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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642517/green-dentistry-the-art-and-science-of-sustainable-practice
#1
P Mulimani
Dentistry is highly energy and resource intensive with significant environmental impact. Factors inherent in the profession such as enormous electricity demands of electronic dental equipment, voluminous water requirements, environmental effects of biomaterials (before, during and after clinical use), the use of radiation and the generation of hazardous waste involving mercury, lead etc have contributed towards this. With rising temperatures across the world due to global warming, efforts are being made worldwide to mitigate the effects of environmental damage by resorting to sustainability concepts and green solutions in a myriad of ways...
June 23, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640599/a-high-throughput-dna-sequencing-approach-to-determine-sources-of-fecal-bacteria-in-a-lake-superior-estuary
#2
Clairessa M Brown, Christopher Staley, Ping Wang, Brent Dalzell, Chan Lan Chun, Michael J Sadowsky
Current microbial source tracking (MST) methods, employed to determine sources of fecal contamination in waterways, use molecular markers targeting host-associated bacteria in animal or human feces. However, there is a lack of knowledge about fecal microbiome composition in several animals and imperfect marker specificity and sensitivity. To overcome these issues, a community-based MST method has been developed. Here, we describe a study done in the Lake Superior-St. Louis River estuary using SourceTracker, a program that calculates the source contribution to an environment...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639498/municipal-solid-waste-incineration-mswi-fly-ash-washing-pretreatment-by-biochemical-effluent-of-landfill-leachate-a-potential-substitute-for-water
#3
Yunfeng Xu, Yu Fu, Wei Xia, Dan Zhang, Da An, Guangren Qian
Sulfate-rich biochemical effluent of landfill leachate (BEL) resulting from aged refuse bioreactor was employed to wash municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash. The dechlorination ability of BEL was found to be nearly equivalent to redistilled water (RW), and concentrations of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washing solution resulting from BEL washing process were lower than that of RW washing process, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated that the formation of calcium sulfate and hydroxides in fly ash after BEL washing, and their entrapping function could significantly inhibit the leaching of Pb and Zn...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638781/bioinspired-mechano-sensitive-macroporous-ceramic-sponge-for-logical-drug-and-cell-delivery
#4
Changlu Xu, Zhihao Wei, Huajian Gao, Yanjie Bai, Huiling Liu, Huilin Yang, Yuekun Lai, Lei Yang
On-demand, ultrahigh precision delivery of molecules and cells assisted by scaffold is a pivotal theme in the field of controlled release, but it remains extremely challenging for ceramic-based macroporous scaffolds that are prevalently used in regenerative medicine. Sea sponges (Phylum Porifera), whose bodies possess hierarchical pores or channels and organic/inorganic composite structures, can delicately control water intake/circulation and therefore achieve high precision mass transportation of food, oxygen, and wastes...
June 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634869/discharge-permit-market-and-farm-management-nexus-an-approach-for-eutrophication-control-in-small-basins-with-low-income-farmers
#5
Somaye Imani, Mohammad Hossein Niksokhan, Shervin Jamshidi, Karim C Abbaspour
The economic concerns of low-income farmers are barriers to nutrient abatement policies for eutrophication control in surface waters. This study brings up a perspective that focuses on integrating multiple-pollutant discharge permit markets with farm management practices. This aims to identify a more economically motivated waste load allocation (WLA) for non-point sources (NPS). For this purpose, we chose the small basin of Zrebar Lake in western Iran and used the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) for modeling...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634868/occurrence-removal-and-health-risk-assessment-of-phthalate-esters-in-the-process-streams-of-two-different-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-lagos-and-ogun-states-nigeria
#6
O O Olujimi, O A Aroyeun, T F Akinhanmi, T A Arowolo
Phthalate esters (PEs) are one of the environmentally active organic pollutants capable of causing endocrine disruption. The levels of PE congeners were determined in the influent and effluent from Covenant Oxidation Pond (COP) and Ikeja Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWWTP). Standard methods were adopted for determining the physical and chemical parameters of the water samples. The water samples for PE congener's determination were collected, acidified and stored at 4 °C prior to liquid-liquid extraction and analysis by gas chromatograph...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628486/inactivation-of-bacterial-biofilms-by-visible-light-activated-unmodified-zno-nanorods
#7
Kristina Aponiene, Tomas Serevičius, Zivile Luksiene, Saulius Jursenas
Various zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are widely used for photocatalytic antibacterial applications. Since ZnO possess a wide bandgap, it is believed that only UV light may efficiently assist bacterial inactivation and diverse crystal lattice modifications should be applied in order to narrow the bandgap for efficient visible light absorption. In this work we show that even unmodified ZnO nanorods grown by aqueous chemical growth technique were found to possess intrinsic defects which can be activated by visible light ( = 405 nm) and successfully applied for total inactivation of various highly resistant bacterial biofilms rather than more sensitive planktonic bacteria...
