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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526785/effects-of-arginine-on-growth-virulence-gene-expression-and-stress-tolerance-by-streptococcus-mutans
#1
Brinta Chakraborty, Robert A Burne
Streptococcus mutans is a common constituent of oral biofilms and a primary etiologic agent of human dental caries. The bacteria associated with dental caries have a potent ability to produce organic acids from dietary carbohydrates and to grow and metabolize in acidic conditions. In contrast, many commensal bacteria produce ammonia through the arginine deiminase system (ADS), which moderates the pH of oral biofilms. Arginine metabolism by the ADS is a significant deterrent to the initiation and progression of dental caries...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509546/growth-of-nitrosococcus-related-ammonia-oxidizing-bacteria-coincides-with-extremely-low-ph-values-in-high-strength-nitrogen-wastewater
#2
Alexandra Fumasoli, Helmut Buergmann, David G Weissbrodt, George F Wells, Karin Beck, Joachim Mohn, Eberhard Morgenroth, Kai M Udert
Ammonia oxidation decreases the pH in wastewaters where the alkalinity is limited relative to the total ammonia. The activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), however, typically decreases with pH and often ceases completely in slightly acidic wastewaters. Nevertheless, low pH nitrification has been reported in reactors treating human urine, but it is not clear which organisms are involved. In this study, we followed the population dynamics of ammonia oxidizing organisms and reactor performance in synthetic, synthetic fully hydrolysed urine as the pH decreased over time in response to a decrease in the loading rate...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482456/antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-municipal-wastewater-treatment-systems-and-receiving-waters-in-arctic-canada
#3
Kara D Neudorf, Yan Nan Huang, Colin M Ragush, Christopher K Yost, Rob C Jamieson, Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen
Domestic wastewater discharges may adversely impact arctic ecosystems and local indigenous people, who rely on being able to hunt and harvest food from their local environment. Therefore, there is a need to develop efficient wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which can be operated in remote communities under extreme climatic conditions. WWTPs have been identified as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this work was to quantify the presence of nine different ARG markers (int1, sul1, sul2, tet(O), erm(B), mecA, blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and qnr(S)) in two passive systems (waste stabilization ponds [WSPs]) and one mechanical filtration plant operating in two smaller and one large community, respectively, in Nunavut, Canada...
May 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456476/the-acute-effect-of-cannabis-on-plasma-liver-and-brain-ammonia-dynamics-a-translational-study
#4
Osama A Abulseoud, Maria Laura Zuccoli, Lifeng Zhang, Allan Barnes, Marilyn A Huestis, Da-Ting Lin
Recent reports of ammonia released during cannabis smoking raise concerns about putative neurotoxic effects. Cannabis (54mg) was administered in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design to healthy cannabis users (n=15) either orally, or through smoking (6.9%THC cigarette) or inhalation of vaporized cannabis (Volcano®). Serial assay of plasma ammonia concentrations at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 30, and 90min from onset of cannabis administration showed significant time (P=0.016), and treatment (P=0.0004) effects with robust differences between placebo and edible at 30 (P=0...
April 26, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452787/nutrient-recovery-from-airplane-wastewater-composition-treatment-and-ecotoxicological-assay
#5
Jorge Luiz da Paixão Filho, Adriano Luiz Tonetti, Martha Tavanielli Guimarães, Dailto Silva
For the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games, Brazil has expanded its airport infrastructure. This will lead to an increase in wastewater generation from aircrafts. This wastewater is traditionally taken from the aircrafts and disposed in the public sewage collection system. However, this residual water may have a different composition than the usual sanitary sewage. Therefore, it is important to study an alternative to treat this kind of wastewater. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize and analyze the treatment of wastewater from airplane toilets through chemical precipitation for the removal of ammonia in the form of struvite...
April 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451719/dual-mode-immunoassay-based-on-shape-code-and-infrared-absorption-fingerprint-signals-of-silica-nanorods
#6
Pengfei Zhao, Ran Ni, Kexin Wang, Xia Hong, Yadan Ding, Tie Cong, Junping Liu, Huiying Zhao
Silica nanorods were synthesized through a simple one-pot emulsion-droplet-based growth method, in which tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) was used as the silica source, ammonia as the catalyst, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the structure-directing agent and stabilizer. By controlling hydrolysis and condensation in the reaction process, we regulated the aspect ratios and the infrared (IR) absorption fingerprint signals (the transverse optical and the longitudinal optical phonon modes) of the silica nanorods...
