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waste water

Stanislawa Koronkiewicz, Mihaela Trifescu, Lech Smoczynski, Harsha Ratnaweera, Slawomir Kalinowski
The novel automatic flow system, direct-injection detector (DID) integrated with multi-pumping flow system (MPFS), dedicated for the photometric determination of orthophosphates in wastewater and freshwater samples is for the first time described. All reagents and the sample were injected simultaneously, in counter-current into the reaction-detection chamber by the system of specially selected for this purpose solenoid micro-pumps. The micro-pumps provided good precision and accuracy of the injected volumes...
February 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Kyungjin Cho, Yeongmi Jeong, Kyu Won Seo, Seockheon Lee, Adam L Smith, Seung Gu Shin, Si-Kyung Cho, Chanhyuk Park
An anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactor (AnCMBR) has been attracted as an alternative technology to co-manage various organic substrates. This AnCMBR study investigated process performance and microbial community structure at decreasing temperatures to evaluate the potential of AnCMBR treatment for co-managing domestic wastewater (DWW) and food waste-recycling wastewater (FRW). As a result, the water flux (≥6.9 LMH) and organic removal efficiency (≥98.0%) were maintained above 25 °C. The trend of methane production in the AnCMBR was similar except for at 15 °C...
February 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Baishnisha Amanulla, Hema Kalyani Rama Subbu, Sayee Kannan Ramaraj
This paper describes a simple, selective and sensitive colorimetric sensing of Cr6+ ions using β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) functionalized gold-iron nanoparticles (β-CD/Au-FeNPs). The sonochemically synthesized nanoparticles are winered in colour due to the SPR band of β-CD functionalized bimetalic nanoparticles Au-FeNPs. The capping and stabilizing of Au-FeNPs by redox β-CD is confirmed by FT-IR. The particles are spherical in shape and it posses the effective diameter of 18-20 nm. Under optimized conditions, in the presence of Cr6+ the wine red Au-FeNPs solution was turned to colourless, accompanying the broadening and red shifting of SPR band...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Meiqiang Cai, Jianqiang Hu, Guanghu Lian, Ruiyang Xiao, Zhijun Song, Micong Jin, Chunying Dong, Quanyuan Wang, Dewen Luo, Zongsu Wei
The dewatering of waste activated sludge by integrated hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) and Fenton reaction was explored in this study. We first investigated the effects of initial pH, sludge concentration, flow rate, and H2O2 concentration on the sludge dewaterability represented by water content, capillary suction time and specific resistance to filtration. The results of dewatering tests showed that acidic pH and low sludge concentration were favorable to improve dewatering performance in the HC/Fenton system, whereas optimal flow rate and H2O2 concentration applied depended on the system operation...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Narayanan Karisathan Sundararajan, Anand Ramachandran Bhagavathi Ammal
Experimentation was conducted on a single cylinder CI engine using processed colloidal emulsions of TiO2 nanoparticle-water-diesel distillate of crude plastic diesel oil as test fuel. The test fuel was prepared with plastic diesel oil as the principal constituent by a novel blending technique with an aim to improve the working characteristics. The results obtained by the test fuel from the experiments were compared with that of commercial petro-diesel (CPD) fuel for same engine operating parameters. Plastic oil produced from high density polyethylene plastic waste by pyrolysis was subjected to fractional distillation for separating plastic diesel oil (PDO) that contains diesel range hydrocarbons...
February 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
N Joan Abbott, Michelle E Pizzo, Jane E Preston, Damir Janigro, Robert G Thorne
Brain fluids are rigidly regulated to provide stable environments for neuronal function, e.g., low K+, Ca2+, and protein to optimise signalling and minimise neurotoxicity. At the same time, neuronal and astroglial waste must be promptly removed. The interstitial fluid (ISF) of the brain tissue and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bathing the CNS are integral to this homeostasis and the idea of a glia-lymph or 'glymphatic' system for waste clearance from brain has developed over the last 5 years. This links bulk (convective) flow of CSF into brain along the outside of penetrating arteries, glia-mediated convective transport of fluid and solutes through the brain extracellular space (ECS) involving the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, and finally delivery of fluid to venules for clearance along peri-venous spaces...
