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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909741/the-role-of-epigenetic-modifiers-in-extended-cultures-of-functional-hepatocyte-like-cells-derived-from-human-neonatal-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#1
M Cipriano, J C Correia, S P Camões, N G Oliveira, P Cruz, H Cruz, M Castro, J L Ruas, J M Santos, J P Miranda
The development of predictive in vitro stem cell-derived hepatic models for toxicological drug screening is an increasingly important topic. Herein, umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hnMSCs) underwent hepatic differentiation using an optimized three-step core protocol of 24 days that mimicked liver embryogenesis with further exposure to epigenetic markers, namely the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA), the cytidine analogue 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908241/molecular-cloning-biochemical-characterization-and-antitumor-properties-of-a-novel-l-asparaginase-from-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc6803
#2
R Kebeish, A El-Sayed, H Fahmy, A Abdel-Ghany
L-asparaginase (EC 3.5.1.1), which catalyzes the deamidation of L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia, has been widely used as a key therapeutic tool in the treatment of tumors. The current commercially available L-asparaginases, produced from bacteria, have signs of toxicity and hypersensitivity reactions during the course of tumor therapy. Therefore, searching for L-asparaginases with unique biochemical properties and fewer adverse effects was the objective of this work. In this study, cyanobacterial strain Synechococcus elongatus PCC6803 was found as a novel source of L-asparaginase...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898047/inhibition-of-urease-by-disulfiram-an-fda-approved-thiol-reagent-used-in-humans
#3
Ángel Gabriel Díaz-Sánchez, Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla, Alejandro Martínez-Martínez, Luis Aguirre-Reyes, Jesica Aline Orozpe-Olvera, Miguel Armando Ramos-Soto, José Alberto Núñez-Gastélum, Bonifacio Alvarado-Tenorio, Laura Alejandra de la Rosa
Urease is a nickel-dependent amidohydrolase that catalyses the decomposition of urea into carbamate and ammonia, a reaction that constitutes an important source of nitrogen for bacteria, fungi and plants. It is recognized as a potential antimicrobial target with an impact on medicine, agriculture, and the environment. The list of possible urease inhibitors is continuously increasing, with a special interest in those that interact with and block the flexible active site flap. We show that disulfiram inhibits urease in Citrullus vulgaris (CVU), following a non-competitive mechanism, and may be one of this kind of inhibitors...
November 26, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888701/inactivation-of-urease-by-catechol-kinetics-and-structure
#4
Luca Mazzei, Michele Cianci, Francesco Musiani, Gábor Lente, Marta Palombo, Stefano Ciurli
Urease is a Ni(II)-containing enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to yield ammonia and carbamate at a rate 10(15) times higher than the uncatalyzed reaction. Urease is a virulence factor of several human pathogens, in addition to decreasing the efficiency of soil organic nitrogen fertilization. Therefore, efficient urease inhibitors are actively sought. In this study, we describe a molecular characterization of the interaction between urease from Sporosarcina pasteurii (SPU) and Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean, JBU) with catechol, a model polyphenol...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880928/determination-of-red-blood-cell-fatty-acid-profiles-rapid-and-high-confident-analysis-by-chemical-ionization-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#5
Yvonne Schober, Hans Günther Wahl, Harald Renz, Wolfgang Andreas Nockher
Cellular fatty acid (FA) profiles have been acknowledged as biomarkers in various human diseases. Nevertheless, common FA analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) requires long analysis time. Hence, there is a need for feasible methods for high throughput analysis in clinical studies. FA was extracted from red blood cells (RBC) and derivatized to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). A method using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with ammonia-induced chemical ionization (CI) was developed for the analysis of FA profiles in human RBC...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872630/control-of-wilt-and-rot-pathogens-of-tomato-by-antagonistic-pink-pigmented-facultative-methylotrophic-delftia-lacustris-and-bacillus-spp
#6
Veeranan Janahiraman, Rangasamy Anandham, Soon W Kwon, Subbiah Sundaram, Veeranan Karthik Pandi, Ramasamy Krishnamoorthy, Kiyoon Kim, Sandipan Samaddar, Tongmin Sa
The studies on the biocontrol potential of pink pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria other than the genus Methylobacterium are scarce. In the present study, we report three facultative methylotrophic isolates; PPO-1, PPT-1, and PPB-1, respectively, identified as Delftia lacustris, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus cereus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Hemolytic activity was tested to investigate the potential pathogenicity of isolates to plants and humans, the results indicates that the isolates PPO-1, PPT-1, and PPB-1 are not pathogenic strains...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871334/exploiting-members-of-the-bahd-acyltransferase-family-to-synthesize-multiple-hydroxycinnamate-and-benzoate-conjugates-in-yeast
#7
Aymerick Eudes, Maxence Mouille, David S Robinson, Veronica T Benites, George Wang, Lucien Roux, Yi-Lin Tsai, Edward E K Baidoo, Tsan-Yu Chiu, Joshua L Heazlewood, Henrik V Scheller, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, Jay D Keasling, Samuel Deutsch, Dominique Loqué
BACKGROUND: BAHD acyltransferases, named after the first four biochemically characterized enzymes of the group, are plant-specific enzymes that catalyze the transfer of coenzyme A-activated donors onto various acceptor molecules. They are responsible for the synthesis in plants of a myriad of secondary metabolites, some of which are beneficial for humans either as therapeutics or as specialty chemicals such as flavors and fragrances. The production of pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and commodity chemicals using engineered microbes is an alternative, green route to energy-intensive chemical syntheses that consume petroleum-based precursors...
