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waste water

Margarida J Quina, Elza Bontempi, Anna Bogush, Stefan Schlumberger, Gisela Weibel, Roberto Braga, Valerio Funari, Jiri Hyks, Erik Rasmussen, Jakob Lederer
Environmental policies in the European Union focus on the prevention of hazardous waste and aim to mitigate its impact on human health and ecosystems. However, progress is promoting a shift in perspective from environmental impacts to resource recovery. Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has been increasing in developed countries, thus the amount of air pollution control residues (APCr) and fly ashes (FA) have followed the same upward trend. APCr from MSWI is classified as hazardous waste in the List of Waste (LoW) and as an absolute entry (19 01 07*), but FA may be classified as a mirror entry (19 0 13*/19 01 14)...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Claudia Freimuth, Mark Oelmann, Erwin Amann
Given the significance of wastewater treatment and disposal for society and the economy together with the omnipresence of standards in the sector, we studied the development and prospects of the rules governing standardization in the German municipal wastewater sector. We thereby provide a detailed description of sector-specific committee-based standardization and significantly contribute to the understanding of this complex arena. We find that the German Association for Water Wastewater and Waste (DWA) has significantly improved its rules on standardization over time by aligning them closer to the generally accepted superordinate standardization principles...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Aarthi Pandiarajan, Ramakrishnan Kamaraj, Sudharshan Vasudevan, Subramanyan Vasudevan
This study presents the orange peel activated carbon (OPAC), derived from biowaste precursor (orange peel) by single step pyrolysis method and its application for the adsorption of chlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides from the water. The OPAC exhibited the surface area of 592.471 m2  g-1 , pore volume and pore diameter of 0.242 cc g-1 and 1.301 nm respectively. The adsorption kinetics and thermodynamic equilibrium modelling for all chlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides were investigated. The various parametric effects such as pH and temperature were evaluated...
April 12, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Nelsa Abraham, Alex Rufus, C Unni, Daizy Philip
In the present paper we report a low cost, single step preparation method for the synthesis of CuO-ZnO nanocomposite through simple co-precipitation technique using oxalic acid. To have a better idea about the deviations brought about by the inclusion of CuO in ZnO lattice, pure ZnO nanoparticles synthesized from 0.1M solutions were also investigated. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the composite contains only hexagonal wurtzite ZnO and monoclinic CuO structures. The magnetic studies of CuO-ZnO heterostructures were also conducted in order to elucidate the source of the ferromagnetism observed at room temperature...
April 10, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Hui Wang, Yang Liu, Gang Liu
Silver, a very common heavy metal, has been employed in electronics, medicine, jewelry, and catalysis due to its excellent chemical and physical characteristics. Silver-containing wastes can cause environmental pollution, so it is vital to monitor the Ag(I) concentration. Here, a label-free biosensor was developed for the Ag(I) detection, which used single-walled carbon nanotubes/field effect transistor (SWNTs/FET) to functionalize with a specific DNAzyme, containing an Agzyme and a complementary strand DNA (CS-DNA) embedded an RNA-base...
April 20, 2018: Nanomaterials
Rajanbir Kaur, Kanwaljit Kaur, Rajinder Kaur
Menstruation and menstrual practices still face many social, cultural, and religious restrictions which are a big barrier in the path of menstrual hygiene management. In many parts of the country especially in rural areas girls are not prepared and aware about menstruation so they face many difficulties and challenges at home, schools, and work places. While reviewing literature, we found that little, inaccurate, or incomplete knowledge about menstruation is a great hindrance in the path of personal and menstrual hygiene management...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Greeshma Gadikota, Fan Zhang, Andrew J Allen
Understanding the changes in the microstructures and structures of clays with varying intercalated metal ions at elevated temperatures is of importance for many applications ranging from the recovery of shale gas from unconventional formations to developing effective nuclear waste containment technologies, and engineering materials such as ceramics for fuel cell applications. In this study, synchrotron-based in-operando multi-scale X-ray scattering analyses are used to determine dynamic microstructural and crystal structural changes in Na- and Ca-montmorillonite on heating from 30 °C to 1150 °C...
May 2017: Fuel
Mayowa Agunbiade, Carolina Pohl, Omotayo Ashafa
A bacterium isolated from Sterkfontein dam was confirmed to produce bioflocculant with excellent flocculation activity. The 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analyses revealed the bacteria to have 99% similarity to Streptomyces platensis strain HBUM174787 and the sequence was deposited in the Genbank as Streptomyces platensis with accession number FJ 486385.1. Culture conditions for optimal production of the bioflocculant included glucose as a sole carbon source, resulting in flocculating activity of 90%. Other optimal conditions included: peptone as nitrogen source; presence of Mg2+ as cations and inoculum size of 1...
April 5, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Esmaeel Kariminezhad, Maria Elektorowicz
The electrokinetic process has shown its ability to separate the different material phases. However, not much is known about the effect of the electric fields on the surface properties of solids in the oil sediments and their behavior under different electrical regimes. In this study, the effect of four different types of electrical current on the surface properties of oil sediments was investigated, namely constant direct current (CDC), pulsed direct current (PDC), incremental direct current (IDC) and decremental direct current (DDC)...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Omar A Alsager, Mohammed N Alnajrani, Hatem A Abuelizz, Ibrahim A Aldaghmani
The use of antibiotics in the dairy farming for curing and growth promotion results in the production of massive quantities of non-recyclable wastewater by the conventional purification techniques. Additionally, waste milk is produced during the drug withholding periods, which is not suitable for human or animal consumption and cause huge economic loss as well as present serious environmental waste. This study was designed to investigate the decomposition of various antibiotic compounds in un-buffered aqueous solutions and milk samples by ozonation process...