February 10, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Tarun Gera, Dheeraj Shah, Harshpal Singh Sachdev
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in children (age <18 y) on growth, non-diarrheal morbidity and mortality in children. DESIGN: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials and controlled before-after studies. SETTING: Low- and middle-income countries. PARTICIPANTS: 41 trials with WASH intervention, incorporating data on 113055 children...
February 9, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
P Priya, S O Nikhitha, C Anand, R S Dipin Nath, B Krishnakumar
The aim of this study was to test practical solutions to improve biogas yield during the anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (WH) biomass. Increasing the WH (whole plant) solid content to ∼40% through sun drying (6 h), and its subsequent digestion increased biogas yield by 14% with a higher biogas methane (75%) content. Ensilation of dried WH (40% moisture) was found effective for its preservation to ensure its continuous availability even during offseasons, but the biogas yield from six months ensilated biomass was 20% less compared with fresh WH...
January 31, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Muhammad Raznisyafiq Razak, Nor Azah Yusof, Mohammad Jelas Haron, Norazowa Ibrahim, Faruq Mohammad, Sazlinda Kamaruzaman, Hamad A Al-Lohedan
In the present study, immunodiacetic acid (IDA)-modified kenaf fiber, K-IDA formed by the chemical modification of plant kenaf biomass was tested for its efficacy as a sorbent material towards the purification of waste water. The K-IDA fiber was first characterized by the instrumental techniques like Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, elemental analysis (CHNSO), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). On testing for the biosorption, we found that the K-IDA has an increment in the adsorption of Cu2+ ions as compared against the untreated fiber...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Meysam Mohammad Momeni, Davood Kahforoushan, Farhang Abbasi, Saeid Ghanbarian
One of the most important solid-liquid separation processes is coagulation and flocculation that is extensively used in the primary treatment of industrial wastewater. The biopolymers, because of biodegradable properties and low cost have been used as coagulants. In this study, chitosan as a natural coagulant of choice, was modified by (3-chloro 2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride and was used to remove the color and turbidity of industrial wastewater. To evaluate the effect of pH, settling time, the initial turbidity of wastewater, the amount of coagulant, and the concentration of dye (Melanoidin) were chosen to study their effects on removal of wastewater color and turbidity...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Maria Manso, João Castro-Gomes, Bárbara Paulo, Isabel Bentes, Carlos Afonso Teixeira
The construction and use of buildings represent about half of the extracted materials and energy consumption, and around one third of the water consumption and waste produced in the European Union. Therefore it is becoming more important to use sustainable materials that reduce the environmental impacts of construction, by conserving and using resources more efficiently. Green walls can be used as a sustainable strategy to reduce the environmental impact of buildings. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental impact of a new modular system for green roofs and green walls (Geogreen) which uses waste and sustainable materials in its composition...
February 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shahina Bano, Shamsh Pervez, Judith C Chow, Jeevan Lal Matawle, John G Watson, Rakesh Kumar Sahu, Anjali Srivastava, Suresh Tiwari, Yasmeen Fatima Pervez, Manas Kanti Deb
To develop coarse particle (PM10-2.5, 2.5 to 10μm) chemical source profiles, real-world source sampling from four domestic cooking and seven industrial processing facilities were carried out in "Raipur-Bhilai" of Central India. Collected samples were analysed for 32 chemical species including 21 elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Se, V, and Zn) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), 8 water-soluble ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, F-, NO3-, and SO42-) by ion chromatography, ammonium (NH4+) by spectrophotometry, and carbonaceous fractions (OC and EC) by thermal/optical transmittance...
February 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Cornelius Rimayi, David Odusanya, Jana M Weiss, Jacob de Boer, Luke Chimuka
A quantitative assessment of pollutants of emerging concern in the Hartbeespoort Dam catchment area was conducted using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to establish the occurrence, source and distribution of 15 environmental pollutants, including 10 pharmaceuticals, 1 pesticide and 4 steroid hormones. Seasonal sampling was conducted in the Hartbeespoort Lake using sub-surface grab sampling to determine the lake's ecological status and obtain data for establishment of progressive operational monitoring...
