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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785214/etiological-trends-and-patterns-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-respiratory-infections
#1
Salma M Al-Zain Ahmed, Sara S Abdelrahman, Doua M Saad, Isra S Osman, Modasir G Osman, Eltahir A G Khalil
Background: Respiratory infections are one of the commonest causes of morbidity and mortality related to infectious diseases worldwide. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a major global health problem which is well established in developing countries. Good clinical suspicion and correct laboratory identification of respiratory infection causing organisms followed by the appropriate management are needed to compact both community-acquired and nosocomial infection respiratory infections...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769339/differential-responses-by-human-respiratory-epithelial-cell-lines-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-reflect-distinct-patterns-of-infection-control
#2
Philippa Hillyer, Rachel Shepard, Megan Uehling, Mina Krenz, Faruk Sheikh, Kalyn R Thayer, Lei Huang, Lihan Yan, Debasis Panda, Cindy Luongo, Ursula J Buchholz, Peter L Collins, Raymond P Donnelly, Ronald L Rabin
RSV infects small foci of respiratory epithelial cells via infected droplets. Infection induces expression of types I and III interferons (IFNs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, the balance of which may restrict viral replication and affect disease severity. We explored this balance by infecting two respiratory epithelial cell lines with low doses of recombinant RSV expressing green fluorescent protein (rgRSV). A549 cells were highly permissive whereas BEAS-2B cells restricted infection to individual cells or small foci...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768052/options-for-treating-different-soft-tissue-sarcoma-subtypes
#3
Isabelle Ray-Coquard, Delphine Serre, Peter Reichardt, Javier Martín-Broto, Sebastian Bauer
Management of soft tissue sarcoma is increasingly subtype-dependent. Surgery is recommended for uterine leiomyosarcoma, with trabectedin being the preferred option for advanced disease when the treatment goal is long-term tumor stabilization. Liposarcoma subgroups are characterized by distinctive morphologies and genetics, different patterns of disease progression and clinical behavior, and variable responses to treatment. Genetic analysis of sarcomas has provided insights into pathogenesis with potential for developing new molecular targets...
May 2018: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755641/ischemic-preconditioning-attenuates-acute-lung-injury-after-partial-liver-transplantation
#4
Qinlong Liu, Hasibur Rehman, Yasodha Krishnasamy, John J Lemasters, Zhi Zhong
Pulmonary complications frequently occur after liver transplantation and are often life-threatening. Thus, we investigated whether hepatic ischemic preconditioning (IP) attenuates acute lung injury (ALI) after small-for-size liver transplantation. Rat livers were explanted after 9-min ischemia plus 5-min reperfusion, reduced to 50% of original size ex vivo , and implanted into recipients with approximately twice the donor body weight, resulting in quarter-size liver grafts (QSG). After QSG transplantation, hepatic Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα ) expression increased markedly and high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP), was released from QSG into the blood...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745252/changes-in-the-pattern-of-fibrosis-in-the-rat-lung-with-repetitive-orotracheal-instillations-of-gastric-contents-evidence-of-persistent-collagen-accumulation
#5
Pedro Ayala, Jorge Torres, Raul Vivar, Pablo R Olmos, Manuel Meneses, Gisella R Borzone
Recurrent aspiration of gastric contents has been associated with several interstitial lung diseases. Despite this association, the pathogenic role of aspiration in these diseases has been poorly studied and little is known about extracellular matrix (ECM) changes in animal models of repetitive events of aspiration. Our aim was to study the repair phase of lung injury induced by each of several instillations of gastric fluid in Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate changes in ECM and their reversibility. Anesthetized animals received weekly orotracheal instillations of gastric fluid for 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks and were sacrificed at day 7 after last instillation...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738746/histological-and-histomorphometric-response-to-socketkap%C3%A2-and-socketkage%C3%A2-used-for-ridge-preservation-and-repair-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#6
Neema Bakhshalian, Alaa Abdelhamid, Yoon Jeong Park, Homayoun H Zadeh
PURPOSE: This study investigated the histologic tissue response to SocketKAP and SocketKAGE as novel devices designed for ridge preservation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized controlled clinical trial recruited participants from among patients who presented to a university dental clinic. The study protocol entailed randomization into 5 intervention groups after tooth extraction: unassisted healing of intact sockets (group A), SocketKAP (group B), anorganic bovine bone minerals (ABBM) plus SocketKAP (group C), unassisted healing of sockets with dehiscence (group D), and SocketKAGE plus ABBM plus SocketKAP (group E)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737530/neuromandibular-integration-in-humans-and-chimpanzees-implications-for-dental-and-mandibular-reduction-in-homo
#7
Alessio Veneziano, Carlo Meloro, Joel D Irish, Chris Stringer, Antonio Profico, Isabelle De Groote
OBJECTIVES: Although the evolution of the hominin masticatory apparatus has been linked to diet and food processing, the physical connection between neurocranium and lower jaw suggests a role of encephalization in the trend of dental and mandibular reduction. Here, the hypothesis that tooth size and mandibular robusticity are influenced by morphological changes in the neurocranium was tested. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional landmarks, alveolar lengths, and mandibular robusticity data were recorded on a sample of chimpanzee and human skulls...
