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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334709/-molecular-epidemiological-study-of-human-coronavirus-oc43-in-shanghai-from-2009-2016
#1
Y J Yang, Y W Hu
Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of Human coronavirus (HCoV), the patterns of emergence and circulation, and the genotype distribution of human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) from November, 2009 to April, 2016 in Shanghai. Methods: A total of 6 059 respiratory specimens, including pharyngeal swab, sputum, nasopharyngeal aspirates and alveolar lavage fluid, as well as relative clinical data were collected from patients with acute respiratory infections from seven sentinel hospitals during November, 2009 to April, 2016 in Shanghai...
January 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327719/the-histomorphological-spectrum-of-restrictive-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction-and-implications-for-prognosis
#2
Jan H von der Thüsen, Elly Vandermeulen, Robin Vos, Birgit Weynand, Erik K Verbeken, Stijn E Verleden
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction continues to be the main contributor to poor long-term allograft survival after lung transplantation. The restrictive phenotype of chronic lung allograft dysfunction carries a particularly poor prognosis. Little is known about the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in restrictive chronic lung allograft dysfunction. In this study, we performed histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis of restrictive chronic lung allograft dysfunction lungs. Explant lung tissue from 21 restrictive chronic lung allograft dysfunction patients was collected and histopathologic patterns of rejection, fibrosis and vascular changes were scored after routine histochemical stains and additional immunohistochemistry for endothelial markers and C4d...
January 12, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325586/high-frequency-percussive-ventilation-increases-alveolar-recruitment-in-early-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-an-experimental-physiological-and-ct-scan-study
#3
Thomas Godet, Matthieu Jabaudon, Raïko Blondonnet, Aymeric Tremblay, Jules Audard, Benjamin Rieu, Bruno Pereira, Jean-Marc Garcier, Emmanuel Futier, Jean-Michel Constantin
BACKGROUND: High frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) combines diffusive (high frequency mini-bursts) and convective ventilation patterns. Benefits include enhanced oxygenation and hemodynamics, and alveolar recruitment, while providing hypothetic lung-protective ventilation. No study has investigated HFPV-induced changes in lung aeration in patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Eight patients with early non-focal ARDS were enrolled and five swine with early non-focal ARDS were studied in prospective computed tomography (CT) scan and animal studies, in a university-hospital tertiary ICU and an animal laboratory...
January 11, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321022/serum-metabolic-profiling-identified-a-distinct-metabolic-signature-in-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-potential-biomarker-role-for-lysopc
#4
Barbara Rindlisbacher, Cornelia Schmid, Thomas Geiser, Cédric Bovet, Manuela Funke-Chambour
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal lung disease of unknown etiology. Patients present loss of lung function, dyspnea and dry cough. Diagnosis requires compatible radiologic imaging and, in undetermined cases, invasive procedures such as bronchoscopy and surgical lung biopsy. The pathophysiological mechanisms of IPF are not completely understood. Lung injury with abnormal alveolar epithelial repair is thought to be a major cause for activation of profibrotic pathways in IPF...
