Certain bloom-forming cyanobacterial species are capable of conducting N 2 fixation; hence, they are able to circumvent N limitation in these waters. However, this anaerobic process is highly sensitive to oxygen, and since cyanobacteria produce oxygen in photosynthesis, they are faced with a paradoxical situation, where one critically important (for supporting growth) biochemical process is inhibited by another...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347912/on-site-removal-of-antibiotics-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes-from-leachate-by-aged-refuse-bioreactor-effects-of-microbial-community-and-operational-parameters
#8
Yinglong Su, Jiaxin Wang, Zhiting Huang, Bing Xie
The abuse of antibiotics has raised the prevalence of antibiotic resistance, which will pose potential risk to human health. Leachate, generated during the landfill treatment of municipal solid waste, is the important hotspot of the antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and no effective on-site treatment has been put forward for preventing ARGs dissemination. Herein, the aged refuse bioreactor was employed to remove antibiotics and ARGs from leachate, and the great removal performance was observed...
March 21, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343264/modulating-the-ph-activity-profiles-of-phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase-from-anabaena-variabilis-by-modification-of-center-near-surface-residues
#9
Fan Zhang, Nan Huang, Li Zhou, Wenjing Cui, Zhongmei Liu, Longbao Zhu, Yi Liu, Zhemin Zhou
Phenylalanine ammonia lyase from Anabaena variabilis (Av-PAL) is a candidate for the treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU). However, Av-PAL shows its optimal pH at 8.5 and maintains only 70% of its highest activity when pH decreases to 7.3-7.4 (the condition of human plasma). The objective of the study was to shift its optimal pH by mutating surface amino acid residues which interact with the general base Tyr78. Based on the crystal structure and the online program GETAREA, we selected five sites: Asn69, Glu72, Glu75, Asn89, and Val90...
March 25, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343103/pd-au-carbon-dots-nanocomposite-facile-synthesis-and-application-as-an-ultrasensitive-electrochemical-biosensor-for-determination-of-colitoxin-dna-in-human-serum
#10
Qitong Huang, Xiaofeng Lin, Jie-Ji Zhu, Qing-Xiao Tong
In this study, a green and fast method was developed to synthesize high-yield carbon dots (CDs) via one-pot microwave treatment of banana peels without using any other surface passivation agents. Then the as-prepared CDs was used as the reducing agent and stabilizer to synthesize a Pd-Au@CDs nanocomposite by a simple sequential reduction strategy. Finally, Pd-Au@CDs nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (Pd-Au@CDs/GCE) was obtained as a biosensor for target DNA after being immobilized a single-stranded probe DNA by a carboxyl ammonia condensation reaction...
March 22, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337622/harnessing-fertilizer-potential-of-human-urine-in-a-mesocosm-system-a-novel-test-case-for-linking-the-loop-between-sanitation-and-aquaculture
#11
Sukanta Rana, Jayanta Kumar Biswas, Jörg Rinklebe, Erik Meers, Nanthi Bolan
Human urine (HU) is a biogenic fertilizer which has raised immense interest owing to its capacity of combining sanitation and nutrient recovery. In search of an alternative organic fertilizer for fish culture, the nutrient potential of HU was evaluated. Fries of Indian carps and larvae of freshwater prawn were reared for 120 days under six conditions: (a) aerated and (b) non-aerated fresh HU (0.01%), (c) cattle manure (CM; 1.8 kg tank(-1)), mixed treatment with CM and HU under (d) iso-phosphorus and (e) iso-nitrogenous condition and (f) control...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322010/cholesterol-can-modulate-mitochondrial-aquaporin-8-expression-in-human-hepatic-cells
#12
Mauro Danielli, Alejo M Capiglioni, Julieta Marrone, Giuseppe Calamita, Raúl A Marinelli
Hepatocyte mitochondrial aquaporin-8 (mtAQP8) works as a multifunctional membrane channel protein that facilitates the uptake of ammonia for its detoxification to urea as well as the mitochondrial release of hydrogen peroxide. Since early oligonucleotide microarray studies in liver of cholesterol-fed mice showed an AQP8 downregulation, we tested whether alterations of cholesterol content per se modulate mtAQP8 expression in human hepatocyte-derived Huh-7 cells. Cholesterol loading with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mβCD):cholesterol complexes downregulated the proteolytic activation of cholesterol-responsive sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcriptions factors 1 and 2, and the expression of the target gene 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR)...
March 20, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318787/municipal-wastewater-treatment-plant-effluent-induced-effects-on-freshwater-mussel-populations-and-the-role-of-mussel-refugia-in-recolonizing-an-extirpated-reach
#13
Patricia L Gillis, Rodney McInnis, Joseph Salerno, Shane R de Solla, Mark R Servos, Erin M Leonard
Global human population and urbanization continually increase the volume of wastewater entering aquatic environments. Despite efforts to treat these effluents, they contribute a diverse suite of substances that enter watersheds at concentrations that have the potential to elicit adverse effects on aquatic organisms. The relationship between wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent exposure and biological responses within aquatic ecosystems remains poorly understood, especially at the population level. To examine the effect of WWTP effluents on sentinel invertebrates, freshwater mussels were assessed in the Grand River, Ontario, in populations associated with the outfall of a major WWTP...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295475/downregulation-of-hnf-4%C3%AE-and-defective-zonation-in-livers-expressing-mutant-z-%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin
#14
Pasquale Piccolo, Patrizia Annunziata, Leandro R Soria, Sergio Attanasio, Anna Barbato, Raffaele Castello, Annamaria Carissimo, Luca Quagliata, Luigi M Terracciano, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri
α1 -antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is one of the most common genetic disorders and the liver disease due to the Z mutant of α1 -antitrypsin (ATZ) is a prototype of conformational disorder due to misfolding of protein with consequent aberrant intermolecular protein aggregation. In the present study, we found that livers of PiZ transgenic mice expressing the human ATZ have altered expression of a network of hepatocyte transcriptional factors including HNF4-α, that is early downregulated and induces a transcriptional repression of ATZ expression...
