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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212351/black-box%C3%A2-gastrointestinal%C3%A2-tract-needs%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-prospects%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-gaining%C3%A2-insights%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-fate%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-fat-%C3%A2-protein-%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-starch%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-case%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-exocrine%C3%A2-pancreatic%C3%A2-insufficiency%C3%A2-by%C3%A2-using%C3%A2-fistulated%C3%A2-pigs
#1
REVIEW
Anne Mößeler, Josef Kamphues
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) results in the maldigestion and malabsorption of nutrients. The digestive processes in humans and other monogastric species like rat and pig are characterized by a predominantly enzymatic digestion within the small intestine and microbial fermentation located in the hindgut. For protein, it is doctrine that only prececally absorbed amino acids can be transferred to the amino acid pool of the host, while postileal absorption of nitrogen-containing compounds occurs mainly in the form of ammonia, being a burden rather than a benefit for the organism...
February 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208702/the-glutamate-dehydrogenase-pathway-and-its-roles-in-cell-and-tissue-biology-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Andreas Plaitakis, Ester Kalef-Ezra, Dimitra Kotzamani, Ioannis Zaganas, Cleanthe Spanaki
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a hexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia while reducing NAD(P)⁺ to NAD(P)H. It is found in all living organisms serving both catabolic and anabolic reactions. In mammalian tissues, oxidative deamination of glutamate via GDH generates α-ketoglutarate, which is metabolized by the Krebs cycle, leading to the synthesis of ATP. In addition, the GDH pathway is linked to diverse cellular processes, including ammonia metabolism, acid-base equilibrium, redox homeostasis (via formation of fumarate), lipid biosynthesis (via oxidative generation of citrate), and lactate production...
February 8, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197103/increases-in-brain-1-h-mr-glutamine-and-glutamate-signals-following-acute-exhaustive-endurance-exercise-in-the-rat
#3
Maciej Świątkiewicz, Michał Fiedorowicz, Jarosław Orzeł, Marlena Wełniak-Kamińska, Piotr Bogorodzki, Józef Langfort, Paweł Grieb
Objective: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in ultra-high magnetic field can be used for non-invasive quantitative assessment of brain glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) in vivo. Glu, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is efficiently recycled between synapses and presynaptic terminals through Glu-Gln cycle which involves glutamine synthase confined to astrocytes, and uses 60-80% of energy in the resting human and rat brain. During voluntary or involuntary exercise many brain areas are significantly activated, which certainly intensifies Glu-Gln cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191935/ecogenomics-of-zooplankton-reveals-ecological-threshold-of-ammonia-nitrogen
#4
Jianghua Yang, Xiaowei Zhang, Yuwei Xie, Chao Song, Jingying Sun, Yong Zhang, John P Giesy, Hongxia Yu
Communities of zooplankton can be adversely affected by contamination resulting from human activities. Yet understanding the influence of water quality on zooplankton under field-conditions is hindered by traditional labor-intensive approaches that are prone to incomplete or uncertain taxonomic determinations. Here, for the first time, an eco-genomic approach, based on genetic diversity in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) region of DNA of zooplankton was used to develop a site-specific, water quality criterion (WQC) for ammonia (NH3)...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188424/fine-tuning-of-the-flavonoid-and-monolignol-pathways-during-apple-early-fruit-development
#5
Paolo Baldi, Mirko Moser, Matteo Brilli, Urska Vrhovsek, Massimo Pindo, Azeddine Si-Ammour
A coordinated regulation of different branches of the flavonoid pathway was highlighted that may contribute to elucidate the role of this important class of compounds during the early stages of apple fruit development. Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is an economically important fruit appreciated for its organoleptic characteristics and its benefits for human health. The first stages after fruit set represent a very important and still poorly characterized developmental process. To enable the profiling of genes involved in apple early fruit development, we combined the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) protocol to next-generation sequencing...
February 11, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179897/comparative-transcriptomics-reveals-discrete-survival-responses-of-s-aureus-and-s-epidermidis-to-sapienic-acid
#6
Josephine C Moran, Jamal A Alorabi, Malcolm J Horsburgh
Staphylococcal colonization of human skin is ubiquitous, with particular species more frequent at different body sites. Whereas Staphylococcus epidermidis can be isolated from the skin of every individual tested, Staphylococcus aureus is isolated from <5% of healthy individuals. The factors that drive staphylococcal speciation and niche selection on skin are incompletely defined. Here we show that S. aureus is inhibited to a greater extent than S. epidermidis by the sebaceous lipid sapienic acid, supporting a role for this skin antimicrobial in selection of skin staphylococci...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178765/enantioselective-analysis-of-citalopram-and-demethylcitalopram-in-human-whole-blood-by-chiral-lc-ms-ms-and-application-in-forensic-cases
#7
Sys Stybe Johansen
Citalopram is one of the most frequently used antidepressants in Denmark. Citalopram is marketed as a racemic mixture (50:50) of S- and R-enantiomers as well as of the S-enantiomer alone, which is the active enantiomer named escitalopram that processes the inhibitory effects. In this study, a chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is developed for the measurement of citalopram and demethylcitalopram enantiomers in whole blood and is applied to forensic cases. Whole blood samples (0...