April 28, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448847/lactic-acid-fermentation-of-human-urine-to-improve-its-fertilizing-value-and-reduce-odour-emissions
#7
N Andreev, M Ronteltap, B Boincean, M Wernli, E Zubcov, N Bagrin, N Borodin, P N L Lens
During storage of urine, urea is biologically decomposed to ammonia, which can be lost through volatilization and in turn causes significant unpleasant smell. In response, lactic acid fermentation of urine is a cost-effective technique to decrease nitrogen volatilization and reduce odour emissions. Fresh urine (pH = 5.2-5.3 and NH4(+)-N = 1.2-1.3 g L(-1)) was lacto-fermented for 36 days in closed glass jars with a lactic acid bacterial inoculum from sauerkraut juice and compared to untreated, stored urine...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448631/biofortification-se-does-it-increase-the-content-of-phenolic-compounds-in-virgin-olive-oil-voo
#8
Roberto D'Amato, Primo Proietti, Andrea Onofri, Luca Regni, Sonia Esposto, Maurizio Servili, Daniela Businelli, Roberto Selvaggini
Extra-Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) is a fundamental component of the Mediterranean diet and it may contain several anti-oxidant substances, such as phenols. Previous research has shown that this food may be enriched in phenols by spraying a sodium-selenate solution (100 mg L-1 Se) onto the crop canopy before flowering. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of this Se-fertilization before flowering (cv. Leccino) on the phenolic profile of EVOOs, and test to what extent such effects depend on the weather pattern, as observed in two contrasting experimental seasons (2013 and 2014)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448530/response-of-npt2a-knockout-mice-to-dietary-calcium-and-phosphorus
#9
Yuwen Li, Daniel Caballero, Julian Ponsetto, Alyssa Chen, Chuanlong Zhu, Jun Guo, Marie Demay, Harald Jüppner, Clemens Bergwitz
Mutations in the renal sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporters NPT2a and NPT2c have been reported in patients with renal stone disease and nephrocalcinosis, but the relative contribution of genotype, dietary calcium and phosphate to the formation of renal mineral deposits is unclear. We previously reported that renal calcium phosphate deposits persist and/or reappear in older Npt2a-/- mice supplemented with phosphate despite resolution of hypercalciuria while no deposits are seen in wild-type (WT) mice on the same diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445822/identification-of-the-inactivating-factors-and-mechanisms-exerted-on-ms2-coliphage-in-concentrated-synthetic-urine
#10
Wakana Oishi, Daisuke Sano, Loic Decrey, Syunsuke Kadoya, Tamar Kohn, Naoyuki Funamizu
Volume reduction (condensation) is a key for the practical usage of human urine as a fertilizer because it enables the saving of storage space and the reduction of transportation cost. However, concentrated urine may carry infectious disease risks resulting from human pathogens frequently present in excreta, though the survival of pathogens in concentrated urine is not well understood. In this study, the inactivation of MS2 coliphage, a surrogate for single-stranded RNA human enteric viruses, in concentrated synthetic urine was investigated...
April 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420743/cancer-cell-metabolism-the-essential-role-of-the-nonessential-amino-acid-glutamine
#11
REVIEW
Ji Zhang, Natalya N Pavlova, Craig B Thompson
Biochemistry textbooks and cell culture experiments seem to be telling us two different things about the significance of external glutamine supply for mammalian cell growth and proliferation. Despite the fact that glutamine is a nonessential amino acid that can be synthesized by cells from glucose-derived carbons and amino acid-derived ammonia, most mammalian cells in tissue culture cannot proliferate or even survive in an environment that does not contain millimolar levels of glutamine. Not only are the levels of glutamine in standard tissue culture media at least ten-fold higher than other amino acids, but glutamine is also the most abundant amino acid in the human bloodstream, where it is assiduously maintained at approximately 0...
May 15, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411465/simultaneous-and-multi-point-measurement-of-ammonia-emanating-from-human-skin-surface-for-the-estimation-of-whole-body-dermal-emission-rate
#12
Shota Furukawa, Yoshika Sekine, Keita Kimura, Kazuo Umezawa, Satomi Asai, Hayato Miyachi
Ammonia is one of the members of odor gases and a possible source of odor in indoor environment. However, little has been known on the actual emission rate of ammonia from the human skin surface. Then, this study aimed to estimate the whole-body dermal emission rate of ammonia by simultaneous and multi-point measurement of emission fluxes of ammonia employing a passive flux sampler - ion chromatography system. Firstly, the emission fluxes of ammonia were non-invasively measured for ten volunteers at 13 sampling positions set in 13 anatomical regions classified by Kurazumi et al...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409915/nitrogen-and-phosphorus-harvesting-from-human-urine-using-a-stripping-absorption-and-precipitation-process
#13
Surendra K Pradhan, Anna Mikola, Riku Vahala
Human urine contains significant amounts of N (nitrogen) and P (phosphorus); therefore it has been successfully used as fertilizer in different crops. But the use of urine as fertilizer has several constraints, such as, the high cost of transportation, an unpleasant smell, the risk of pathogens, and pharmaceutical residue. A combined and improved N stripping and P precipitation technique is used in this study. In this technique, Ca(OH)2 is used to increase the pH of urine which converts ammonium into ammonia gas and precipitate P as Ca-P compound...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390193/functional-amino-acids-in-the-development-of-the-pig-placenta
#14
REVIEW
Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer, Gregory A Johnson, Cassandra Herring, Heewon Seo, Zhaolai Dai, Junjun Wang, Zhenlong Wu, Xiaolong Wang
The mammalian placenta is essential for supplying nutrients (e.g., amino acids and water) and oxygen from the mother to fetus and for removing fetal metabolites (e.g., ammonia and CO2 ) from fetus to mother. Thus, placental growth and development are determinants of fetal survival, growth, and development. Indeed, low birth weight is closely associated with reduced placental growth. Providing gestating gilts or sows with dietary supplementation of arginine and glutamine, however, increases placental growth (including vascular growth), improves embryonic/fetal growth and survival, and reduces the large variation in birth weight among litters...