May 8, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732184/spontaneous-breathing-during-veno-venous-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#8
REVIEW
Stefania Crotti, Nicola Bottino, Elena Spinelli
Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) has started to be applied in awake spontaneously breathing patients as an alternative to invasive mechanical ventilation. As the physiologic cardiorespiratory variability is increased in this condition, the dynamic interaction between patient respiratory activity and extracorporeal system function affects the clinical management. The effect of extracorporeal CO2 removal on patient respiratory drive is variable and not always predictable, with some patients responding to CO2 removal with a decrease in respiratory rate and effort and other patients demonstrating a persistently high work of breathing independent on CO2 unload...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729719/diffuse-pulmonary-adenocarcinoma-with-micropapillary-growth-pattern-in-a-cat
#9
M Romanucci, M Massimini, G Aste, S V P Defourny, P E Crisi, A Boari, L Della Salda
A 12-year-old female European shorthair cat was presented with severe dyspnoea. Echocardiography revealed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and pleural effusion. The cat died from acute decompensated left heart failure. At necropsy examination, the lungs were diffusely congested and firm, with multifocal grey areas and sparse haemorrhages. No solid masses were detected. Histopathology revealed a diffuse neoplastic proliferation characterized by irregular growth along alveolar walls with a micropapillary pattern. Tumour cells were large, highly pleomorphic and intensely positive for pan-cytokeratin and CAM 5...
April 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729010/lung-morphometry-using-hyperpolarized-129-xe-multi-b-diffusion-mri-with-compressed-sensing-in-healthy-subjects-and-patients-with-copd
#10
Huiting Zhang, Junshuai Xie, Sa Xiao, Xiuchao Zhao, Ming Zhang, Lei Shi, Ke Wang, Guangyao Wu, Xianping Sun, Chaohui Ye, Xin Zhou
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of compressed sensing (CS) to accelerate the acquisition of hyperpolarized (HP) 129 Xe multi-b diffusion MRI for quantitative assessments of lung microstructural morphometry. METHODS: Six healthy subjects and six chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) subjects underwent HP 129 Xe multi-b diffusion MRI (b = 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 s/cm2 ). First, a fully sampled (FS) acquisition of HP 129 Xe multi-b diffusion MRI was conducted in one healthy subject...
May 4, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722336/mitochondrial-autophagy-and-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-pulmonary-tissues-from-severe-combined-immunodeficient-mice-after-cardiac-arrest-and-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#11
Jing-Jun Lyu, Jawahar L Mehta, Yi Li, Lu Ye, Sheng-Nan Sun, Hong-Shuang Sun, Jia-Chang Li, Dong-Mei Zhang, Jie Wei
Background: The incidence of cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases has been increasing. Furthermore, there are more and more patients with solid organ transplants. The survival rate of these immunocompromised individuals is extremely low when they are severely hit-on. In this study, we established cardiac arrest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) model in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, analyzed the expression and activation of mitochondrial autophagy and NLRP3 inflammasome/caspase-1, and explored mitochondrial repair and inflammatory injury in immunodeficiency individual during systemic ischemia-reperfusion injury...
May 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720004/pulmonary-adenocarcinoma-mimicking-desquamative-interstitial-pneumonia-report-of-2-cases-with-genetic-analysis
#12
Masashi Miyaoka, Kazuhito Hatanaka, Masayuki Iwazaki, Naoya Nakamura
We report 2 cases of pulmonary adenocarcinoma mimicking desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) with genetic analysis occurring in a 74-year-old woman and a 76-year-old woman. In both cases, the tumor was mainly composed of discohesive tumor cells, which filled and floated in the alveolar space in a DIP-like pattern. The tumor cells had abnormally large round to oval nuclei with fine chromatin and relatively abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm lacking pigmentation. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells in both cases were positive for CK7, TTF-1, napsin A, E-cadherin, β-catenin, and PD-L1 (one case had high expression and the other had low expression), and negative for CK5/6, CK20, p40, and ALK...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717396/acute-fibrinous-and-organizing-pneumonia-as-initial-presentation-of-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Yukai Wang, Shucan Zhao, Guangzhou Du, Songkun Ma, Qisheng Lin, Jianqun Lin, Kedi Zheng, Guohong Zhang, Marco Matucci-Cerinic
Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) is a new histopathological pattern of acute lung injury first described by Beasley et al. in 2002. Hallmarks of pathological findings are characterized by the presence of intra-alveolar fibrin in the form of fibrin "balls" within the alveolar spaces and organizing pneumonia with a patchy distribution. Patients with AFOP may have an acute or subacute clinical presentation. Although the pathogenesis of AFOP is not fully elucidated, it may be associated with autoimmune diseases...