January 10, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317705/pneumolysin-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-leads-to-release-of-mitochondrial-dna
#5
Andreas Nerlich, Maren Mieth, Eleftheria Letsiou, Diana Fatykhova, Katja Zscheppang, Aki Imai-Matsushima, Thomas F Meyer, Lisa Paasch, Timothy J Mitchell, Mario Tönnies, Torsten T Bauer, Paul Schneider, Jens Neudecker, Jens C Rückert, Stephan Eggeling, Maria Schimek, Martin Witzenrath, Norbert Suttorp, Stefan Hippenstiel, Andreas C Hocke
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S.pn.) is the most common bacterial pathogen causing community acquired pneumonia. The pore-forming toxin pneumolysin (PLY) is the major virulence factor of S.pn. and supposed to affect alveolar epithelial cells thereby activating the immune system by liberation of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMP). To test this hypothesis, we established a novel live-cell imaging based assay to analyse mitochondrial function and associated release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as DAMP in real-time...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297561/surgeons-performance-determining-the-amount-of-graft-material-for-sinus-floor-augmentation-using-tomography
#6
Adriana Dibo Cruz, Guilherme Alvares Peixoto, Marcelo Freitas Aguiar, Gabriela Alessandra Cruz Galhardo Camargo, Nicolas Homs
This study aimed to assess the performance of surgeons in determining the amount of graft material required for maxillary sinus floor augmentation in a preoperative analysis using cone-beam computed tomography images. A convenience sample of 10 retrospective CBCT exams (i-CAT®) was selected. Scans of the posterior maxilla area with an absence of at least one tooth and residual alveolar bone with an up to 5 mm height were used. Templates (n=20) contained images of representative cross-sections in multiplanar view...
May 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281671/short-telomere-length-in-ipf-lung-associates-with-fibrotic-lesions-and-predicts-survival
#7
Reinier Snetselaar, Aernoud A van Batenburg, Matthijs F M van Oosterhout, Karin M Kazemier, Suzan M Roothaan, Ton Peeters, Joanne J van der Vis, Roel Goldschmeding, Jan C Grutters, Coline H M van Moorsel
Telomere maintenance dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). However, the mechanism of how telomere length is related to fibrosis in the lungs is unknown. Surgical lung biopsies of IPF patients typically show a heterogeneous pattern of non-fibrotic and fibrotic areas. Therefore, telomere length (TL) in both lung areas of patients with IPF and familial interstitial pneumonia was compared, specifically in alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to determine TL in non-fibrotic and fibrotic areas of 35 subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279825/ct-evaluation-of-underlying-bone-sclerosis-in-patients-with-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-preliminary-retrospective-study
#8
Gyu-Dong Jo, Won-Jin Yi, Min-Suk Heo, Sam-Sun Lee, Soon-Chul Choi, Kyung-Hoe Huh
Purpose: Underlying bone sclerosis is frequently observed in clinical settings when oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) invades the jaw bone. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of underlying bone sclerosis in patients with OSCC. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the computed tomographic (CT) images of 131 patients who underwent mandibulectomy between January 2012 and December 2015 to treat OSCC. The presence, degree, and extent of underlying bone sclerosis were assessed on CT images and correlated with the following imaging patterns of bone invasion: cortical invasion, medullary invasion with a smooth margin, and medullary invasion with an irregular margin...
December 2017: Imaging Science in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274638/bone-regeneration-using-composite-non-demineralized-xenogenic-dentin-with-beta-tricalcium-phosphate-in-experimental-alveolar-cleft-repair-in-a-rabbit-model
#9
Mohammad Kamal, Lars Andersson, Rene Tolba, Adel Al-Asfour, Alexander K Bartella, Felix Gremse, Stefanie Rosenhain, Frank Hölzle, Peter Kessler, Bernd Lethaus
BACKGROUND: Alveolar cleft repair is performed via bone grafting procedure to restore the dental arch continuity. A suitable bone substitute materials should possess osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties, to promote new bone formation, along with a slowly resorbable scaffold that is subsequently replaced with functionally viable bone. Calcium phosphate biomaterials have long proved their efficacy as bone replacement materials. Dentin in several forms has also demonstrated its possibility to be used as bone graft replacement material in several studies...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226269/evaluating-weathering-of-food-packaging-polyethylene-nano-clay-composites-release-of-nanoparticles-and-their-impacts
#10
Changseok Han, Amy Zhao, Eunice Varughese, E Sahle-Demessie
Nano-fillers are increasingly incorporated into polymeric materials to improve the mechanical, barrier or other matrix properties of nanocomposites used for consumer and industrial applications. However, over the life cycle, these nanocomposites could degrade due to exposure to environmental conditions, resulting in the release of embedded nanomaterials from the polymer matrix into the environment. This paper presents a rigorous study on the degradation and the release of nanomaterials from food packaging composites...