April 8, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380568/stable-isotopes-reveal-rapid-cycling-of-soil-nitrogen-after-manure-application
#15
David M Snider, Claudia Wagner-Riddle, John Spoelstra
Understanding the fate of applied nitrogen (N) in agricultural soils is important for agronomic, environmental, and human health reasons, but it is methodologically difficult to study at the field scale. Natural abundance stable isotope measurements (δN) were used in this field study with micrometeorological measurements of nitrous oxide (NO) emissions to identify the biogeochemical processes responsible for rapid N transformations immediately after application of liquid dairy manure. Fifteen samplings occurred between 16 Mar...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379573/the-effect-of-chronic-ammonia-exposure-on-acute-phase-proteins-immunoglobulin-and-cytokines-in-laying-hens
#16
Y N Wu, F F Yan, J Y Hu, H Chen, C M Tucker, A R Green, H W Cheng
Ammonia ( ) is a potential health hazard to both humans and animals, causing local and systemic low-grade inflammation based on its levels and exposure durations. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 45 wk of exposure to 30 ppm NH 3 on the concentrations of acute-phase proteins, immunoglobulins, and cytokines in laying hens. At 18 wk of age, a group of Hy-Line W-36 hens was randomly assigned to 4-hen cages. These cages were evenly divided between 2 environmentally controlled chambers. At 25 wk of age, one chamber was maintained continuously with fresh air (NH 3 < 5 ppm; control group) and the other one was injected with NH 3 and controlled at 30 ppm (NH 3 group) for 45 wk...
March 31, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357051/the-cyanobacterial-nitrogen-fixation-paradox-in-natural-waters
#17
REVIEW
Hans Paerl
Nitrogen fixation, the enzymatic conversion of atmospheric N (N 2) to ammonia (NH 3), is a microbially mediated process by which "new" N is supplied to N-deficient water bodies. Certain bloom-forming cyanobacterial species are capable of conducting N 2 fixation; hence, they are able to circumvent N limitation in these waters. However, this anaerobic process is highly sensitive to oxygen, and since cyanobacteria produce oxygen in photosynthesis, they are faced with a paradoxical situation, where one critically important (for supporting growth) biochemical process is inhibited by another...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347912/on-site-removal-of-antibiotics-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes-from-leachate-by-aged-refuse-bioreactor-effects-of-microbial-community-and-operational-parameters
#18
Yinglong Su, Jiaxin Wang, Zhiting Huang, Bing Xie
The abuse of antibiotics has raised the prevalence of antibiotic resistance, which will pose potential risk to human health. Leachate, generated during the landfill treatment of municipal solid waste, is the important hotspot of the antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and no effective on-site treatment has been put forward for preventing ARGs dissemination. Herein, the aged refuse bioreactor was employed to remove antibiotics and ARGs from leachate, and the great removal performance was observed...
March 21, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343264/modulating-the-ph-activity-profiles-of-phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase-from-anabaena-variabilis-by-modification-of-center-near-surface-residues
#19
Fan Zhang, Nan Huang, Li Zhou, Wenjing Cui, Zhongmei Liu, Longbao Zhu, Yi Liu, Zhemin Zhou
Phenylalanine ammonia lyase from Anabaena variabilis (Av-PAL) is a candidate for the treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU). However, Av-PAL shows its optimal pH at 8.5 and maintains only 70% of its highest activity when pH decreases to 7.3-7.4 (the condition of human plasma). The objective of the study was to shift its optimal pH by mutating surface amino acid residues which interact with the general base Tyr78. Based on the crystal structure and the online program GETAREA, we selected five sites: Asn69, Glu72, Glu75, Asn89, and Val90...
March 25, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343103/pd-au-carbon-dots-nanocomposite-facile-synthesis-and-application-as-an-ultrasensitive-electrochemical-biosensor-for-determination-of-colitoxin-dna-in-human-serum
#20
Qitong Huang, Xiaofeng Lin, Jie-Ji Zhu, Qing-Xiao Tong
In this study, a green and fast method was developed to synthesize high-yield carbon dots (CDs) via one-pot microwave treatment of banana peels without using any other surface passivation agents. Then the as-prepared CDs was used as the reducing agent and stabilizer to synthesize a Pd-Au@CDs nanocomposite by a simple sequential reduction strategy. Finally, Pd-Au@CDs nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (Pd-Au@CDs/GCE) was obtained as a biosensor for target DNA after being immobilized a single-stranded probe DNA by a carboxyl ammonia condensation reaction...
March 22, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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