May 2, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709938/a-case-of-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-with-ulcerative-colitis
#14
Noriho Sakamoto, Shota Nakashima, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Tomoyuki Kakugawa, Atsuko Hara, Hirokazu Yura, Takuto Miyamura, Seiko Nakamichi, Yasushi Obase, Yuji Ishimatsu, Hiroshi Mukae
A 65-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital for the further assessment of cough and dyspnea. He had a history of ulcerative colitis for which he was receiving treatment. Chest computed tomography showed a crazy-paving pattern. His bronchoalveolar lavage fluid had a milky appearance, and a transbronchial lung biopsy specimen revealed acellular periodic acid-Schiff stain-positive bodies. The serum anti-GM-CSF antibody titer was elevated. The diagnosis was autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP)...
April 27, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709293/mandibular-ramus-shape-variation-and-ontogeny-in-homo-sapiens-and-homo-neanderthalensis
#15
Claire E Terhune, Terrence B Ritzman, Chris A Robinson
As the interface between the mandible and cranium, the mandibular ramus is functionally significant and its morphology has been suggested to be informative for taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses. In primates, and particularly in great apes and humans, ramus morphology is highly variable, especially in the shape of the coronoid process and the relationship of the ramus to the alveolar margin. Here we compare ramus shape variation through ontogeny in Homo neanderthalensis to that of modern and fossil Homo sapiens using geometric morphometric analyses of two-dimensional semilandmarks and univariate measurements of ramus angulation and relative coronoid and condyle height...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706484/air-conditioning-analysis-among-human-nasal-passages-with-anterior-anatomical-variations
#16
Jiawei Ma, Jingliang Dong, Yidan Shang, Kiao Inthavong, Jiyuan Tu, Dennis O Frank-Ito
A major functional role of the nasal cavity is air conditioning of the inspired environmental air to near alveolar conditions. It is well known that the anatomical disparities among nasal passages can change airflow patterns to a great extent. However, its effect on nasal air conditioning performance remains largely unexplored. This research investigated the nasal air conditioning performance among nasal models with distinct vestibule phenotypes, including subjects with and without vestibule notches. For the mass transfer, we used a two-film theory model to determine the species transport...
April 27, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706217/three-dimensional-evaluation-of-dentofacial-transverse-widths-of-adults-with-various-vertical-facial-patterns
#17
Soonshin Hwang, Seokjin Jeong, Yoon Jeong Choi, Chooryung J Chung, Hye Sun Lee, Kyung-Ho Kim
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate maxillomandibular transverse widths and molar inclinations of adults with hypodivergent, normodivergent, and hyperdivergent facial patterns using cone-beam computed tomography. METHODS: We evaluated Class I subjects (55 men, 66 women) who were divided into hypodivergent (<27°), normodivergent (28°-37°), and hyperdivergent (>38°) groups by their mandibular plane angles. Frontal and coronal views of the images were analyzed...
May 2018: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703280/radiographic-patterns-of-multiple-myeloma-in-the-jawbones-of-patients-treated-with-intravenous-bisphosphonates
#18
Karina Morais Faria, Ana Carolina Prado Ribeiro, Thais Bianca Brandão, Wagner Gomes Silva, Marcio Ajudarte Lopes, Juliana Pereira, Marcelo Corrêa Alves, Luiz Alcino Gueiros, Werner Harumiti Shintaku, Cesar Augusto Migliorati, Alan Roger Santos-Silva
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether intravenous (IV) bisphosphonate (BP) therapy can change the radiographic patterns of multiple myeloma (MM) in the jawbones. METHODS: The authors evaluated panoramic radiographs obtained from 188 patients with MM for the presence of solitary osteolytic lesions, multiple osteolytic lesions, diffuse osteoporosis, diffuse sclerosis, lamina dura abnormalities, nonhealing alveolar sockets, and bone sequestration...
May 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695898/critical-regulation-of-inflammation-via-class-a-scavenger-receptor
#19
Liang Xie, Qingmin Li, Ran Dong, Kaishun Zhao, Yun Feng, Zhiyao Bao, Min Zhou
Background: Inflammation is an important cause of COPD. Alveolar macrophages are the major innate immune cells that have an important role in COPD pathology. Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is a pattern recognition receptor expressed on macrophages. This study investigates the role of SR-A in COPD progression via regulation of inflammation. Patients and methods: SR-A expression in COPD patients and control subjects (smokers and nonsmokers without COPD) was measured by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and real-time PCR...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694875/influence-of-micropatterning-on-human-periodontal-ligament-cells-behavior
#20
Lisha Zheng, Jingyi Jiang, Jinpeng Gui, Lingyu Zhang, Xiaoyi Liu, Yan Sun, Yubo Fan
The periodontal ligament (PDL) is highly ordered connective tissue located between the alveolar bone and cementum. An aligned and organized architecture is required for its physiological function. We applied micropatterning technology to arrange PDL cells in 10- or 20-μm-wide extracellular protein patterns. Cell and nuclear morphology, cytoskeleton, proliferation, differentiation, and matrix metalloproteinase system expression were investigated. Micropatterning clearly elongated PDL cells with a low cell-shape index and low spreading area...
April 24, 2018: Biophysical Journal
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