February 8, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158294/deep-proteome-mapping-of-wm-266-4-human-metastatic-melanoma-cells-from-oncogenic-addiction-to-druggable-targets
#8
Eumorphia G Konstantakou, Athanassios D Velentzas, Athanasios K Anagnostopoulos, Zoi I Litou, Ourania A Konstandi, Aikaterini F Giannopoulou, Ema Anastasiadou, Gerassimos E Voutsinas, George Th Tsangaris, Dimitrios J Stravopodis
Cutaneous melanoma is a malignant tumor of skin melanocytes that are pigment-producing cells located in the basal layer (stratum basale) of epidermis. Accumulation of genetic mutations within their oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes compels melanocytes to aberrant proliferation and spread to distant organs of the body, thereby resulting in severe and/or lethal malignancy. Metastatic melanoma's heavy mutational load, molecular heterogeneity and resistance to therapy necessitate the development of novel biomarkers and drug-based protocols that target key proteins involved in perpetuation of the disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153299/nanoparticle-based-paper-sensor-for-thiols-evaluation-in-human-skin
#9
M Markina, N Stozhko, V Krylov, M Vidrevich, Kh Brainina
A new sensitive non-invasive gold nanoparticle-based sensor that enables to detect thiols in the human skin has been developed. The detection procedure implied the assessment of the color change of a paper sensor resulting from aggregation of gold nanoparticles caused by thiols. The ratio of the intensity of the photo image blue channel vs the red one (in units of RGB coloration) served as analytical response. The main thiol in the skin is glutathione, therefore, it was used as model biothiol and spiking substance...
April 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144866/characteristics-of-ammonia-gas-and-fine-particulate-ammonium-from-two-distinct-urban-areas-osaka-japan-and-ho-chi-minh-city-vietnam
#10
Duong Huu Huy, Le Tu Thanh, To Thi Hien, Kazushi Noro, Norimichi Takenaka
Continuous and simultaneous measurements of ammonia gas (NH3) and fine particulate ammonium (PM2.5NH4(+)) were performed in two distinct urban areas: Osaka, Japan, and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Measurements were performed using a new online instrument. Two measurement periods were conducted during February 11-March 12, 2015 (cold period), and July 1-September 14, 2015 (warm period), at the urban site in Osaka, while 17 days of measurements, from May 21 to June 8, 2015, were conducted at the urban site in HCMC...
January 31, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131540/fabrication-of-a-fiber-type-hepatic-tissue-by-bottom-up-method-using-multilayer-spheroids
#11
Tatsuya Okudaira, Ryohei Yabuta, Hiroshi Mizumoto, Toshihisa Kajiwara
Liver regenerative medicine, a therapy using cultured hepatocytes or hepatic tissues, has the potential to replace liver transplantation. However, this therapeutic strategy has challenges to overcome, including in construction of the hepatic tissues. As an approach to fabricating functional 3D hepatic tissues, we focused on hepatocyte spheroids, which have high cell density and maintain high liver-specific functions. We employed a bottom-up method using spheroids, arranging hepatocytes and endothelial cells regularly at the time of tissue construction...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127796/construction-of-bioengineered-hepatic-tissue-derived-from-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-aggregation-culture-in-porcine-decellularized-liver-scaffolds
#12
Yi Li, Qiong Wu, Yujia Wang, Li Li, Fei Chen, Yujun Shi, Ji Bao, Hong Bu
BACKGROUND: An individualized, tissue-engineered liver suitable for transplanting into a patient with liver disease would be of great benefit to the patient and the healthcare system. The tissue-engineered liver would possess the functions of the original healthy organ. Two fields of study, (i) using decellularized tissue as cell scaffolding, and (ii) stem cell differentiation into functional cells, are coming together to make this concept feasible. The decellularized liver scaffolds (DLS) can interact with cells to promote cell differentiation and signal transduction and three-dimensional (3D) stem cell aggregations can maintain the phenotypes and improve functions of stem cells after differentiation by undergoing cell-cell contact...