January 1, 2018: NanoImpact
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222007/current-concepts-in-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management-of-smoking-related-interstitial-lung-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Anupam Kumar, Sujith V Cherian, Robert Vassallo, Eunhee S Yi, Jay H Ryu
Tobacco exposure results in various changes to the airways and lung parenchyma. While emphysema represents the more common injury pattern, in some individuals, cigarette smoke injures alveolar epithelial and other lung cells resulting in diffuse infiltrates and parenchymal fibrosis. Smoking can trigger interstitial injury patterns mediated via recruitment and inappropriate persistence of myeloid and other immune cells including eosinophils. As our understanding of the role of cigarette smoke constituents in triggering lung injury continues to evolve, so does our recognition of the spectrum of smoking-related interstitial lung changes...
December 5, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210711/an-autopsy-case-of-sudden-death-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1-with-pheochromocytoma-and-myocarditis
#12
Masataka Takamiya, Hisae Niitsu, Kiyoshi Saigusa
An autopsy case of sudden death in a 33-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklinghausen disease), pheochromocytoma, and myocarditis is reported. The decedent was found in his bedroom in cardiopulmonary arrest. Polypoid, elastic dermal papules on the neck, chest, abdomen, and back, and flat dark-brown macules on the chest and abdomen were observed. Flat, ovoid, dark-brown freckles were present in both axillae. Examination of the right adrenal gland revealed a tumor measuring 5 cm × 5 cm × 3 cm...
November 28, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209071/inhaled-nicotine-equivalent-to-cigarette-smoking-disrupts-systemic-and-uterine-hemodynamics-and-induces-cardiac-arrhythmia-in-pregnant-rats
#13
Xuesi M Shao, Héctor E López-Valdés, Jing Liang, Jack L Feldman
Maternal smoking with obligatory nicotine inhalation is associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight, fetal growth retardation and developmental defects. We tested the hypothesis that cigarette smoking-relevant nicotine inhalation during pregnancy impairs cardiovascular function and uterine hemodynamics with consequential fetal ischemia. Pregnant rats exposed to episodic inhaled nicotine via a novel lung alveolar region-targeted aerosol method produced nicotine pharmacokinetics resembling cigarette smoking in humans...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191821/follicular-bronchiolitis-in-an-hiv-infected-individual-on-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-with-low-cd4-cell-count-but-sustained-viral-suppression
#14
Line D Rasmussen, Court Pedersen, Helle D Madsen, Christian B Laursen
A 36-year-old Danish man, living in Asia, was diagnosed with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and HIV in 2013 (CD4+ count: 6 cells/µL; viral load: 518 000 copies/mL). He initiated combination antiretroviral therapy. Later that year, he was also diagnosed with granulomatosis with polyangiitis and was treated with prednisolone. Despite complete viral suppression and increasing CD4+ count (162 cells/µL), he was readmitted with PCP in April 2015. Subsequently, he returned to Denmark (CD4+ count: 80 cells/µL, viral suppression)...
November 29, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191391/biphasic-lung-injury-during-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection-in-a-murine-model
#15
A Prevotat, C Rouyer, P Gosset, E Kipnis, K Faure, B Guery
OBJECTIVES: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia. We aimed to analyze the epithelial response to S. pneumoniae-induced lung injury. METHODS: Using an in vitro model with 16HBE cells and experimental in vivo murine model of acute lung injury, we analyzed the epithelial response to S. pneumoniae. Lung epithelial cell monolayers were exposed to S. pneumoniae and permeability was assessed by transepithelial resistance (TER) measurement and organization and expression of junction proteins...