March 15, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287435/nanostructured-polypyrrole-based-ammonia-and-volatile-organic-compound-sensors
#15
REVIEW
Milena Šetka, Jana Drbohlavová, Jaromír Hubálek
The aim of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the fabrication of efficient nanostructured polymer-based sensors with special focus on polypyrrole. The correlation between physico-chemical parameters, mainly morphology of various polypyrrole nanostructures, and their sensitivity towards selected gas and volatile organic compounds (VOC) is provided. The different approaches of polypyrrole modification with other functional materials are also discussed. With respect to possible sensors application in medicine, namely in the diagnosis of diseases via the detection of volatile biomarkers from human breath, the sensor interaction with humidity is described as well...
March 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283349/aav-gene-therapy-corrects-otc-deficiency-and-prevents-liver-fibrosis-in-aged-otc-knock-out-heterozygous-mice
#16
Lili Wang, Peter Bell, Hiroki Morizono, Zhenning He, Elena Pumbo, Hongwei Yu, John White, Mark L Batshaw, James M Wilson
Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is an X-linked disorder of the urea cycle. Hemizygous males and heterozygous females may experience life-threatening elevations of ammonia in blood and brain, leading to irreversible cognitive impairment, coma, and death. Recent evidence of acute liver failure and fibrosis/cirrhosis is also emerging in OTC-deficient patients. Here, we investigated the long-term consequences of abnormal ureagenesis in female mice heterozygous (Het) for a null mutation in the OTC gene...
March 2, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275985/seasonal-distribution-of-phytoplankton-and-its-association-with-physico-chemical-parameters-in-coastal-waters-of-malvan-west-coast-of-india
#17
Revati Hardikar, C K Haridevi, Mintu Chowdhury, Namrata Shinde, Anirudh Ram, M A Rokade, P S Rakesh
Malvan coast is one of the Marine Protected Area (MPA) of Maharashtra because of its rich coral reef and biodiversity. The study investigated on phytoplankton assemblage and their diversity with respect to physico-chemical parameters covering protected and unprotected area of Malvan coast. Physico-chemical parameters such as salinity, nitrite, nitrate, and ammonia did not display seasonality due to inadequate fresh water influx and allochthonous nutrient input. Positive correlation of phosphate (r = 0.96, p < 0...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272778/the-activity-of-the-carbamoyl-phosphate-synthase-1-promoter-in-human-liver-derived-cells-is-dependent-on-hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-3-beta
#18
Zhanfei Chen, Nanhong Tang, Xiaoqian Wang, Yanling Chen
Carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 (CPS1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the first step of the urea cycle and an indispensable enzyme in the metabolism of human liver. However, CPS1 epigenetic regulation involves promoter analysis and the role of liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs), which is not fully elucidated. In this work, the promoter region of hCPS1 gene was cloned, and its activity was investigated. An LETF, hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-beta (HNF3β), was found to promote the transcriptional expression of CPS1 in liver-derived cell lines...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266840/amino-nitrogen-quantum-dots-based-nanoprobe-for-fluorescence-detection-and-imaging-of-cysteine-in-biological-samples
#19
Zhijiao Tang, Zhenhua Lin, Gongke Li, Yuling Hu
Fluorescent amino nitrogen quantum dots (aN-dots) were synthesized by microwave-assisted method using 2-azidoimidazole and aqueous ammonia. The aN-dots have a nitrogen component up to 40%, which exhibit high fluorescence quantum yield, good photostability, and excellent biocompatibility. We further explored the use of the aN-dots combined with AuNPs as a nanoprobe for detecting fluorescently and imaging of cysteine (Cys) in complex biological samples. In this sensing system, the fluorescence of aN-dots was quenched significantly by gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), while the addition of Cys can lead to the fluorescence signal recovery...
March 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256656/physicochemical-properties-of-kafirin-protein-and-its-applications-as-building-blocks-of-functional-delivery-systems
#20
REVIEW
Jie Xiao, Yunjiao Chen, Qingrong Huang
Kafirin, the major storage protein from grain sorghum, belongs to the prolamin protein family with its characteristic properties of being soluble in aqueous alcohol solutions, high proline content and high yield of ammonia upon hydrolysis. Due to its inferior nutritional quality and poor digestive performance in the human digestive tract, research efforts in recent years have been directed to its applications as novel value-added biomaterials. Recent studies revealed its unique physical properties of high hydrophobicity, good solubility in aqueous alcohol and acetic acid, elongated conformation and the ability to self-assemble into biomaterials with controlled morphology...
April 19, 2017: Food & Function
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