April 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Giorgos Markou, Liang Wang, Jianfeng Ye, Adrian Unc
Aquatic organisms, such as microalgae (Chlorella, Arthrospira (Spirulina), Tetrasselmis, Dunalliela etc.) and duckweed (Lemna spp., Wolffia spp. etc.) are a potential source for the production of protein-rich biomass and for numerous other high-value compounds (fatty acids, pigments, vitamins etc.). Their cultivation using agro-industrial wastes and wastewater (WaW) is of particular interest in the context of a circular economy, not only for recycling valuable nutrients but also for reducing the requirements for fresh water for the production of biomass...
April 16, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Long Li, Qinggong Wang
Ionic fluids are essential to energy conversion, water desalination, drug delivery, and lab-on-a-chip devices. Ionic transport in nanoscale confinements and complex physical fields still remain elusive. Here, a nanofluidic system is developed using nanochannels of heterogeneous surface properties to investigate transport properties of ions under different temperatures. Steady ionic currents are observed under symmetric temperature gradients, which is equivalent to generating electricity using waste heat (e...
April 19, 2018: Small
Liping Wang, Ruiwei Xu, Bairen Yang, Shaohua Wei, Ningning Yin, Chun Cao
In this study, m-xylene biodegradation was examined in bacteria-water mixed solution and biotrickling filter (BTF) system amended with non-ionic surfactant Tween 80. The mixed bacteria were obtained from the activated sludge of a coking plant through a multi-substrate acclimatization process. High-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that Rhodanobacter sp. was the dominant species among the mixed bacteria. In the bacteria-water mixed solution, the bacterial density increased with increasing Tween 80 concentration...
April 19, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Intissar Khoja, Taoufik Ladhari, Faouzi M'sahli, Anis Sakly
A parameter identification problem for a hybrid model is presented. The latter describes the operation of an activated sludge process used for waste water treatment. Parameter identification problem can be considered as an optimization one by minimizing the error between simulation and experimental data. One of the new and promising metaheuristic methods for solving similar mathematical problem is Cuckoo Search Algorithm. It is inspired by the parasitic brood behavior of cuckoo species. To confirm the effectiveness and the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, simulation results will be compared with other algorithms, firstly, with a classical method which is the Nelder-Mead algorithm and, secondly, with intelligent methods such as Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization approaches...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Krzysztof Piaskowski, Renata Świderska-Dąbrowska, Paweł K Zarzycki
Synthetic dyes or colorants are key chemicals for various industries producing textiles, food, cosmetics, pharmaceutics, printer inks, leather, and plastics. Nowadays, the textile industry is the major consumer of dyes. The mass of synthetic colorants used by this industry is estimated at the level of 1 ÷ 3 × 105 tons, in comparison with the total annual consumption of around 7 × 105 tons worldwide. Synthetic dyes are relatively easy to detect but difficult to eliminate from wastewater and surface water ecosystems because of their aromatic chemical structure...
April 18, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Fengmin Du, David Warsinger, Tamanna Urmi, Gregory P Thiel, Amit Kumar, John H Lienhard
The ability to increase pH is a crucial need for desalination pretreatment (especially in reverse osmosis) and for other industries, but processes used to raise pH often incur significant emissions and non-renewable resource use. Alternatively, waste brine from desalination can be used to create sodium hydroxide, via appropriate concentration and purification pretreatment steps, for input into the chlor-alkali process. In this work, an efficient process train (with variations) is developed and modeled for sodium hydroxide production from seawater desalination brine using membrane chlor-alkali electrolysis...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Cintia M M Dias, Luiz P Rosa, Jose M A Gomez, Alexandre D'Avignon
Sanitation (which includes national public policies for drinking water, sewage services and waste management) is precarious in Brazil and therefore poses a challenge to a range of actors. Poor sanitation impacts public health, education, the environment, and daily life. Globally, it emits increasing greenhouse gases. Universalization of any major public service appears difficult, if not impossible; however, Brazil's program to universalize access to electricity proves the opposite, as will be shown in this paper...
April 16, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Zach Conrad, Meredith T Niles, Deborah A Neher, Eric D Roy, Nicole E Tichenor, Lisa Jahns
Improving diet quality while simultaneously reducing environmental impact is a critical focus globally. Metrics linking diet quality and sustainability have typically focused on a limited suite of indicators, and have not included food waste. To address this important research gap, we examine the relationship between food waste, diet quality, nutrient waste, and multiple measures of sustainability: use of cropland, irrigation water, pesticides, and fertilizers. Data on food intake, food waste, and application rates of agricultural amendments were collected from diverse US government sources...
2018: PloS One
Svetlana Smirnova, Tatiana Samarina, Dmitry Ilin, Igor V Pletnev
For the first time liquid-liquid extraction was used for the preconcentration of heavy metals prior to their determination in water by microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES). Extraction of Pb(II), Cd(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), and Cu(II) was performed in unconventional aqueous biphasic system (ABS) formed by addition of hydrophobic solid salt, namely, tetrahexylammonium bromide, to aqueous sample, with neither organic solvents nor salting-out agents being used. The metal ions were quantitatively recovered with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR)...
April 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jiazhen Zhou, Anran Luo, Youcai Zhao
In this study, the feasibility of preparing activated carbon from waste tea by physical activation using steam was investigated. The effects of activation temperature on yield and pore properties of the prepared activated carbon were studied. The yield decreased with increased activation temperature owing to the decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose. The specific surface area and pore volume of the activated carbon were estimated using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, Langmuir equation, and t-plot method...
April 18, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
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