November 21, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868414/-effect-of-shift-rotation-culture-on-formation-and-activity-of-encapsulated-hepatocytes-aggregates
#8
Yanshan Chen, Chengbo Yu, Hongcui Cao, Lanjuan Li
Objective: To observe the effect of uniform and shift rotation culture on the formation and activity of the alginate-chitosan (AC) microencapsulated HepLL immortalized human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells aggregates. Methods: AC microcapsulated HepG2 and HepLL cells were randomly divided into two groups. Each group was divided into 3 subgroups according to uniform and shift rotation culture.The size and number of aggregates were observed and measured under laser confocal microscopy and inverted microscope dynamically...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867098/ammonia-promotes-endothelial-cell-survival-via-the-heme-oxygenase-1-mediated-release-of-carbon-monoxide
#9
Xiao-Ming Liu, Kelly J Peyton, William Durante
Although endothelial cells produce substantial quantities of ammonia during cell metabolism, the physiologic role of this gas in these cells is not known. In this study, we investigated if ammonia regulates the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and if this enzyme influences the biological actions of ammonia on endothelial cells. Exogenously administered ammonia, given as ammonium chloride or ammonium hydroxide, or endogenously generated ammonia stimulated HO-1 protein expression in cultured human and murine endothelial cells...
November 17, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836558/microwaving-human-faecal-sludge-as-a-viable-sanitation-technology-option-for-treatment-and-value-recovery-a-critical-review
#10
REVIEW
Oluwasola O D Afolabi, M Sohail
The prolonged challenges and terrible consequences of poor sanitation, especially in developing economies, call for the exploration of new sustainable sanitation technologies. Such technologies must be: capable of effectively treating human faecal wastes without any health or environmental impacts; scalable to address rapid increases in population and urbanization; capable of meeting environmental regulations and standards for faecal management; and competitive with existing strategies. Further and importantly, despite its noxiousness and pathogenic load, the chemical composition of human faecal sludge indicates that it could be considered a potentially valuable, nutrient-rich renewable resource, rather than a problematic waste product...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817111/effects-of-ammonia-and-density-on-filtering-of-commensal-and-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-by-the-cladoceran-daphnia-magna
#11
Louise Solveig Nørgaard, Peter Roslev
Grazing by cladocerans can reduce the survival of enteric bacteria associated with fecal pollution. This study examined the potential of Daphnia magna to filter commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli of human origin. Grazing on commensal and pathogenic bacteria was comparable, but slightly greater at 20 compared to 15 and 25°C. Filtering activity was strongly dependent on D. magna and E. coli densities at environmentally relevant bacterial concentrations. Maximum feeding rates were >10(7) cells h(-1) daphnid(-1), clearance rates were 1-6 mL h(-1) daphnid(-1), and filtering was independent of bacterial cell sizes between 0...
December 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771289/a-novel-uplc-ms-ms-based-method-to-determine-the-activity-of-n-acetylglutamate-synthase-in-liver-tissue
#12
Marli Dercksen, Marinus Duran, Lodewijk IJlst, Wim Kulik, Jos P N Ruiter, Arno van Cruchten, Mendel Tuchman, Ronald J A Wanders
BACKGROUND: N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) plays a key role in the removal of ammonia via the urea cycle by catalyzing the synthesis of N-acetylglutamate (NAG), the obligatory cofactor in the carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1 reaction. Enzymatic analysis of NAGS in liver homogenates has remained insensitive and inaccurate, which prompted the development of a novel method. METHODS: UPLC-MS/MS was used in conjunction with stable isotope (N-acetylglutamic-2,3,3,4,4-d5 acid) dilution for the quantitative detection of NAG produced by the NAGS enzyme...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769390/a-preconcentration-method-for-indirect-determination-of-acrylamide-from-chips-crackers-and-cereal-based-baby-foods-using-flame-atomic-absorption-spectrometry
#13
Nail Altunay, Ramazan Gürkan, Ulaş Orhan
Acrylamide is a toxic species for human health, and is a Maillard reaction product which forms spontaneously in heat treatment process of foods. Therefore, a simple, fast and cost-effective method was developed for the indirect determination of acrylamide in processed foods particularly consumed by children. The method is based on ion-pairing of acrylamide with fluorescein (F(2-)) in presence of Ni(II) ions at pH 9.0, and then extraction of the formed ternary complex into micellar phase of poly(ethyleneglycol-mono-p-nonylphenylether) (PONPE 7...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708614/diving-response-in-rats-role-of-the-subthalamic-vasodilator-area
#14
Eugene V Golanov, James M Shiflett, Gavin W Britz
Diving response (DR) is a powerful integrative response targeted toward survival of the hypoxic/anoxic conditions. Being present in all animals and humans, it allows to survive adverse conditions like diving. Earlier, we discovered that forehead stimulation affords neuroprotective effect, decreasing infarction volume triggered by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats. We hypothesized that cold stimulation of the forehead induces DR in rats, which, in turn, exerts neuroprotection. We compared autonomic [AP, heart rate (HR), cerebral blood flow (CBF)] and EEG responses to the known DR-triggering stimulus, ammonia stimulation of the nasal mucosa, cold stimulation of the forehead, and cold stimulation of the glabrous skin of the tail base in anesthetized rats...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690126/urine-bacterial-community-convergence-through-fertilizer-production-storage-pasteurization-and-struvite-precipitation