February 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Michael A Mallin, Matthew R McIver
Concentrated (or confined) animal feed operations (CAFOs) are the principal means of livestock production in the United States, and such facilities pollute nearby waterways because of their waste management practices; CAFO waste is pumped from the confinement structure into a cesspit and sprayed on a field. Stocking Head Creek is located in eastern North Carolina, a state with >9,000,000 head of swine confined in CAFOs. This watershed contains 40 swine CAFOs; stream water quality was investigated at seven sites during 2016, with five sampling dates in early spring and five in summer...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Seyed Mohammad Sadeghi-Nassaj, Teresa S Catalá, Pedro A Álvarez, Isabel Reche
Background: Mono-specific aquaculture effluents contain high concentrations of nutrients and organic matter, which affect negatively the water quality of the recipient ecosystems. A fundamental feature of water quality is its transparency. The fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs light is named chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). A sustainable alternative to mono-specific aquaculture is the multitrophic aquaculture that includes species trophically complementary named "extractive" species that uptake the waste byproducts...
2018: PeerJ
Gang Li, Sardar Khan, Muhammad Ibrahim, Tian-Ran Sun, Jian-Feng Tang, James B Cotner, Yao-Yang Xu
Biochar application has attracted great attention due to its diverse uses and benefits in the fields of environmental management and agriculture. Biochar modifies the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil, which directly or indirectly controls the mobility of metal contaminants and their bioaccumulation. In this study, ten different hydrothermal biochars pyrolysed from mushroom waste (MSBC), soybean straw (SBBC), sewage sludge (SSBC), peanut shells (PNBC) and rice straw (RSBC) at two pyrolysis temperatures (200 °C and 350 °C) were used to investigate DOM changes in soil solution and their effects on metal availability and bioaccumulation...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Shiyu Cai, Randy W Worobo, Abigail B Snyder
The use of secondary quality produce has gained attention as a solution to food waste in both the U.S. and Europe. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of using secondary quality or outgraded produce on the retention of surface inoculated E. coli following a rinse treatment on four model fresh produce systems (apple, tomato, carrot, lettuce). A three-strain cocktail of rifampicin-resistant generic E. coli, with a concentration of 9.0 log CFU/mL, was spot-inoculated on the intact surfaces of U...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Petra Muri, Romana Marinšek-Logar, Petar Djinović, Albin Pintar
This study assesses the impact of different support materials (Mutag BioChip™, expanded clay and activated carbon) on microbial hydrogen production in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor (APBR) treating synthetic waste water containing glucose as the main carbon source at low pH value. The APBRs were inoculated with acid pretreated anaerobic sludge and operated at pH value of 4±0.2 and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3h. The maximum hydrogen yield of 1.80mol H2/mol glucose was achieved for the APBR packed with Mutag BioChip™ (R1), followed by expanded clay (R2, 1...
April 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Houssein Gbaguidi-Haore, Amélie Varin, Pascal Cholley, Michelle Thouverez, Didier Hocquet, Xavier Bertrand
OBJECTIVE To describe an outbreak of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in which the hospital waste-pipe system was the likely source of contamination and to report the bundle of measures that facilitated the long-term control of the outbreak. DESIGN Outbreak investigation. SETTING The hematology unit of a tertiary-care referral center. PATIENTS Patients who were colonized or infected with P. aeruginosa belonging to the clonal outbreak. METHODS Patients admitted to our 15-bed stem-cell transplantation hematology unit were screened for P...
February 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Xianghui Cao, Yonglong Lu, Yueqing Zhang, Kifayatullah Khan, Chenchen Wang, Yvette Baninla
Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are the subject of recent interest and potential risk assessment particularly in China due to its ubiquitous existence in a variety of environmental media. This paper reviews the recent studies conducted on HBCDs in different environmental media (air, soil, water, river sediment, sewage sludge, biota and daily food) in China. At the same time, human health risks via food and occupational exposure of HBCDs in production plants, expanded polystyrene (EPS) and extruded polystyrene (XPS) plants were assessed...
February 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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