November 27, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181407/tomographic-evaluation-of-the-lower-incisor-s-bone-limits-in-mandibular-symphysis-of-orthodontically-untreated-adults
#16
Paula Guerino, Mariana Marquezan, Maurício Barbieri Mezomo, Kaline Thumé Antunes, Renésio Armindo Grehs, Vilmar Antônio Ferrazzo
The amount of available bone in the lower incisor region is critical for periodontal preservation when planning large anteroposterior dental movements. The aims of this study were to evaluate bone limits of the lower incisors in the mandibular symphysis and to verify whether they are influenced by facial growth patterns, lower incisor inclinations, skeletal anteroposterior relationships, or patient age. Tomographic images of 40 orthodontically untreated patients were evaluated and measurements of width and height of the mandibular symphysis, thickness on the lingual and labial sides of the alveolar bone, and thickness of the entire alveolar bone were performed in sagittal view...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175452/changes-in-expression-of-cytokines-in-polyhexamethylene-guanidine-induced-lung-fibrosis-in-mice-comparison-of-bleomycin-induced-lung-fibrosis
#17
Min-Seok Kim, Sung-Hwan Kim, Doin Jeon, Hyeon-Young Kim, Kyuhong Lee
Inhalation of polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) causes irreversible pulmonary injury, such as pulmonary fibrosis. However, the mechanism underlying PHMG-induced lung injury is unclear. In this study, we compared the difference in time-dependent lung injury between PHMG- and bleomycin (BLM)-treated mice and determined cytokines involved in inducing lung injury by performing cytokine antibody array analysis. Mice were treated once with 1.8mg/kg BLM or 1.2mg/kg PHMG through intratracheal instillation and were sacrificed on days 7 and 28...
November 22, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174976/deposition-pattern-of-aerosolized-legionella-using-an-ex-vivo-human-porcine-respiratory-model
#18
Sophie Perinel, Valérie Forest, Mathilde Landraud, Jérémie Pourchez, Françoise Girardot, Serge Riffard, Magalie Stauffert, Jean-Michel Vergnon, Séverine Allegra
Legionella are bacteria responsible for severe lung pathologies. However how they enter and are deposited within the respiratory tract remains poorly documented. Data using animal testing led to the establishment of mathematical models allowing the estimation of aerosol dispersion risks. But direct extrapolation to humans is questionable and experimental models more physiologically representative of the inhalation route are welcome. The aim of this study was to develop a model as close as possible to the human anatomy and physiology allowing determining the deposition pattern of aerosolized Legionella while limiting in vivo experiments...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154207/particle-size-distribution-and-respiratory-deposition-estimates-of-airborne-perfluoroalkyl-acids-during-the-haze-period-in-the-megacity-of-shanghai
#19
Mengjie Guo, Yan Lyu, Tingting Xu, Bo Yao, Weihua Song, Mei Li, Xin Yang, Tiantao Cheng, Xiang Li
This study presents the particle size distribution and respiratory deposition estimates of airborne perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) during the haze period. Size-segregated haze aerosols were collected from an urban location in Shanghai using an eight-stage air sampler. The samples were analyzed for eight PFAAs using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The quantification results showed that the concentrations of particle-bound Σ 8PFAAs ranged from 0.26 to 1...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152063/acquisition-of-an-oncogenic-fusion-protein-is-sufficient-to-globally-alter-the-landscape-of-mirna-expression-to-inhibit-myogenic-differentiation
#20
Jacob M Loupe, Patrick J Miller, Judy S Crabtree, Jovanny Zabaleta, Andrew D Hollenbach
The differentiation status of tumors is used as a prognostic indicator, with tumors comprised of less differentiated cells exhibiting higher levels of aggressiveness that correlate with a poor prognosis. Although oncogenes contribute to blocking differentiation, it is not clear how they globally alter miRNA expression during differentiation to achieve this result. The pediatric sarcoma Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma, which is primarily characterized by the expression of the PAX3-FOXO1 oncogenic fusion protein, consists of undifferentiated muscle cells...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
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