January 26, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117992/the-role-of-oxalic-acid-in-new-particle-formation-from-methanesulfonic-acid-methylamine-and-water
#13
Kristine D Arquero, R Benny Gerber, Barbara J Finlayson-Pitts
Atmospheric particles are notorious for their effects on human health and visibility and are known to influence climate. Though sulfuric acid and ammonia/amines are recognized as main contributors to new particle formation (NPF), models and observations have indicated that other species may be involved. It has been shown that nucleation from methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and amines, which is enhanced with added water, can also contribute to NPF. While organics are ubiquitous in air and likely to be involved in NPF by stabilizing small clusters for further growth, their effects on the MSA-amine system are not known...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114430/l-glutamine-induces-expression-of-listeria-monocytogenes-virulence-genes
#14
Adi Haber, Sivan Friedman, Lior Lobel, Tamar Burg-Golani, Nadejda Sigal, Jessica Rose, Nurit Livnat-Levanon, Oded Lewinson, Anat A Herskovits
The high environmental adaptability of bacteria is contingent upon their ability to sense changes in their surroundings. Bacterial pathogen entry into host poses an abrupt and dramatic environmental change, during which successful pathogens gauge multiple parameters that signal host localization. The facultative human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes flourishes in soil, water and food, and in ~50 different animals, and serves as a model for intracellular infection. L. monocytogenes identifies host entry by sensing both physical (e...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110358/pollution-assessment-of-the-biob%C3%A3-o-river-chile-prioritization-of-substances-of-concern-under-an-ecotoxicological-approach
#15
Álvaro Alonso, Ricardo Figueroa, Pilar Castro-Díez
The water demand for human activities is rapidly increasing in developing countries. Under these circumstances, preserving aquatic ecosystems should be a priority which requires the development of quality criteria. In this study we perform a preliminary prioritization of the risky substances based on reported ecotoxicological studies and guidelines for the Biobío watershed (Central Chile). Our specific aims are (1) reviewing the scientific information on the aquatic pollution of this watershed, (2) determining the presence and concentration of potential toxic substances in water, sediment and effluents, (3) searching for quality criteria developed by other countries for the selected substances and (4) prioritizing the most risky substances by means of deterministic ecotoxicological risk assessment...
January 21, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091542/on-line-ammonia-sensor-and-invisible-security-ink-by-fluorescent-zwitterionic-spirocyclic-meisenheimer-complex
#16
Tanmay Das, Apurba Pramanik, Debasish Haldar
Ammonia is not only a highly important gas for civilization but also contribute significantly for climate change and human health hazard. Highly sensitive ammonia sensor has been developed from a fluorescent zwitterionic spirocyclic Meisenheimer complex. Moreover, formation of this Meisenheimer complex can also be utilized for selective as well as naked eye instant detection of nitro aromatic explosive picric acid. The presence of a quaternary nitrogen atom directly attached to the spiro carbon is the unique feature of this Meisenheimer complex...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079174/alleviating-liver-failure-conditions-using-an-integrated-hybrid-cryogel-based-cellular-bioreactor-as-a-bioartificial-liver-support
#17
Apeksha Damania, Mohsin Hassan, Nana Shirakigawa, Hiroshi Mizumoto, Anupam Kumar, Shiv K Sarin, Hiroyuki Ijima, Masamichi Kamihira, Ashok Kumar
Conventionally, some bioartificial liver devices are used with separate plasmapheresis unit to separate out plasma from whole blood and adsorbent column to detoxify plasma before it passes through a hepatocytes-laden bioreactor. We aim to develop a hybrid bioreactor that integrates the separate modules in one compact design improving the efficacy of the cryogel based bioreactor as a bioartificial liver support. A plasma separation membrane and an activated carbon cloth are placed over a HepG2-loaded cryogel scaffold in a three-chambered bioreactor design...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069286/hepatic-encephalopathy
#18
REVIEW
Adam G Gow
This article reviews hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in companion animals. Clinical signs and categories of hepatic disease likely to cause HE are discussed. Ammonia has a key role in pathogenesis and current concepts in body ammonia metabolism are reviewed. Inflammation and manganese accumulation are also thought to be important in pathogenesis. Treatment of HE in acute and chronic cases is discussed along with the rationale for current treatment recommendations. Potential avenues for new treatments and human treatments, which may be transferable to companion animals, are reviewed...
January 6, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063905/trichloroethylene-induced-formic-aciduria-in-the-male-c57-bl-6-mouse
#19
Edward A Lock, Paul Keane, Philip H Rowe, John R Foster, Daniel Antoine, Christopher M Morris
1, 1, 2-Trichloroethylene (TCE) is of environmental concern, due to evaporation while handling, chemical processing and leakage from chemical waste sites, leading to its contamination of ground water and air. For several decades there has been issues about possible long term health effects of TCE but recently the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency classified TCE as a human carcinogen. Links having been established between occupational exposures and kidney cancer and possible links to non-Hodgkin lymphoma and liver cancer, but there is more still more to learn...
January 4, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056490/knockout-of-the-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-risk-gene-fut2-causes-liver-disease-in-mice
#20
Luca Maroni, Simon D Hohenester, Stan F J van de Graaf, Dagmar Tolenaars, Krijn van Lienden, Joanne Verheij, Marco Marzioni, Tom H Karlsen, Ronald P J Oude Elferink, Ulrich Beuers
: The etiopathogenesis of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is unknown. Genetic variants of fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) have been identified in genome-wide association studies as risk factor for PSC. We investigated the role of Fut2 in murine liver pathophysiology by studying Fut2(-/-) mice. Fut2(-/-) mice were viable and fertile, had lower body weight than wild type (wt) littermates and grey fur, as described earlier. Half of the Fut2(-/-) mice showed serum bile salt levels 40 times higher than wt (Fut2(-/-)(high) ), whereas the remainder were normocholanemic (Fut2(-/-)(low) )...
January 5, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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