June 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623831/tracking-historical-mobility-behavior-and-sources-of-lead-in-the-59-year-sediment-core-from-the-huaihe-river-using-lead-isotopic-compositions
#8
Jie Wang, Guijian Liu, Houqi Liu, Paul K S Lam
A historical perspective of past 59 years (1955-2014) for contamination and isotopic composition of Pb in sediment core system of the Huaihe River, Huainan City, Anhui Province of China is presented. Detailed investigation regarding changes in Pb sources, enrichment factor, sequential extraction and isotopic analysis revealed that high Pb concentrations were detected along the core, especially during the first two decades (1955-1974). Large variations in Pb isotopic compositions were observed, with (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb values ranging from 1...
June 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621437/hepatitis-a-virus-strains-circulating-during-1997-2015-in-campania-a-southern-italy-region-with-periodic-outbreaks
#9
Angela Costantino, Nicola Coppola, Enea Spada, Roberto Bruni, Stefania Taffon, Michele Equestre, Cinzia Marcantonio, Caterina Sagnelli, Chiara Dell'Isola, Grazia Tosone, Silvia Mascolo, Evangelista Sagnelli, Anna Rita Ciccaglione
In Italy the incidence of hepatitis A has progressively declined over the last 30 years, though not homogeneously throughout the country. In Campania, Southern Italy, high annual incidence rates have been reported and several periodic outbreaks have occurred.o investigate the phylogenetic and epidemiologic relationships among HAV strains circulating in Campania over the period 1997-2015, 87 hepatitis A cases were investigated. The most frequent risk factor was the consumption of raw/undercooked shellfish (75/87, 86...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621383/peach-and-cherry-agroindustrial-wastes-new-and-economic-sources-for-the-production-of-lignocellulolytic-enzymes
#10
Merve Akpinar, Raziye Urek
Pleurotus eryngii was incubated on both peach and cherry agroindustrial wastes by solid state fermentation for 30 days without/with pretreatment conditions. The lignocellulosic substrates were pretreated with dilute acid and alkaline solutions, hot water before incubation. The maximum carboxymethyl cellulase and xylanase activities peaked on 3rd and 5th days under control conditions of both wastes, respectively. The highest laccase and manganese peroxidase activities reached to their maximum on 17th day as 2193...
June 2017: Acta Chimica Slovenica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618384/a-fatty-acid-solvent-of-switchable-miscibility
#11
Qianqian Chen, Lei Wang, Gaihuan Ren, Qian Liu, Zhenghe Xu, Dejun Sun
Ion pair interactions were explored to design a fatty acid solvent of switchable miscibility with water. Fatty acids of medium length chains are immiscible with water but become miscible with water when ion pairs are formed with amines. The ion pairs become phase separated after bubbling CO2 into the solution due to the dissociation of the fatty acid-amine complexes. Ion pairs of caprylic acid (C8) and low toxic poly(oxypropylene) diamine (Jeffamine D-230) were characterized by FT-IR and (1)H NMR. Log Kow values and surface activity were used to understand the switchable solvent mechanism in removing and recovering oily contaminants...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618369/characterization-and-quantification-of-chromate-adsorption-by-layered-porous-iron-oxyhydroxide-an-experimental-and-theoretical-study
#12
Zongsu Wei, Shuang Luo, Ruiyang Xiao, Rafail Khalfin, Raphael Semiat
The inner structure of iron oxyhydroxide agglomerates (IOAs) prepared from hydrolysis of ferric chloride was characterized and correlated to surface complexation of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in a broad range of pH (3-12) and ionic strengths (0.0-5.0M). Evolution of particle size, morphology, and surface activity, combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, support the condensation reaction initiated formation of IOAs in three levels: iron nanoparticles to nanolayers to agglomerates. This agglomeration process led to a layered porous structure for aqueous-phase IOAs resulting in a rapid and high removal of Cr(VI) in batch tests...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618230/anti-mosquito-activity-of-a-titanium-organic-framework-supported-on-fabrics
#13
Reda M Abdelhameed, Omnia M H M Kamel, A Amr, Joao Rocha, Artur M S Silva
Waste swamps, stagnant water and poor hygiene practices result in the proliferation of mosquitoes that may cause transmissible and infectious diseases, such as malaria, typhoid, cholera, and Zikavirus sickness. Composites of the traditional natural fibres cotton, viscose and linen, and a Ti-bearing metal-organic framework, NH2-MIL-125, is very effective against mosquitoes, in the absence of any conventional insecticides. Prior to coating with NH2-MIL-125 crystals, the fabrics have been modified with 3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane...