#15
Rebecca H Lahr, Heather E Goetsch, Sarah J Haig, Abraham Noe-Hays, Nancy G Love, Diana S Aga, Charles B Bott, Betsy Foxman, Jose Jimenez, Ting Luo, Kim Nace, Kirtana Ramadugu, Krista R Wigginton
Source-separated human urine was collected from six public events to study the impact of urine processing and storage on bacterial community composition and viability. Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a complex community of bacteria in fresh urine that differed across collection events. Despite the harsh chemical conditions of stored urine (pH > 9 and total ammonia nitrogen > 4000 mg N/L), bacteria consistently grew to 5 ± 2 × 10(8) cells/mL. Storing hydrolyzed urine for any amount of time significantly reduced the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to 130 ± 70, increased Pielou evenness to 0...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685475/exploring-the-catalytic-mechanism-of-human-glutamine-synthetase-by-computer-simulations
#16
Federico M Issoglio, Nicolas Campolo, Ari Zeida, Tilman Grune, Rafael Radi, Dario A Estrin, Silvina Bartesaghi
Glutamine synthetase is an important enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. In mammals, it plays a key role in preventing excitotoxicity in the brain and detoxifying ammonia in the liver. In plants and bacteria, it is fundamental for nitrogen metabolism, being critical for the survival of the organism. In this work, we show how the use of classical molecular dynamics simulations and multiscale quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations allowed us to examine the structural properties and dynamics of human glutamine synthetase (HsGS), as well as the reaction mechanisms involved in the catalytic process with atomic level detail...
October 13, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677202/robust-and-high-throughput-method-for-anionic-metabolite-profiling-preventing-polyimide-aminolysis-and-capillary-breakages-under-alkaline-conditions-in-capillary-electrophoresis-mass-spectrometry
#17
Mai Yamamoto, Ritchie Ly, Biban Gill, Yujie Zhu, Jose Moran-Mirabal, Philip Britz-McKibbin
Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) represents a high efficiency microscale separation platform for untargeted profiling of polar/ionic metabolites that is ideal for volume-restricted biological specimens with minimal sample workup. Despite these advantages, the long-term stability of CE-MS remains a major obstacle hampering its widespread application in metabolomics notably for routine analysis of anionic metabolites under negative ion mode conditions. Herein, we report for the first time that commonly used ammonia containing buffers compatible with electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS can compromise the integrity of fused-silica capillaries via aminolysis of their outer polyimide coating...
October 10, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669302/the-mechanism-of-diarrhetic-shellfish-poisoning-toxin-production-in-prorocentrum-spp-physiological-and-molecular-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Thomas Chun-Hung Lee, Fiona Long-Yan Fong, Kin-Chung Ho, Fred Wang-Fat Lee
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is a gastrointestinal disorder caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs). OA and DTXs are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases 2A, 1B, and 2B, which may promote cancer in the human digestive system. Their expression in dinoflagellates is strongly affected by nutritional and environmental factors. Studies have indicated that the level of these biotoxins is inversely associated with the growth of dinoflagellates at low concentrations of nitrogen or phosphorus, or at extreme temperature...
2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632182/enrichment-of-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-hepatocyte-like-cells-by-ammonia-treatment
#19
Daihachiro Tomotsune, Kanji Hirashima, Masako Fujii, Fengming Yue, Ken Matsumoto, Sakiko Takizawa-Shirasawa, Tadayuki Yokoyama, Katsunori Sasaki
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are potential resources for the regeneration of defective organs, including the liver. However, some obstacles must be overcome before this becomes reality. Undifferentiated cells that remain following differentiation have teratoma-forming potential. Additionally, practical applications require a large quantity of differentiated cells, so the differentiation process must be economical. Here we describe a DNA microarray-based global analysis of the gene expression profiles of differentiating human pluripotent stem cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623854/nitrate-and-carbon-matter-removals-from-real-effluents-using-si-bdd-electrode
#20
Mouna Ghazouani, Hanene Akrout, Latifa Bousselmi
This work investigated the electrochemical treatment of four real effluents which were municipal wastewater (MWW), human urine (HU), river water (Wadi), and slaughterhouse wastewater (SHWW). The treatment was performed on a Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) as anode/cathode material with an applied current density of 35.7 mA cm(-2) and without any reagent addition. Effluent characterization before treatment indicated that nitrogen pollution existed essentially as ammonium/ammonia ions, low level of nitrate, and in some cases as nitrite form...
September 13, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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