June 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616741/ecological-risk-assessment-of-an-open-dumping-site-at-mehmood-booti-lahore-pakistan
#14
Asifa Alam, Amtul Bari Tabinda, Abdul Qadir, Talib E Butt, Sidra Siddique, Adeel Mahmood
A robust risk assessment of Mehmood Booting Open Dumping (MBOD) site has been carried out by developing holistic risk assessment framework. Framework mainly comprises on baseline study, hazard identification, and risk quantification and evaluation. Physico-chemical analysis of groundwater and leachate, health risk assessment, and estimation of gas emissions from the site were carried out for risk evaluation. LandGEM 3.02 modelling software was used to measure the gas emissions. Analysis of leachate showed that all parameters were exceeding the WHO standard limit...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616175/seasonal-habitat-use-by-elephants-loxodonta-africana-in-the-mole-national-park-of-ghana
#15
George Ashiagbor, Emmanuel Danquah
To avoid unnecessary waste of limited resources and to help prioritize areas for conservation efforts, this study aimed to provide information on habitat use by elephants between the wet and dry seasons in the Mole National Park (MNP) of Ghana. We compiled coordinates of 516 locations of elephants' encounters, 256 for dry season and 260 for wet season. Using nine predictor variables, we modeled the probability of elephant's distribution in MNP. We threshold the models to "suitable" and "nonsuitable" regions of habitat use using the equal training sensitivity and specificity values of 0...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613818/efficient-removal-of-anionic-radioactive-pollutant-from-water-using-ordered-urea-functionalized-mesoporous-polymeric-nanoparticle
#16
Jian Shen, Wei Chai, Kaixuan Wang, Fang Zhang
A urea-functionalized ordered mesoporous polymeric nanoparticle for removing the perrhenate anion ReO4- as the surrogate of the particularly intractable anion radioactive pollutant TcO4- was demonstrated in the present study. This nanomaterial (denoted as urea-MPN) was produced for the first time by a surfactant-directed urea-phenol-formaldehyde resol oligomers self-assembly protocol under hydrothermal condition. The obtained urea-MPN possessed the uniform nanosized spherical morphology with 3D interconnected ordered cubic mesoporous structure...
June 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613435/environmentally-benign-rapid-and-selective-extraction-of-gold-from-ores-and-waste-electronic-materials
#17
Peng Yang, Chunlin Yue, Huaming Sun, Wen-Jing Liu, Xudong Deng, Binbin Guan Guan, Xu Zhang
The extraction of gold from ores and electronic waste is an important topic worldwide, as this precious metal has immense value in a variety of fields. However, serious environmental pollution and high energy consumption due to the use of toxic oxidation reagents and harsh reaction conditions is a well-known problem in the gold industry. Herein, we report a new chemical method based on the combined use of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and pyridine (Py), which has a greatly decreased environmental impact and reagent cost, as well as mild reaction requirements...
June 14, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612648/recovery-of-phosphorous-from-industrial-waste-water-by-oxidation-and-precipitation
#18
Rikard Ylmén, Anna M K Gustafsson, Caterina Camerani-Pinzani, Britt-Marie Steenari
This paper describes the development of a method for recovery of phosphorous from one of the waste waters at an Akzo Nobel chemical plant in Ale close to Göteborg. It was found that it is possible to transform the phosphorous in the waste water to a saleable product, i.e. a slowly dissolving fertiliser. The developed process includes oxidation of phosphite to phosphate with hydrogen peroxide and heat. The phosphate is then precipitated as crystalline struvite (ammonium magnesium phosphate) by addition of magnesium chloride...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609875/a-new-genus-and-species-of-australian-tanypodinae-diptera-chironomidae-tolerant-to-mine-waste
#19
Peter S Cranston
For over 25 years an undescribed Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) has been known to dominate the lotic invertebrate assemblage associated with long-term polluting mine adits in Captains Flat, on the Molonglo River, southern New South Wales, Australia. Although known in all life stages, it has been impossible to allocate the species to any described genus. Renewed interest in the taxonomy of the Tanypodinae, particularly associated with molecular investigations and pollution indicator status warrants formal description...
May 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606542/hydroxyapatite-crystallization-in-shrimp-cephalothorax-wastes-during-subcritical-water-treatment-for-chitin-extraction
#20
Angélica Espíndola-Cortés, Rosario Moreno-Tovar, Lauro Bucio, Miquel Gimeno, José Luis Ruvalcaba-Sil, Keiko Shirai
The extraction of calcareous chitin from shrimp cephalothorax was successfully achieved using a subcritical water treatment to attain a deproteinization up to 96%. The treatments also increased the crystalline domain size in the α-chitin fibers. An experimental design of Taguchi allowed the optimization of experiments. The macroelements identified in all samples were Ca, P, S, K, Cl and Al, whereas Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr were also detected as microelements. The assigned crystalline phases by XRD were α-chitin, calcite, HAP and traces of quartz...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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